, , ,

<<


 >>  ()

FAO/WHO

CODEX ALIMENTARIUS

, 2010

- (FAO) (WHO) - , , , .

, , , , FAO WHO /, .

ISBN 978 - 92 - 5 - 406493 - . , . . , , . , , , , copyright@fao.org , :

Chief, Publishing Policy and Support Branch, Office of Knowledge Exchange, Research and Extension, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00153 Rome, Italy.

FAO and WHO................................................................................................................... iii.......................................................................................................................... I:............................................ " "............................................................... " "....................................................... " ".........................................................., " "................................ II:

............................................................................................................. " ".......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... /........................................................................................................... :,, . III:........................,......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... IV:.........................................................................................., " ",..................................................................... iii,........................................................................................................................,...............................................................................................................,........................................................................................................... :,...................................................,........... V:

...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ( )............................................................... ( )..................... ( ).............................................................. ( )....... ( )....... /............................................................, Xi.1(A)................................................................................................ VI:....................................................................................................... " "..................................................................................................... VII:........................ " "................................., " "................................ :.........,.............................................................,............................................................................................................................ iv

.

,.

.

x I:.

,, , ,.

x II:

.

,,,,,,.

x III:.

,,.

x IV:.

,, /.

x V:.

,.

x VI:. ( ),.

x VII:.

,

.

x :.

,,, ;

,,.

(, 2009 ).

, , /,, 00153,, web : http://www.codexalimentarius.net.

I:

I ( 1961. FAO 1963.. 1966.) ( 1963.. 1964, 1965, 1966, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1999, 2003, 2005, 2006 2007.) ( 1965.

1966, 1969, 1993, 1995 2007.) I:

, 5, (FAO) (WHO),, FAO/WHO, :

() ;

() ;

(), ;

(), ( ),,, ( ), ;

(),,.

FAO WHO,., FAO WHO.

- FAO WHO,,,, FAO WHO,,.

, FAO WHO,, I:

FAO WHO,.

FAO WHO.

,,.

,,.

.

,,.

, FAO WHO,.

,, -, FAO/WHO, FAO FAO. FAO WHO,,,.

(, ),,,,.,,,,,.

I:

I 1. FAO/WHO , , FAO / WHO.

2., FAO WHO.

3.

- FAO WHO, FAO WHO.

4. FAO WHO,,.

II 1. -,.

2., -.

-.

3., 2, -,.,,,.

4. -,,..

5.

, -,, - ,., - I:

.

-, -.

,,,.

6. -, - . -.

7.,, -, -, -, -.

,.

8., 7 VI,, -,,,.

III 1.

, ( ) ;

,.

,,.

,,,. FAO WHO,.

,.

,,.

,,,.,,,, ,,.

I:

2. (,, ),.,,,.

3.,,,, FAO WHO,,.,,,.

4.

.

5. FAO WHO,,,.

IV 1.

, V.1 ( ), -, ( ),,,,.

2.

,.,, XI.1 ( )(2),..

.

,.

3. :

(a) XI.1 ( )(2) ;

(), XI.1( )(1),,, I:

;

(),.

V 1.

,, IV,,, :,,,,,, -.

.,,,,,,,,.

,,,.

2.

.

,,,,,,,.

3.

FAO WHO, XIII.1.

4.

,.

,.

-.

.

5.

.

I:

6.

FAO WHO.

.

7..

VI 1.,, - FAO WHO.

FAO WHO.

2.

FAO WHO,.

3.

,.

4.,.

5.

,.,,.

6.,.

7.

XV.1.

,,, 20 25.

,,,,.

VII 1. FAO WHO,.

2.

.

I:

3. FAO WHO.

4.

FAO WHO,.

5.

FAO WHO.,,, FAO WHO ;

,.

6., FAO WHO,.

,,,,, -.

7. FAO WHO,,,,,,,,,,.

VIII 1..

,,.

2.,.

3.,,,.,,,,.,,,.

.

4. 2 XII,,.

I:

5.,,.

.

,.

6.

,.

7. XII FAO mutatis mutandis, VIII.

IX 1. - FAO WHO,,,, FAO WHO,.

.

2., ONU, - FAO WHO,,, FAO WHO,.,,, FAO.

3.

.

4. 5 FAO WHO.

5.

FAO WHO, FAO WHO,.,, FAO WHO.

6.

mutatis mutandis (.) I:

FAO WHO, FAO WHO,.,, FAO WHO.

, FAO WHO.

X M 1.,,,,.

,.

2.

FAO WHO,,,,, FAO WHO.

3.,, FAO / WHO, FAO / WHO.

4.

FAO WHO,.

XI 1. :

(a), ;

() :

(1),,,,.

(2),,.

2., FAO I:

WHO,,.

3., XI.1 ( )(1),,,.

4.,,.

5.,.,.

6. C FAO WHO:

(a), XI.1 (a), ;

(), XI.1 ( )(1) ( ),, , ;

(), XI.1 ( )(2) ( ), .

7. FAO WHO, XI.1 (a) XI.1 ( )(2),,, XI.1 ( )(2), .

8., XI.1 (a),,.

9. XI.1 (a) XI.1 ( )(2), XI.1 ( )(1), 10.

,, FAO / WHO,,.

I:

10.,, XI.1 ( )(1) XI.1 ( )(2),.

.

11. mutatis mutandis.

XII 1.

,,,,.

2.

.

,.

XIII 1. FAO WHO,.

,,.

2.

, XI.1 (a) XI.1 ( )(2),,,.

3.

( ).

4., XI.1 ( )(1) ( ),,.

,,.

5. XIII. 3,,,, IX,.

, FAO WHO I:

,,.

XIV 1., XI.1 (a),,, FAO, WHO.

2. 1,, FAO, WHO, (a) FAO WHO, ;

() FAO WHO.

3.,, /.

4. 3,, XI.1 ( ),,,.

XV 1.

,,.

FAO WHO.

2., I, III.1, 2, 3 5, V, VI.2 7, VII.1, 4 6, VIII.1, 2 3, IX, X.3 4, XI.5, 7 9, XIII, XV XVI,, 24.

,.

XVI 1. 8, FAO WHO,.

.

I:

1.

,.

.

,,,.

2.

,,.

,,, c.

,,,,,,.

3.

.

,.

4.

,,,,.

,,.

5.

a,.

I:

.,,.

,.

I:

,

:

,,,,,,, ,,,,.

,,,,,,.

,,,, ( ),,,,,. ,.

, :

, ;

,,,, ;

;

,.

,,.

, ,,,, I:

.

,.

( ) -, (, ),,,,,.

,.

,,,

.

,,,,,,,,,,,,.,,,,,,.

,,.

,,.

,,,,.

(MRLs) ( / ), ,. MRLs,, MRLS.

MRLS,, JMPR :

(a) ;

I:

(),,,,.

,,.

,, MRLS, ;

,.

,,, MRLS,.

(GAP),.

,,.

,,.

,,,.

,,,,,,,,.

,.

(MRL) ( / / ),

.

I:

,, (ADI) ADI,.

.

MRL, /.

, MRL.

,.

/ :

( ) ( ),.

II:

II.

( 1965. 1993 2004.

1966, 1969, 1976, 1981, 2005, 2006.) . ( 1969.

1999.).( 1969. 1999 2005.).( 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001 2008.).( 1969.

2007 2008.) o ( 2007.) o / ( 1997.) o.( 1964. 1969, 1979, 2001, 2003, 2004, 2008, 2009.) o ( 1993., 2007.) o :

,,, ( 2006.) II:

:

(,, ),

.

:

1., ( ) (. 1 ).

2.,,, (. ).

3.

,,,.

.,,.

,,, . ,,,,, . 3.

4.,,,,.,,.

4.

5.,.

8.

II:

6.,, 6 7,,.

,,. 6 7,,.

7.

,,.

8.

.

mutatis mutandis.,,,,,,,,, 8.

9.

,, - (. ).

1.

1.

, ( ).

2.

