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(1) We have revealed a common semantic layer of the hyangga reviewed by us, and this layer reflects a specific system of the con cepts of the world, further referred to as the system of appearance, a system initially determined by the attitude to a socially signifi cant person as an embodiment of the integrity and well-being of a group as well as an embodiment of cosmic forces.

(2) Natural in an archaic communal society, these attitudes in ancient Korean culture manifested themselves in special attention paid to the appearance of a socially significant person, a senior, who was regarded as identical to society and the universe. There fore, central to the system of appearance is the category of chus (appearance). Related to it are other categories, such as the cate gory of soul-consciousness, and of path, that are at the same time 324 Summary ritual and poetical. The appearance of the senior is a category that presupposes both a totality of definite characteristic of the senior's personality and the unity (identity) of the senior with juniors, i. e. people who depend upon him socially but have no appearance

of their own. Every senior is a junior in relation to another per son of greater social significance than himself. At the top of this pyramid is the sovereign.

The appearance of the senior is dynamic;

it changes depen ding on the actions of the senior himself, of the junior or of the enemy with an appearance similar to that of the senior. If da mage is done to the appearance of the senior, it may be restored by means of a ritual.

(3) Ritual is a means of influencing the appearance of the se nior and, hence, society and the universe. In the course of the ri tual, the appearance of the senior is perceived and a hyangga is composed to serve as a means of influencing this appearance. The appearance is perceived by way of comparing its various manifes tations (anthropomorphic, luminous and vegetable).

Depending on the recipient of the hyangga, the ritual influen cing the appearance can be of several types that differ from one an other in time-space terms. Three types of this ritual are reconstructed in the present work. They are: (a) the ritual of influencing the appea rance of an absent senior;

(b) the ritual of expelling the enemy;

and (c) the ritual of influencing the appearance of the present senior. The study also considers the fourth type of the ritual, one that combines the creolised variants stemming from the first three types of this ritual and is addressed to a Buddhist deity;

(4) Hyangga is a means of controlling, by magic, the appea rance of the senior and, hence, society and the universe. The hyangga poems were composed and performed (and occasionally even recorded) during the ritual. When the ritual ended, the text of the hyangga was handed over (in writing or orally) to a person whose action had caused a change in the appearance of the senior.

The text of a hyangga includes a description of the state of the appearance at the given moment as conceived during the ritual. The fixation in the hyangga text of changes in the appearance of the se nior was supposed to restore its normal state;

the fixation of its ideal state ensured that the appearance would remaine unchanged in the future.

The authors of hyangga and the priests administrating the ri tual were mostly hwarangs, i. e. members of a special social organi sation called hwarang, which was quite influential in Late Silla (7th-10th centuries).

(5) The system of appearance is a historical phenomenon. It came into being as a result of a synthesis of the main components of ancient Korean spiritual culture;

the burial complex, from Summary which the very notion of appearance emerged, shamanic notions, so lar myths, etc. Our research has established that the ritual of in fluencing the appearance of the absent senior stems from shamanic rituals;

the ritual of influencing the appearance of the present se nior is based on the ritual recreating the myth of the Female-Sun and her Parents;

the ritual of expelling the enemy was sometimes derived from the ritual recreating the myth of the Archer-Sun and two Masters (of the Water and the Earth). Both these myths are un known to scholars. The work reconstructs both myths and respective rituals and shows their role as the principal components of old Ko rean spiritual culture, the myth of the Female-Sun and her Parents especially.

(6) The system of appearance took shape during the period of the establishment of the Old Silla state in response to the need for a centralised state with strong communal traditions to have a sing le system of world outlook that could ensure a smooth functioning of the state mechanism and, in fact, for the institution of hwarang as a vehicle of this world outlook. The system of appearance rea ched its heyday in Late Silla, when it apparently served as the state outlook until the mid-8th century. The ritual based on the sys tem of appearance survived in Korean culture until the 20th cen tury.

One can suppose that the system of appearance greatly condi tioned the nature of Korean spiritual culture in ancient times and subsequent periods and determined the acceptance of Confucianism, Buddhism, Taosism, and Chinese imperial ideology.

(7) Despite its considerable specific features, the system of appearance is quite congruent with the general Far Eastern cultural context. Some of its aspects have parallels in the cultures of South East Asia and Oceania.

The structure of the present work is determined by its obje ctives and tasks, the nature of the material and the degree to which this material has been studied. The work consists of an introduc tion, three parts (the first two divided into chapters) and a conclu sion. In the first part the above-mentioned conclusions are made, based on an analysis of the hyangga and additional texts. In the se cond part these conclusions are specified and checked against Korean texts dating from the period between the 12th and 14th centuries, and the history of the Silla ritual is traced in the period (10th to 14th century).

Our examination of the Koryo-period-dated texts helped cla rify several aspects of the system of appearance not too well pre served in the available hyangga and, what is more, to show that the Korean poetical texts of that period treated the relationship bet ween the senior and junior mostly in terms and categories evolved by the Old Silla and Late Silla rituals.

326 Summary The third part examines the roots of the system of appearance, which apparently stem, above all, from the burial ritual, within which the notion of appearance itself was evolved in still earlier times.

The eduction of the r.vtem of appearance changes substan tially our notions of the etuoiral-ideological complex of Late Silla and its specific features, and, therefore, of the sources of traditional Jtorean culture.

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