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. 118. : , , 119. : 120. : , , 121. . 122. . 123. . $ 124. . $ 125. GERD ( . $) 126. 127. 128. 129. 130. ( . $) 131. 132. 133. 134. 135. ( . $) 136. 137. 138. 139. 140. 141. 142. 143. 144. 145. [77] , - - - - , BERD (Business Expenditure on R&D) GBAORD (Government Budger Appropriations or Outlays for R&D) ) GERD (Gross Domestic Expenditure on R&D) GOVERD (Government Intramural Expenditure on R&D) GNERD (Gross National Expenditure on R&D) HERD (Higher Education Expenditure on R&D NABS (Nomenclature for Analysis and Comparison of Scientic Programmes and Budgets) NACE (Nomenclature statistique des activits conomiques de la Communaut Europene) 1. A Survey of Industrial Innovation in the United States: Final Report. Princeton, 1987.

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