.

2.

1.,,,,, :

x ;

x ;

x ;

II:

x ;

x ;

x ;

x ;

x, ;

x,, 5, ;

,,.

2.

,.

3. :

x / , ;

x ;

x, (ad hoc) (, );

x FAO, WHO,.

4.

, 4, 5, ,,.

II:

5.,.

6.,,,,,,,.

7.

,,,,.

8.,,,.

,, :

x ;

x,, :

,, , ( ), , .

3.

1, 2 1.,,,,,.

,,,.

,, .

II:

2..

, FAO WHO (JMPR), FAO/WHO (JECFA).,, FAO WHO.

(IDF).

3.

,.

,.

.,,,.

,,,,.

,,,.

,.

, / -, 5, 5,,, II:

,.

,,.,,.

,,,,.

4.

1, 2 1.,,,,.

,.

2..

, FAO WHO (JMPR), FAO/WHO (JECFA).,, FAO WHO., (IDF).

3.

,,,,, ( ) ( ),,, II:

,.

,.

,.

,,.

,.,,.

,,,,.

5.

FAO WHO,.

.

O FAO / WHO,.

.

() 8.

II:

(), :

(1) :

,,.

.

,,, 3,.

(2) :

(..

),,, ;

.

,,, 3 ,.

, .

, sine die 8,.

1.

8 .

sine die (.) II:

.

2.

,,.

3. :

,,,,.

,, :

x ;

x ;

x,,.

,,,,,,.

,,,.

,.

4.

,, sine die., (, 3 ),.

(. 2 ),.,,.

5.,,.

II:

, :

(1), 8 (. 3 ).

(2), 5 (. 3 ).

(3),.,.

6.

, sine die,,,,,.

,.

,,,,,,, :) ).,,,,,.,,,,.

II:

,,,,,, sine die,, .

, ( ) ( ), (ad hoc) XI.1 ( )(1) :

1.

x,,, ;

x ( ), ( ) ;

x (1),, (2) ( ),,.

2.

C .

.

3.

FAO/WHO,,,, 10.

,.

II:

4.

,. 5.

C,, mutatis mutandis, , .

6.

C ( ),,.

.

II:

,,,, .

,,.

.

,.

,,.

, (a).

().

(),, /.

, (a),.

() ().

().

().

(),,,.

(),, /.

II:

,,,.

,,,, (

, ).

,,,,,,,,,,.

,, (. ).

,,.

.

,,,,,,,,.

,, (CODEX STAN 1-1985), ,.

( 4.7

) a, II:

,, ,,,.

.

(CODEX STAN 192-1995).

,.

.,,.

,,.

,,,, 3.

(, ),, 5

, 7.

.

,,,,, FAO/WHO, ( (ADI) ),,.

.

,, :

(INS), (ADI), II:

FAO/WHO ;

, ;

,.

,.

,.

,,.

,,,.

(CODEX STAN 193-1995).

,,,,,.

,.

,,,, 7,.

,,.

II:

/,,.

,,,, ,,.

,,,.

,,.

M, 4(, ).,.

,,,,, (, ),,,.,,,,, (, ),,, (, ),,,.

,.

,.

II:

, :

x, ;

x, ;

x, ( I);

x,, ( IV);

x.

,.,, .

,.

,.,,,,.

.

,,.

,, .

, (CAC/MISC6) ,.

.

II:

.

.

,, 3, 4 5 .

.,,,,.

.

,,.

,,,,.

II:

, ,.

,.

,.

( ),,.

.

,,, ,.,,,.

,,,.

,,,.

II:

,,,.

,.

,.

,,,,.,,.

,,,,,.

,,.

, :

[, ], 1 x.x.x.x [ ], 3,,.,,,.,, /,,,, . :

INS,, ( / ),. II:

.

, :

,,,, (CODEX/STAN 193-1995).,,,, :

,,,, /, CAC. :

,, (CAC/RCP 1-1969),,. , (CAC/GL 21-1997)..

,,,,,, II:

,.

.

,, 100.,,.

,.

(CODEX STAN 1-1985).

,,,,,.

,, :

x, (CODEX STAN 1-1985);

x ;

x (,, 4.7.1. ).

,.

, :

,,,,,.,,,,, .

( 4.7.

),,,,,.

,.,.

II:

,,,,.

,,,.

,

.

,,.

II:

,.

,,,,.,.

, (,,,,, ).

,.,,.

,, :

x ;

x FAO/WHO (JECFA) ;

x, ;

x /, (GSFA) ( 3);

II:

x :

o (ADI),,, GMP ( ) ;

o, ADI,,, 3, 1, 3;

o ADI,,, GMP, JECFA.

x ;

,, 3.,,,.

x,.

,,,.

,,, JECFA,.

x JECFA ADI ADI,, ADI,, JECFA.

II:

x JECFA ADI,.

, :

x o JECFA, (

) ADI,.

o (INS).

x o ( / GL 36-1989).

x o, ( ),.

o :

ADI.,,, (GMP).

(

) ADI, 3, (GMP) 3.

, ADI (, ,

).,, ADI.

x II:

o, 3..

x o 3..

x, o,.

3.2.

?

3.,.

.

,.,,,,.

,.

?

,.

,.

,,,,,,,,.

,.,,,,.,, II:

,.

,,.

.

,,.

, 3.2.

.,,.

(

) ADI?

- ( ) ADI:

ADI 3.

, 3, 1.

, ,..

- ADI :

ADI,, 1.

, ,..

1 2.

1 :

II:

1., ADI,,.

,, (,, ).

2.,,.

3.,, (GMP).,, ,, .

4.

,, 3.1 3..

,,,,,,,,,,.,,,.

5.,, JECFA,,.

6.

,.

,.

, 1 2. :

II:

x,,,.

( ), 8( 8).

x,,,,,,.

,,.,, ( ), 8( 8).

x,,,,.

( ), 8( 8).

II:

( 1 2) :

FAO/WHO 3. -,, ?

( 3. ) (

), 3?

1 II:

/.

.

( (HACCP). )

.

,, , a.

,.

,,.

II:

.

.

(a) ( I) : I,,,,,,.

: : ;

- :, ;

.

() ( II) : II, I.

III ( ).

c.

:.

() ( III) : III ,, c,,.

:

() ( IV) : IV ,,,.

:,.

II:

(),.

(), :

(1) (2) (3) ;

( ), ( ) (4) (5) (6) (7),.

(),.

(),.

(),,,.

II III.

, () ,,,.

II:

,,,,.

,, ., :

(i), (, IUPAC*, );

(ii) ISO/IEC/ 17025: 1999 .

,, :

 ;

 ( );

;

.

/,.

,.

,, (CCMAS) ,.

CCMAS,.

,,, 1.

II:

:,,, PCR ELISA,.

1. :

:, ( / )( ).

( ),,, ( ),.

0,1 /,[ -3, +3 ] :

0,1 /,[ -2, +2 ] = 0,1 /, 1/ ( ):

0,1 /, 1/ 0,1 /, 1/ ( ):

0,1 /, 2/ /.

/ ( ), , II:

: 0,1 /, HorRat 0,1 /, 22%.

-.

2. P (%) 100 1 100% (100 g /100 g) 98 10- 10 10% (10 g /100 g) 98 10- 1 1% (1 g/100 g) 97 10- 0.1 0.1% (1 /) 95 ( ):

10- 0.01 100 / 90 10- 0.001 10 / 80 10- 0.0001 1 / 80 10- 0.00001 100 / 80 10- 0.000001 10 / 60 10- 0.0000001 1 / 40 .,,.

.

,.

,,,.

,, CCMAS,.

/.

/ ( ), , II:

/ 1.

/ ( ,, ).

:

,, PCR ELISA,.

1. /.

.,,,,,.

x - 10, : x 10-7, : ,, ( ).

( ),.

2 95%, 3 99%.

99% 10-, ( 0. /) 3.

0.1 /, 2, /.

:

/ ( ):

II:

10-7 ( 0. 1.1.1 /) :

-0. (%) = 100 /= where , -, ,.. ( ), :

2 0. 2 0. 100 = 10-7:

1: =0.1 /, 0.1 2 (0.0000001)  0.1 r 3 0.1 r 3 0.1 r 0.07 / =0.1 / 0.03 0. /.

(.e. 10-6):

2: 1 / 1.0 2 (0.000001)  1.0 r 3 1.0 r 3 1.0 r 0.48mg / kg =1 / 0.5 1,5 /.

10-7, 1.1.2,.e. = 22%, = 0. (.e. 10-8):

3: = 0.01 / 0.01 2 = 0.01 2 (0.22 ) = 0.01 0.44 0.01 = 0.01 0.0044 / =0,01 / 0.006 0, /.

:

II:

1:

0.01 0.02 0.05 0.1 1 10 ( /) : 0.006 0.011 0.028 0.03 0.52 6.6 : * 0.014 0.029 0.072 0.17 1.48 13.3 *,.

1.2 ( ) ( ),.

:

x 1/10 0.1 /, x 1/5 0.1 /.

:

x 1/5 0.1 /, x 2/5 0.1 /.

1.3, 1. ( ), ( ).

, 2(, ), ( =22%).

d2 d, 2, /.

,,.

II:

2., / 0. ( ) 10-7 10-7 10-6 10-5 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 () 0.1 0.1 1 10 0.1 1 10 100 / / / / / / / / / (%) 22 22 16 11 8 6 4 3 2x 44 44 32 22 16 8 6 (%) =.

=.

1..,.

1.5.

( ), ( ),.

1..

,,, :

1993-1995, Rev 2-2006,, 0,05 /.

,, 3.

II:

3.

: :

/ :

: 0.05 / 0.03 /kg (= 2 = 0.05 / - 0.44 : 0.05 / ).. : 0.01 / (= 1/5 = 0.05 / 1/5) : 0.02 / (= 2/5 = 0.05 / 2/5) : 0.05 /, the 44%,. :,,.

:

( ).

II:

2. (,, ).

4:

0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1. / / / / / / / / 10-9 10-8 10-7 10-6 10-5 10-4 10-3 10- ( ) 0.0006 0.006 0.03 0.52 6.6 76 0.83 8. 0.0014 0.014 0.17 1.48 13.3 124 1.2 ( /) ( /) ( /) ( /) ( /) ( /) (/ ) (/ ) ( /) 0.0002 0.002 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 x ( /) 0.0004 0.02 0.2 2 20 200 0. ( %) 44 44 44 32 22 16 12 80 - 80- 80 - 90 - 95 - 97 40 - 120 60 - (%) * 110 110 110 107 105 *.,,,.

2.,,,.

/.

2.1., = 0,05 /,,, 0, /, =22%,, II:

44% ( 95% ).

, :

?

..

?

..

0.03 /, 0,01 / 0,02 / ?

..

44% ?

..

( )..

..

,.(, ).

II:

5:,, No ( /) ( /) (%) / 1 2.2 29 4.9- AAS AAS 0. / 2 0.03-2.8 0.03 17 106 R = 106% ( (, 44%) =0. ) / 3 GF-AAS 0.03-0.50 12-

( ),,.

4 GF-AAS 0.018-0.090 5.9 5 AAS 0.0197-0.977 0.01 2.8 4. 6 GF-AAS 0.045-0.25 0.01 26-, GF-AAS, =0.03 /.

7 AAS 0.005-1.62 0.014 26-,, 8 ICP-MS 0.013-2.45 0.01 8- = 0.03 /.

AAS = GF-AAS = ICP-MS = - II:

: No. 3, 7 = 0,05 /.

,, :,.,.

II:

, CCMAS II III CCMAS,, CCMAS :

x x (,, ) x x x ;

( ), ( ),, x x x x .

CCMAS,.

,,,.

CCMAS.

CCMAS,.

CCMAS,,.,.,, (M. Thompson, Analyst, 2000, 125, 385386).

II:

,.

,,, ( ) ().

(a) :

(,,..).,,,,, 3.1 4.2 (CAC/GL 50-2004) ( ).

() - :

-., 3.3 4.4.

() :

,, (,..).

.

(), :

,..

,.

II:

(a),,,.,,.

() 1.

(),, :

(1), (,,,,,, , );

(2),,,,,,.

() :

(1),, ;

(2), ;

(3).

() :

(1), ;

(2).

II:

),.

),,.

).

),,,,, FAO WHO, in extenso *,,,.

),,.

* in extenso (.) .

II:

:

, P,,,,.,,.

,. .

- - - , ;

,,,,.

,.

,,.

,,,, ,,,.

II:

,, :

1.

, (CAC/GL 50-2004, 2 , :

x,, ;

x, ;

x /,.

2.

,,,.,,,,.

3.

,,,.

,,.

,.

,,,,,.

4.

,,.

III:

III,.( 2004.).( 2004. 2006.) ( ). ( 2004.).( 2005.).( 2005.) III:

, BB 7 XI.1 ( ) (ad hoc) ,,.,, mutatis mutandis,.,,.

, FAO WHO,.

,.

FAO WHO,,, FAO WHO.

,,, ( ),., FAO WHO,,.

-,,.., -, III:

,.

.

-,,,,.

,,,.,,,,,.

FAO/WHO ( ),.

:

(),, ;

() ( ),, ;

(),, :

;

() ;

(),,,, ;

(),,,,.

FAO WHO, III:

,,.

.

FAO WHO.

FAO/WHO (FAO, ).

FAO WHO,,, FAO WHO.

,, (,, ).

FAO/WHO,.

:

(), (), (), () (, ), (),, (),,.

,,, 30.

FAO/WHO (FAO, ).,,,., III:

.

,, :

(), (),, (),,,, ,.

,, (), (), ().

,.

,,,.

,,.

,,.

, :

(i), (ii) -,, (iii).

,,

FAO/WHO (FAO, ).

III:

,,,,,,.

FAO/WHO (FAO, ),.

,,,,,,,.

,,.

. ( ),,.

(,,, ).

.

,

.

.

, ;

.

.

. .

III:

BB 7 XI. ( ) (ad hoc),.,, mutatis mutandis,. ,,.

B,. -,,,.

.

-,,,.

, II .

, ( ).

-,,,,,. : ,,.

III:

:

() ;

,, ;

;

(),, ;

(),, ;

(),,,,, :

- ;

-,, ;

-,,.

:

(), ().

FAO/WHO,,,,,.

,, 5, 5( ),,,.

III:

B :

(), ;

(), :

-,,

, -,.

(),,,,,.

III:

7 XI. ( ) (ad hoc),.,, mutatis mutandis,. ,,.

-,,.., -,,.

,.

-, XI., XI.1 ( )(1) XI.1 ( )(2),.

. :

x -, ;

x, ;

x ;

x,, ;

x, ;

III:

x, ;

x, ;

x /,.

.

. VIII.7, : XII FAO, mutatis mutandis,, VIII .

XII FAO,,,,,,.

,,, 4 7.

,,,, ;

.

,,, -.

,,,,.

III:

,.

,,.

.

,, :

() ;

() ;

(),,.

, :

() (1),,, ;

(2), (3), ;

() ;

(), ;

(), ;

(),, (.

).

III:

;

().

,,,,,.

.

.

-,.

-,.

.

III:

(ad hoc),,,,,.

,,, mutatis mutandis,,,.

, ( ),,,,.

B.

,,.

.

,.

,,, ( ).

, ,

III:

.

,, 19.

,,,.

,,,.

,, () ( ).

,.

. /.

.

,,,,.

,.

,,.

,,,,,.

.

III:

,,.

,.

,,.,.

.

.

,.

,,.

,, FAO/WHO.

FAO/WHO,.

FAO/WHO,.

,.

III:

.

,,,,,.

,.

,,, mutatis mutandis,,,.

,,,,,.

.

,,.

.

,.

,, , , , .

III:

, ( ).

,.

,.

.

,,,,.

,,,.

,, () ( ).

,.

.

,,,,.

,.

,,.

, III:

,.

.

.

,.

,,..

.

,,.

(, );

.

,, FAO/WHO.

FAO/WHO,.

FAO/WHO,,.

IV:

IV.( 2003.).( 1997. 1999, 2003, 2004.), ( 2005,.) ( 2005.

2007.), ( 2007.) ( 2007.), (.. :, JMPR). ( 2007.), FAO/WHO (JMPR). ( 2006.) ( 2009.) IV:

, 1.

.

2.

FAO/WHO,,,.

3.

( ).

FAO/WHO ( ).

4., :

- ;

-, ;

- ,, , , 21;

.

5.,, (, 22, ), .

6.

.

. :

., .

IV:

.

7.

.

8.

,.

9.

,,,.,,.

10.,,,

,,,,,.

11..

,,.

.

,,,,.

12.

,.

13.

.

14.

,,,,,,, (. ) IV:

.

,,.

15.,,.

16.

,.

17.

.

.

18.,,,.

,.

,.

,.

19. , ,..

,,.

20..

.

.

21.

,,,,,,.

22.

,., , :. : .

IV:

.

FAO/WHO.

;

.

23.,,,.

,,.

24.

,.

.

, (, ), / ( ).

25.,,.

.

,.

26.,,,,,,.

27. .

.

28.

,,

:,, IV:

,.

,,, , 26.

29.,, ,,,.

, 10.

30.

,,,,,.

31.

,,.

,,.

.

32.

.

33.

,,.

,.

34.

.

,,,.

. : .

IV:

,,.

,, -,,.

35.

.

,,.

.

36.

,.

,,.

37. :

(i), ;

(ii) / ;

(iii) ;

(iv) ;

(v) ;

(vi) ;

(vii) ;

(viii),.

38.

( FAO/WHO ) IV:

( ),.

39.

,.E ,,.

40.,,,,,.

,,.

,,,, (. 25).

41.

, .

,,, (.. 6).

IV:

,,,,.

- ( ).

, :,.

, : 1) ;

2) ;

3) 4).

,,,,,,.

,,,,,,,,.

,.

IV:

,,.

/,,,,.

,.

,,,.

/,,,.

- .

-

,.

-

, ( ) / ( ).

/,, ( ).

(FSO) /, (ALOP).

(PC),, IV:

PO FSO.

(PO) /, FSO ALOP,.

IV:

, 1.

1.

(CCFA) (CCCF) FAO/WHO (JECFA).

, JECFA,,,.

2. , .

2. CCFA/CCCF JECFA 3. CCFA/CCCF JECFA,.

4. CCFA/CCCF JECFA,.

5. CCFA/CCCF JECFA,.

.

6. JECFA CCFA/CCCF, JECFA.

CCFA/CCCF JECFA.

JECFA, JECFA.

3. CCFA/CCCF 7. CCFA/CCCF, .

8. CCFA/CCCF JECFA,,,.

, :

1) NOEL (No Observed Effect Level , ), ;

2) IV:

9., JECFA, CCFA/CCCF,, CCFA/CCCF JECFA,.

10. CCFA/CCCF, .

11.

CCFA/CCCF, .

12. CCFA/CCCF,, JECFA,. , .

13. CCFA/CCCF, JECFA.

14. CCFA/CCCF, 1) JECFA ;

2) JECFA.

15. CCFA/CCCF, : 1) JECFA ;

2),.

CCFA/CCCF,.

16.

, CCFA/CCCF JECFA.

17.

, CCFA/CCCF JECFA ADI ;

3) ADI.(, JECFA ).

IV:

,,,, JECFA, CCFA/CCCF,.

18., CCFA/CCCF, JECFA,, -, , ,.

19. CCFA/CCCF JECFA, JECFA.

.

20. JECFA CCFA/CCCF :

;

- CCFA/CCCF;

- JECFA;

- ,, ;

-,,,,, ;

- ;

- ;

- (, );

- ;

, -, ;

21. JECFA, CCFA/CCCF, ;

22. CCFA/CCCF JECFA.

23. CCFA/CCCF JECFA, CCFA/CCCF IV:

. CCFA/CCCF JECFA, CCFA/CCCF.

4. JECFA 24. JECFA, CCFA/CCCF,,,.

25. JECFA.

26. JECFA CCFA/CCCF,,,, CCFA/CCCF.

JECFA,.,,,.

JECFA ADI.

27. JECFA CCFA/CCCF,.

28. JECFA CCFA/CCCF, (,,, ).

29. JECFA CCFA/CCCF ( ),,.

30. JECFA,.

.

31. JECFA,.

32., JECFA.

33. JECFA CCFA/CCCF,, IV:

, CCFA/CCCF.

34. JECFA CCFA/CCCF,.

JECFA CCFA/CCCF, JECFA.

35. JECFA CCFA/CCCF,,.

36. JECFA, CCFA/CCCF,.

JECFA,., JECFA, JECFA , ,.

37. JECFA JECFA CCFA/CCCF, CCFA/CCCF. JECFA,,, ADI.

,, ADI.

,,,.

JECFA,,,.

38. JECFA JECFA,,.

IV:

1.

1. (MLs),. (GSCTF), 1.3.2.

, ,,., .

,,,.

2.

,.

, PMTDI*, PTWI**), (,, /.

,.

3. , JECFA a (CCCF).

4. JECFA, -.

JECFA CCCF.

CCCF,.

* ..

** ..

IV:

2.

/ 5.

JECFA -

(GEMS),,.

(, PTDI, PTWI ).

,, JECFA.

6. /,.

GEMS. JECFA, GEMS.

7. / JECFA,,.

8. JECFA CCCF, GEMS,,. CCCF.

3. /, o 9. JECFA /,,, CCCF,.

10. CCCF /,.

( ), ( GEMS),.

IV:

11. :

a), 10% ( ) GEMS;

, b), 5% ( ) GEMS;

, c),,, 5% ( ) - GEMS.

.

4.

/ (, 2, ) 12.

CCCF, JECFA /,. CCCF, /.

13., JECFA., (, ).,, JECFA.

14. CCCF, JECFA (, ) /, /.

.

IV:

5.

/ (, 2, ) 15. CCCF, JECFA,,. CCCF.

16. CCCF., CCCF JECFA,,.

,, JECFA.

IV:

, 1. 1.

,.

2.

2.,

.

,,

, (CCRVDF),,, FAO/WHO (JECFA).

3. CCRVDF,, :

() ;

() (MRLs) ;

(), ;

().

4.

CCRVDF JECFA MRLs.

5. CCRVDF, .

IV:

6. JECFA, CCRVDF. JECFA, CCRVDF,, CCRVDF. JECFA FAO WHO -.

7. - JECFA, FAO WHO,,,,,,,,.

3. CCRVDF 8.

, :

- ;

- ;

-.

9.,,,,, , 29.

3. 10. :

;

- ;

- ;

;

- ;

-.

,,,.

IV:

3.1. 11. MRLs , , CCRVDF JECFA, JECFA.

3.1. 12. CCRVDF,, /. CCRVDF, JECFA.

13., MRLs, :

- ;

;

;

- ;

-.

14. CCRVDF WTO (TRIPS) 7, 39,, JECFA.

3.1. 15. ().

,, /,.

/, (),.

16. CCRVDF.

IV:

3.1. 17. CCRVDF,, ( ), JECFA. CCRVDF,,,, (ADIs) / MRLs. CCRVDF,,,.

18., MRLs, JECFA,

, .

3.1. 19.,

, CCRVDF JECFA,,,, /.

3.1. 20., JECFA CCRVDF.

,,,.

21., JECFA MRLs, ADI,. JECFA ADI, MRLs,,,,.

,.

IV:

22. JECFA,, CCRVDF,.

,,.

23. JECFA,,., JECFA CCRVDF.,.

24. CCRVDF JECFA.

25., ( ) JECFA., CCRVDF ( ).

3. 26. CCRVDF JECFA MRLs,. 2-,,.

CCRVDF31, 12.

27. CCRVDF MRLs, JECFA,,,, JECFA.

28.

.

ALINORM 01/31 11.

IV:

3. 29.

.

.,, ( /GL 16-1993).

30. CCRVDF JECFA,,, MRLs.

31. MRLs.

JECFA.

, ADI, MRLs,, JECFA.

4.

32. , , CCRVDF, JECFA,,. CCRVDF,,.

33., JECFA, CCRVDF, JECFA.

IV:

,, 1., 2.

3.

4.

5.

, 6. (, ) 7.

8.

9.

10., MRLs 11.

12.

13., 14. / MRLs 15. (,,,, ) 16., JECFA (), ADI MRLs, JECFA.

IV:

JECFA 1. FAO/WHO (JECFA) , FAO WHO,.

2. JECFA,,, (CCRVDF).

( ) JECFA CCRVDF , ,.

JECFA (ADIs) (MRLs).

( ) JECFA,.

.

( ) JECFA,,.

() JECFA CCRVDF,,, (, ).

().

(), JECFA FAO/WHO (JMPR).

IV:

() MRLs, ADI,.

CCRVDF MRLs,,.

3.

, JECFA,.

,.

.

MRLs 4. MRLs (,,,,, ), (,,, ),,,.

5., JECFA MRLs -., MRLs,.

6. MRLs ADI, JECFA.

IV:

, 1.,, (CCPR),, FAO/WHO (JMPR),,,. ,.

CCPR JMPR CCPR JMPR 2. (CAC),, JMPR, CCPR.

3. CCPR JMPR,.

4. CCPR JMPR,.

5. CCPR JMPR,,,,.

6. JMPR, CCPR, JMPR.

7. CCPR JMPR,.

JMPR, JMPR.

;

FAO, 170, 2002, ISBN 92-5-104759- IV:

CCPR 8. CCPR, CAC.

9. CCPR, MRLs,, JMPR CAC,,,.

10., JMPR, CCPR CAC,, CCPR CAC JMPR,.

11. CCPR CAC, JMPR.

12. CCPR (MRLs), JMPR.

13. CCPR, MRLs, GEMS,.

GEMS.

,.

14. CCPR, -, JMPR,,.

15. JMPR CCPR :

x CCPR;

x JMPR;

x ;

x ;

x ;

x,, MRLs (EMRLs);

IV:

x ;

x JMPR;

x.

16. JMPR, CCPR.

17. JMPR, CCPR JMPR.

18. CCPR JMPR, CCPR.

JMPR 19. e FAO/WHO (JMPR) FAO - WHO.

, FAO WHO,.

20. JMPR,, JMPR, CCPR.

21. JMPR, CCPR,,, CAC. JMPR MRLs, (GAPs), EMRLs.

22. JMPR CCPR,, a CAC,,, CCPR. JMPR,, (ADI) (ARfDs).

23. JMPR CCPR, (, ).

IV:

24. JMPR. JMPR,,,,,. GEMS,.

GEMS.

, o,.

25. JMPR CCPR.

JMPR CCPR, JMPR.

26. JMPR CCPR,.

IV:

:, CCPR 1., (CCPR), MRLs, FAO/WHO (JMPR).

MRLs/EMRLs 2. CCPR, (JMPR)34.

FAO/WHO 3., :

- ;

-.

4.,,, ( ), ( ).

5.

JMPR, :

1. / (,, );

2. ;

3.,, ;

4. /, / ;

5., 50%,,.

FAO/WHO (JMPR),.

IV:

6.

JMPR, :

1. /, ;

2.

15 / 15 ;

3. ;

4., ;

5. JMPR,.

6.,, ;

7.,.

7., JMPR, :

- MRLs,, - MRLs MRLs.

3.

MRLs 4, - MRLs.

MRLs., JMPR CCPR 4-.

MRLs 4-,.

.

MRLs 8.,,,,,,,,, IV:

,.,,, (MRLs).

9., MRLs.

MRLs ( ),.

, MRLs LOQ. MRLs (,, ).

10.

,, JMPR JECFA,,.

MRLs,, 11. CCPR MRLs,, MRLs.

MRLs 12. CCPR, MRLs, JMPR.

MRLs 13., , :

x ( ), .

x, logPow.

14. MRLs, :

IV:

.

MRLs, MRLs.

MRLs 15. CCPR (MRLs). JMPR WHO 1997.)35.

( MRLs JMPR (STMRs),,.,,, (ADI), JMPR, MRLs,,,.

16. ADI, MRLs 8,,.

, MRLs,, MRLs..

17. JMPR (ARfDs),,, ARfDs. 1999. JMPR, (IESTI, NESTI).

,,,. JMPR, IESTI ARfDs.

18. ARfDs, MRLs 8,,.

19. MRLs 6, CCPR JMPR GAPs, MRLs,,,.

;

WHO/FSF/FOS/97. IV:

20., MRLs.

,,.

21.

,.

WHO.

5/8 MRLs 22. 5/ - 3 MRLs - JMPR - JMPR 23. 5/8 ( 6 MRLs 8) -,.

MRLs,,,,,,, 3,,, CCPR.

- JMPR CCPR CCPR, JMPR, CCPR, MRLs 5/8.

-, MRLs 5 CCPR, JMPR,, MRLs 5/8.

- JMPR CCPR. JMPR, CCPR, MRLs 5/8.

EMRLs 24. (EMRL) (, ),.

,,,.

IV:

25. EMRLs,,,.

26. ( ),. JMPR.

27. JMPR,, CCPR EMRL.

28.,, CCPR,, 5, EMRLs, JMPR.

29. 30- CCPR EMRLs,.

30., CAC MRLs, CCPR. MRLs JMPR.

MRLs 31..

,,.

/ MRLs.

32.,, CCPR, (t=0).

MRLs (t=0+1 ).

33.,,.,,, CCPR MRLs.

. FAO, 170, 2002, ISBN 92-5-104759- IV:

MRLs 34. JMPR.

.

,,.

35. MRLs, MRLs CCPR.

IV:

, FAO/WHO (JMPR) 1.

1., :

() - ;

() ;

() ;

(),, ( ), ( ).

1., MRL EMRL,.

,.

: /,,,.

/,,,.

,,.

2.

2. JMPR, :

(i) / (,, );

(ii) ;

IV:

(iii),, ;

(iv) /, / ;

(v),, 50%,,.

:

,,, :

() (), ;

() (,, );

(),,

;

(),.

2. JMPR, :

(), ;

(), 15 / 15 ;

() ;

(), ;

() CCPR, ;

IV:

(),, ;

(),.

2. JMPR, :

(), ;

(), ;

() 4- ;

(),,,, CCPR.

: JMPR MRL EMRL, :

(i), (ADI) (ARfD).

(ii) JMPR., JMPR CCPR.

JMPR, JMPR.

(iii) CCPR 4-, FAO JMPR MRL.

JMPR, JMPR;

IV:

(iv), :..

MRL, MRL.

FAO JMPR CCPR.

JMPR JMPR, JMPR;

(v) MRL, (GAP)., GAP MRL.

FAO,.

JMPR FAO JMPR;

(vi) CCPR JMPR.

JMPR;

(vii), MRL,.

WHO JMPR WHO.

IV:

1 1.

( ).

2003.

2. FAO/WHO,,.

3.

(CCNFSDU),.

, CCNFSDU, 4, ,,, ,,.

2 4.,, 37,, /.

,.,,,, (CAC/GL 09-1987),, :

() ;

(), ;

().

,,.

( ),.

IV:

(, (,, ), ( ),,,.,,,,.

5.

( ).

6.,.,,,.

3 7., /,,.,,,.

8.

, /, :

x,, ;

/ x, -,.

9.

, IV:

(..

).

10.,.

11.

,, :

x (..

);

x,, ;

x,,, ;

x (..,, ),.

4 12. ,

,,,.

, ,.

13.,,, /,,.

IV:

,.

, /,,,.

,,,,,, ( ),,.

,,.

.

/,.

( )(, ) / (..

).

,,,.

,.

.

( ) /,,,,,.

. FAO/WHO 2005., WHO 2006.

IV:

/,,.

,.

,.

,,,,.

,,,,,.

5 14. :,.

,,.

15.,,,, .

16.

,.

17.

, :

Gibson R.S. , .. 2007;

. ( ): S77-100.

IV:

x ;

x,,, ;

x ;

x ;

x ?

x ;

x.

18.,,, :

x ;

x ( ),,, ;

x ;

x,.

19.

.,,.

20.

,,.

.

21.

,.

, IV:

,,.

22.,, /,.

23.

,.,,,.

24.,,,.

,, FAO/WHO.

,.

,.

25.,,,.

,, FAO/WHO.,,,.

.

,,,.

26.

.

,.

IV:

27.

., ,,,,.

28.

.,,,.,,,, .

,.

29.

.

,, :

30.

,.

,,,, ;

,,.,.

, (CAC/GL 55 2005),,,,.,,.

.

IV:

.

.

31.,,.

32.,,.

6 CCNFSDU 33. FAO WHO

,,.,,,,,,.

34.

,,,,.

CCNFSDU.

V:

V, V:

CAC CX-701 1 32 : ALINORM 33 : CX/CAC CCEXEC Executive Committee CX-702 CX/EXEC CCCF CX-735 CX/CF CCFA CX-711 CX/FA CCFH CX-712 CX/FH CCFICS CX-733 CX/FICS CCFL CX-714 CX/FL CCGP CX-716 CX/GP CCMAS CX-715 CX/MAS CCNFSDU CX-720 CX/NFSDU CCPR CX-718 CX/PR CCRVDF CX-730 CX/RVDF V:

( ) CCFO CX-709 CX/FO CCFFP CX-722 CX/FFP CCFFV CX-731 CX/FFV CCMMP CX-703 CX/MMP CCPFV CX-713 CX/PFV ( ) CCCPC - CX-708 CX/CPC CCCPL, CX-729 CX/CPL CCMH CX-723 CX/MH CCNMW CX-719 CX/NMW CCS CX-710 CX/S CCVP CX-728 CX/VP ( ) CCIE CX-724 CX/IE CCM CX-717 CX/M CCPMPP CX-721 CX/PMPP CCSB CX-726 CX/SB V:

( ) TFAMR CX-804 CX/AMR ( ) TFAF CX-803 CX/AF TFFBT, CX-802 CX/FBT TFFJ CX-801 CX/FJ TFPHQFF CX-805 CX/PHQFF FAO/WHO FAO/WHO CCAFRICA CX-707 CX/AFRICA CCASIA CX-727 CX/ASIA CCEURO CX-706 CX/EURO CCLAC CX-725 CX/LAC CCNEA CX-734 CX/NEA CCNASWP - CX-732 CX/NASWP V:

, XI.1(a) ( ) CGECPMMP CX-703 CX/CPMMP FAO/WHO, ( ) CXTO /IOOC Meeting on CX/TO GEFJ UNECE/ CX-704 CX/FJ

GEQFF UNECE/ CX-705 CX/QFF

V:

CAC

1 25 -3 2 28 c -7o 3 19-28 o 4 7-14 5 20 -1 6 4-14 7 7-17 a 8 30 -9 9 6-17 10 1-11 11 29 -9a 12 17-28 a 13 3-14 14 29 - 10 15 4-15 16 1-12 17 29 - 10 18 3-12 19 1-10 20 28 -7 21 3-8 22 23-28 23 28 -3 24 2-7 25 13-15 26 30 7 27 28 -3 28 4-9 29 3-7 30 2-7 31 30 4 32 29 -4 CCEXEC


1 3 2, 25-26 3 25-26 c 4 7o 5 3-4 6 18 o 7 28 o 8 14-16 9 4 10 16-18 11 19 12 5-7 13 3 14 17-19 c V:

15 3a CCEXEC 16 9-11 (contd) 17 25 18 15-18 19 3-5 20 28 21 17-19 22 23-24 23 12-15 24 13-14 a 25 10-13 26 26-27 27 13-17 o 28 25-26 29 12-16 30 30 1 31 25-29 32 27-28 33 30 4 34 25-26 35 4-8 36 29-30 37 3-6 38 27-28 39 30 3 40 24-25 41 28-30 42 28-30 43 4-7 44 19-20 45 3-5 46 24-25 47 28-30 48 28-29 49 26-27 50 26-28 51 10-11 52 26-27 53 4-6 54 24-26 55 9-11 56 30 2 57 6-9 58 28 1 59 26-29 60 4-7 61 24-27 62 23-26 V:

CCCF :

() ;

() FAO/WHO ;

() ;

() ;

(),.

1, 16-20 2 31 4 3 23-27 CCFA 39 1- 38 () ;

() FAO/WHO ;

() ;

() ;

() ;

V:

() CCFA,, (contd),.

;

, (CX-735).

1 19-22 2 10-14 3 9-13 4 11-15 c 5 18-22 6 15-22 o 7 12-16 o 8 29 2 9 10-14 10 2-7 11 31 6 12 10-16 o 13 11-17 c 14 25 1 15 16-22 16 22-28 17 10-16 a 18 5-11 19 17-23 20 7-12 21 13-18 22 19-24 23 4-9 24 23-28 25 22-26 26 7-11 27 20-24 28 M, 18-22 29 17-21 30 9-13 31 22-26 32, 20-24 33 12-16 34 11-15 35, 17-21 36 22-26 37 25-29 a 38 24-28 a 39, 24-28 a 40, 21-25 a 41, 16-20 V:

CCFH (a), ;

(),,,, (),,,,,, (),, ;

() ;

(),, ;

(), FAO WHO.

*,, 1, 27-28 2 14-16 3 31 3 4, 12-16 5, 6-10 6, 5-9 7, 25-29 8, 14-18 9, 19-23 10, 14-18 11, 10-14 12, 12-16 13 10-14 14, 29 2c V:

15, 18-22 c CCFH 16, 23-27 (contd) 17, 17-21 18, 22-26 19, 26-30 c 20, 1-5 o 21, 23-27 c 22, 20-24 o 23, 21-25 24, 16-20 o 25, 28 o 1 26, 1-5- 27, 17-21 o 28, 27 1 29, 21-25 o 30, 20-24 o 31, 26-30 o 32, 29 4 33, 23-28 o 34, 8-13 o 35, 27 1 36, 29 3a 37 -, 14-19 38 4-9 39, 39 o 4 40 -, 1-5 41 -, 16-20 V:

CCFICS (a),,, ;

(),,,,, ;

(),, *,,, / ;

(),, ;

() / ;

(),, ;

().

*,,, (ISOI- ).

V:

1 21-25 c CCFICS 2 29 3 (contd) 3 27 3 4 19-23 5 17-21 6 23-27 7 22-26 8 21-25 9 11-15 10 25 1 11 2-6 12 1-5 13 6-10 14 28 2 15, 6-10 16, 26-30 17, 24-28 CCFL (a), ;

(),,, ;

() ;

(),,,.

1 21-25 2 25-29 3 26-30 4 23-28 c 5 6a 6 28-29 7 5-10 8 28 1 9 26-27 10 26-30 11 25-26 12 16-20 13 16-20 14 28-30 15 10-14 16 17-21 17 12-21 o V:

18 11-18 CCFL 19 9-13 (contd) 20 3-7 a 21 11-15 22 26-30 a 23 24-28 o 24 14-17 25 15-18 a 26 26-29 27 27-30 a 28 5-9 29 1-4 30 6-10 31 28 a 2 32 10-14 33 -, 9-13 34 1-5 35 30 a 4 36 28 a 2 37 4-8 CCGP, .

,,, ;

;

,,, ;

.

1 4-8 o 2 16-19 o 3 9-13 4 4-8 5 19-23 6 15-19 o 7 6-10 a 8 24-28 9 24-28 a 10 7-11 c 11 25-29 a 12 25-28 13 7-11 c 14 19-23 a V:

15 10-14 a CCGP 16 23-27 a (contd) 17 15-19 a 18 7-11 a 19 17-21 20 3-7 21 8-12 22 11-15 a 23 10-14 a 24 2-6 a 25 30 -3 CCMAS (a), ;

(),, ;

(),, ( ), , , ;

(), ( ),,,,, ;

() ;

(e),, ;

(),,,.

V:

1 23-24 CCMAS 2 20-23 (contd) 3 24-27 4 11-15 5 1-6 6 - 24-28 7 12-18 c 8 3-7 c 9 27-31 o 10 24-28 o 11 2-6 12 11-15 13 29 -3 14 26-30 15 10-14 16 14-19 17 8-12 a 18 9-13 19 21-25 20 2-6 o 21 10-14 22 23-27 23 26 2 24 18-22 25 8-12 26 4-8 a 27 15-19 28 5-9 29 10-14 30 9-13 V:

CCNFSDU (a) ;

(),, ;

(),,, ;

(),,,.

1 2-5 2 6-10 3 14-18 o 4 3-7 5 30 4 6 6-10 7 10-14 o 8 - 9-14 c 9 22-26 c 10 28 -4 11 - 23-27 o 12 - 29 c 3o 13 - 20-24 c 14 - 24 1 15 - 12-16 16 - 29 c 7o 17 - 18-22 18 - 28 c 2o 19 - 27-31 20 - 7-11 o 21 21-25 c 22 19-23 23 26-30 24 4-8 25 3-7 26 1-5 27 21-25 28, 30 o 3 29 - 12-16 30, 37 31 26 V:

CCPR 39 1- 38 (a) ;

(),, ;

() FAO/WHO (JMPR);

() ;

(),, ;

(e),,,.

1 17-21 2 18-22 c 3 30 c 4o 4 6-14 o 5 28 c -6o 6 16-23 o 7 4-9 8 3-8 9 14-21 10 29 5 11 11-18 12 2-9 13 15-20 14 14-21 15 3-10 o 16 24 4 17 25 1a 18 21 -28 a 19 6-13 a 20 18-25 a 21 10-17 a V:

22 23-30 a CCPR 23 15-22 a (contd) 24 6-13 a 25 19-26 a 26, 11-18 a 27 24 a 1 28 15-20 a 29 7-12 a 30 20-25 a 31 12-17 a 32 1-8 33 2-7 a 34 13-18 35 31 5a 36 -, 19-24 a 37 18-23 a 38, 3-8 a 39 7-12 40 14-19 a 41 20-25 CCRVDF () ;

() ;

(), ;

().

1, 27-31 o Sessions 2, 30 4 3, 31 o 4 4, 24-27 o 5, 16-19 o 6, 22-25 o 7, 20-23 o 8, 7-10 9, 5-8 10 - ( - ) 29 o 1 11, 15-18 c 12, 28-31 13, 4-7 14, 4-7 15, 26-29 o 16,M 8-12 17, 3-7 c 18, 11-15 V:

( ) CCFO 21 1- 20,,.

1 25-27 2 6-8 a 3 29 1a 4 24-28 a 5 16-20 c 6 M 17-20 7 25-29 8 24-28 9 28 -2 10 4-8 11 23-27 12 19-23 a 13 23-27 14 27 c 1o 15 4-8 16 8-12 17 19-23 18 3-7 19 21-25 20 19-23 21 (Ma ) 16-20 CCFFP, ( ),.

1 29 2c 2 9-13 o 3 7-11 o 4 29 c 8o 5 5-10 o 6 4-8 o 7 2-7 o 8 1-6 o 9 30 c 5o 10 29 c 4o 11 27 c 2o 12 3-8 o 13 7-11 14 5-10 15 3-8 V:

16 7-11 CCFFP 17 5-9 (contd) 18 2-6 19 11-15 20 1-5 21 2-6 22 6-10 23 8-12 24 5-9 25 3-7 26 13 -17 o 27, 28 4 28, 18-22 c 29 18-23 CCFFV (a) ;

() UNECE, *;

(),,,.

* ONU:

1.,,, ;

2.

3

;

3.

3 6 ;

4.,,.

3 6

UNECE.

V:

17 (1987 ) CCFFV.

(contd) 21 ( ).

1 6-10 2 5-9 3 23-27 c 4 1-5 5 5-9 c 6 29 2 7 8-12 c 8 1-5 9 9-13 o 10 10-14 11 8-12 c 12 16-20 13 25-29 c 14 12-17 15 19 23 CCMMP,.

1 28 2 2 27-31 3 M ( ) 18-22 4 28 3 5 8-12 a 6 26-30 a 7 27 1a 8 4-8 V:

CCPFV,,,,,.

.

1, 29-30 2 8-11 3 6-10 4, 19-23 5, 13-17 6, 12-16 7, 1-5 8, 7-11 9, 12-16 10, 21-25 11, 3-7 12, 19-23 13, 9-13 14, 25-29 c 15, 17-21 16, 22-26 17, 13-17 18, 10-14 19, 16-20 20, 11-15 c 21 -, 23-27 c 22, 27 c 1o 23, 16-21 o 24, 15-20 c V:

( ) CCCPC.

1 5-6 2 M 22-24 a 3 10-12 4 15-17 5 9-12 6 M 2-5 7,( ) 23-27 8 29 3 9 27 c 1o 10 7-11 11 2-6 12 1-5 13 2-6 a 14 21-25 a 15 29 2a 16 20 c 2o 17 16-18 18 2-4 19 3-5 o CCCPL, /,,.

1, 24-28 2, 27 a 1 3, 25-29 o 4, 24-28 c 5, 17-21 6, 24-28 o 7, 22-26 o 8, 26-30 o 9, 31 o -4 V:

CCMH /.

8- ( ).

24- (2001 ),.

26- (2003 ).

1 10-15 a 2 18-22 3 25-29 4 18-22 5 11-15 o 6 14-18 o 7 29 2a 8 18-22 9 17-21 10 16-20 11 14-17 CCMMW.

( ), ( ),.

1 24-25 2 M 6-7 3 7-9 4 12-13 5 3-5 o 6 19-21 7 30 o 1 8 11-15 V:

CCS 1 3-5 2 2-4 3 1-3 4 18-21 a 5 10-12 c 6 19-22 7 9-11 CCVP,,,,,,,.

1 3-7 2 1-5 3 6-10 4 2-6 5 6-10 V:

( ) CCEI,,.

22- (1997) 1 C 18-22 2 C 23-27 3 C 11-15 o CCM / /,,,,,.

16- (1985).

1 28-30 o 2 5-8 3 15-17 4 18-20 5 16-20 6 1-5 7 25-29 V:

CCPMPP,,.

1 4-5 2 2-6 o 3 24-28- 4 9-13 5 23-27 6 17-21 a 7 3-7 8 10-14 9 29 3 10 20-24 11 22-26 c 12 4-8 o 13 23-26 o 14 12-16 c 15 8-12 o CCSB,.

24- (2001).

1 3-7 2 - 7-11 V:

( ) TFAMR,,, FAO, WHO OIE.

,,,,,.

,,,.

31 (2008).

:,, FAO/WHO JEMRA, OIE,.

,,.

, 2007.

1 C 23-26 o 2 C 20-24 o V:

( ) TFAF .

(a),

(),,,,, -,,,,..

(),,, FAO, WHO, (OIE) (IPPC).

27- (2004) 1 13-15 2 19-21 3 17-20 4 25-28 5 17-20 TFFBT,, (1999-2003),,,,,,.

V:

, TFFBT, (contd),, (2004-2008),,,.

(),,, (1999-2003), ;

(),, ;

(),, FAO, WHO, (a),, (2004-2008),,,, ;

(), ;

(),, FAO, WHO,.

C,, 26 (2003).

27 (2004).

31 (2008) 1 14-17 2 25-29 3 4-8 4 11-14 5 19-23 c 6 27 1 7 24-28 c V:

TFFJ C :

(a), ;

() ;

() (2005) 28 ( 2005 ).

1 18-22 c 2 - - 23-26 a 3 ( ) 6-10 4 11-15 o TFPHQFF.

,, 8.

31- (2008) 1 25-29 V:

FAO/WHO FAO/WHO (a) ;

(), ;

;

(),,, ;

(), ;

(), ;

(e), ;

(), ;

().

CCAFRICA FAO/WHO FAO / WHO,

.

1 24-27 2 15-19 c 3 26-30 c 4 3-7 c 5 25-29 6 31 o 5 7 12-18 8 29 3 9 3-7 10 3-6 11 8-11 12 19-22 13 3-6 14 27-30 13 26-29 16 25-28 17 23-26 V:

CCASIA FAO/WHO FAO / WHO,

.

1 - 10-16 2 M 20-26 3, - 2-8 4 X 28 5 5 8-14 a 6 26 1 7 5-12 8 - 27-31 9 24-27 10 T 5-8 11 P 16-19 12 23-26 13 - 17-20 c 14 7-10 c 15 C 21-24 16 17-21 CCEURO FAO/WHO FAO / WHO,

,,.

1 1-2 2 20 o 3 24-27 4 8 5 6-8 c 6 4-8 7 7-10 o 8 27-29 o 9 14-16 10 13-17 11 28 1 12 16-20 13 27 c 1o 14 T 4-8 15 T 16-20 16 27 1 17 28 1 18 C 11-15 19 C 16-20 20 23-26 a 21 M 5-8 22 M 3-6 o 23 10-13 c 24 20-23 c 25, 15-18 26, 7-10 o V:

CCLAC FAO/WHO FAO / WHO,

.

1 25-26 2 M 9-15 3 27 2a 4 17-22 a 5 11-16 6 - 20-24 1989 7 - 1-10 1991 8 16-20 9 3-7 a 10 M 25-28 11 M 8-11 12 - 13-16 13 - 9-13 14 - 29 3 15 13-17 16 Aa o 10-14 CCNEA FAO/WHO FAO / WHO,

FAO WHO.

1 29 1 2 20-23 3 7-10 4 26 1 5 26-29 V:

CCNASWP FAO/WHO FAO / WHO,

.

1 30 a 4 2 2-6 3 31 3 4 30 a 3 5 C 6-9 o 6 5-8 7 29 o 1 8 19-22 o 9 10-13 o 10 ao a 28-31 o V:

, XI.1(A) CGECPMMP FAO/WHO,.

C FAO WHO FAO/WHO 1962 XI.1(a).

XI.1( )(1) (

I).

1 18-12 c 2 13-17 a 3 22-26 4 6-10 5 2-6 a 6 17-21 7 4-8 8 24-29 9 20-25 10 25-31 11 10-15 12 7-12 13 15-20 14 6-11 c 15 25-30 c 16 10-15 c 17 14-19 a 18 13-18 c 19 12-17 20 26-30 a 21 2-6 22 5-9 V:

JOINT MEETINGS WITH OTHER ORGANIZATIONS CXTO /IOOC C 18, /IOOC (ad hoc).

, ,,.

1 M 13-16 2 M 24-27 a UNECE/ GEQFF UNECE/ .

,,,,,,,.

,,, UNECE/, UNECE/, - ,,.

23- (1999).

V:

( GEQFF ).

(contd) 1 6-10 c 2 5-9 c 3 18-22 c 4 2-6 c 5 22-26 c 6 27-31 7 6-10 8 30 a 4 9 7-11 o 10 6-10 o 11 14-18 12 30 o 6 13 15-19 c UNECE/ GEFJ,..

UNECE/, ,,.

23- (1999).

(. ) 1 6-10 a 2 29 2a 3 21-25 4 10-14 a 5 25-29 6 27-31 o 7 20-24 8 8-12 9 20-24 10 16-20 11 14-18 o 12 19-23 13 26-30 14 9-13 15 8-12 16 30 a 4 17 26-30 18 16-20 19 12-16 VI:

VI " ".

.( ) a - : http://www.codexalimentarius.net.

VI:

1990 1974 1978 - 2002 1964 1969 - - 1981 - 1971 1978, 1971 -, 1970 1988 1972 1971 1966 1978 - 1974 1969 1984 - 1971 1966 1971 2003 1996 - 1971 1968 1984 ( ) 1999 VI:

1978 1974 1970 1968 1971 1969 - 1972 1963 1989 1992 1994 1963 2006 1963 2007 1969 1994 1971 1994 1963 1992 1964 1963 1998 1963 1968 :

1970 VI:

1988 1963 2002 1970 ( ) 1992 1971 1968 1969 1969 - 1970 1964 1990 1971 1970 1975 1982 1968 1984 1988 1971 1972 1969 1963 - 1996 - 1987 - - 2004 1984 1964 1970 VI:

O A E PO o a,.

:

1.

- ;

2. ;

3. (,, ), ;

4.

, / ;

5.

,.

,,, -,,, ;

6.

;

7., ;

8. ;

9..

VII:

VII

( 2005.), ( 1999., 2005, 2007.) VII:

M 1.

.

2. .

B B M B 3.

.

4. :

a) ;

).

5.

.

6.

, ,.

, FAO WHO.

, .

VII:

B M B B B 7.,,,,,,.,,,

WTO ( WTO/SPS).,.

3 .

2

, WTO/SPS.

.

8.

,, .

.

. 1 , 2 ,.

VII:

B M B MB M M B 9.

,,,.

.

10.

,,,.

11.

,,,,.

12.

,,.

13.

FAO WHO,,.

VII:

,

1.

,

,,,,,.,,

.

2.

, : ;

,.

3.,

, :

1.,, FAO;

2., WHO;

3., :

(a), ;

(), ;

(), ;

(),,.

VII:

;

().

() ,. FAO WHO,,, .

4.

4.1, FAO / WHO

,, FAO,

/ -.

.

4.2, FAO WHO, -,, .

,,, 3.

FAO WHO,,.

,,,, IX. .

, X.

VII:

,,,,.

,,.

.

,,,,.

5.

,, :

5.1,

, :

(a) ( ),, ;

,, ;

() ( ),, ;

,, ;

(), FAO/WHO, ;

(),, ;

,,.

VII:

(),.

5.2,

,, :

(a) , FAO/WHO ;

() FAO/WHO ;

(),,

FAO/WHO ;

(), ;

(),,, .

6.

,,,,,.

,,,.

,,,.

,., VII:

,.

,,,.

,,,,,.

-.

,,,.

VII:

.,,

(a) ( ).

(),,,, -,.

() ( ), (,,,..)..

() - (,,,,,...

.

,,.

,,,, ).

() ( ;

,,..).

() (,,,, ).

(), (,, ).

() :

- ONU ( ).

- ( ).

() FAO/ WHO..

() FAO/WHO.(,,,, ).

(), ( / ).

-, VII:

.

,.

(),

,,, -.

,,.,,.

() (, ),.

()...,,.

().

:

, a,,.

( a 1995, 2001), ( a 1997).( 2003) :

, A,, 1., ,,,,.

2. ,,,.

3.,.

4.,,,,.

, x,, , , ;

x,,,, ;

x ;

, ;

21-, 24-, 2001.

:

x,,, ;

x,, , ;

x

, ;

x,,, ;

;

x ;

.

SPS TBT.

W SPS TBT :

, 1.

.

2.

,.

3.

,,.

4.

,.

22-, 1997.

:

,,,, :

,,,, ;

;

,,,, ;

,,,,, ;

,, ;

,, ;

.

26- , 2003.

FAO/WHO ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ), ( ) ( ).

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

 
 >>  ()





 
<<     |    
2013 www.libed.ru - -

, .
, , , , 1-2 .