«Ecology and diversity of forest ecosystems in the Asiatic part of Russia Proceedings from International conference, 14.2-18.2.2008, Kostelec nad ernmi lesy, Czech Republic, 2008 ...»
Природные…,2002). Among them 187 species can be recommended for the usage in everyday life: they can be used as vitamin and aromatic additions to tea drinks. There are more than 800 fungi species which are called macromyceliums (Петров, 1991), among them 124 species are edible ones, 18 species can be used as a medicinal raw. For the absolute majority there is no any orientation concerning data of fungi recourses. The problems of distribution of medicinal fungi and plant species into different categories (food, medicinal, technical and so on) arise when we give characteristics to the most of species. In the terms of modern market one and the same species can be used as the medicinal raw, the honeybearing one, an effective biofilter, and as the object of building up stocks. That’s why when taking biological resources into consideration the complex approach to the problem is necessary.
Ecology and diversity of forest ecosystems in the Asiatic part of Russia In spite of constant interest to many medicinal plants of Priangarye, the structure of cenopopulations is not studied enough.
The studying of ecological and biological and biochemical peculiarities of species in nature allows us to make prognosis concerning its population properties in the changing conditions and at the anthropological load. Our research of medicinal plants and perspectives for these plants and fungi made us research links between conditions of existence of organisms and discovery of special features of their biomorphology and productivity.
MATERIALS AND METHODS Our main task was to evaluate comparative vitality of cenopopulations in the gradient of changing ecological conditions in their habitat. The method of resources plants and fungi was used (Белых, Петров, 2004). The research of dependence of gabitus of surface shoots on conditions of light showed that leaf blades of mesaphytes decrease the number of mouths, leaf parameters and number of partial shoots decrease too. When conditions of growth decrease, the age composition of cenopopulations changes, the age limits change too and specimen of middle and low class of vitality predominate.
We studied influence of light of the habitat upon integral index of specimen production (ecological aspect) and on the other hand cenopopulations (phytocenological aspect). As for populations 2 aspects are distinguished: external – cenothical (phytocenological optium of species) and the second one – ecological that inner state of specimen characterizes. It is established that in the studied cenopopulations the first index and the second one are quite different. Similar in their character of age structure, cenopopulations with high jointed tops 0,9-0,7 are characterized with the middle level of number.
RESULTS The results of our investigation show that ecological modifications occurring as results of ecological and geographical amplitude of evritopped species change mechanisms of selfregulation of population number. They give rise to adjustive changes of vegetative parts of plants. At the same time ecological modulations are such reconstructions that they can’t change metabolic level of organization of medicinal plants. Modern data on biochemical analysis of higher basidiomycets affirms high potential of fungi group as producers of biologically active substances. As a rule, the possibilities of practical use and detail biochemical investigation of micopreparations are limited because of a very small raw base. Regional collection of pure cultures of fungi and vascular plants is created at our institute and many of them can be used as producers of BAS. When forming this group of stamps preference was given to the species that were used traditionally by the local people in medical aims or when doing certain religious ritual. The striking example of that can serve such species as Claviceps purpurea, Cordyceps militaris, Poronia punctata, Clavariadelphus pistillaris, Ganoderma lucidum, Laetiporus sulphureus, Laricifomes officinalis, Dictyophora duplicata, Mutinus caninus, Phallus impudicus, Langermannia gigantea (Петров, Еникеев, Розанов, 2003).
Evidently, the creation of wide system of similar regional collections of pure cultures would allow to stimulate works in studying biochemical composition of fungi and in developing methods of their industrial cultivation and approvement of medicinal micopreparations.
SUMIMING UP In recent years special attention has been paid to the plants having medicinal properties. The advantage of medicinal remedies made from plant raw proves that biologically active properties are synthesized in natural environment and they are better absorbed by the human organism. They possess strong therapeutic effect, are less toxic and that makes it possible to use them for a long time without any by-symptoms. In this connection one must think that soma plant species, which are not under protection, but having valuable pharmacological properties will become subjects of uncreasing use for the aims of phytotherapy. Thus, protection and rational natural use of plant species is especially acute nowadays. One of the ways of protection of species varieties and mobilization of plant resources is introduction of economically valuable plant species. In a number of cases it is necessary to set up the network of regional collections of pure cultures in order to save valuable subjects of biotechnology, to study and to test phyto- and micopreparations.
In spite of various composition of species, flora of medicinal plants and fungi of Priangarye requires not only further rational use but also further studying of perspective species for the medical practice.
LITERATURE БЕЛЫХ О.А., 2004: Рекомендации по определению ресурсов полезных растений и грибов/ О.А.Белых, А.Н.Петров// Иркутск: изд-во ГОУ ВПО ИГПУ.- 24 с.
ВАСИЛЬЕВ Н.В., 1996: Теоретические и практические аспекты изучения растений. - Томск. - С. 40 - 42.
ВАСИЛЬЧЕНКО З.А., ИВАНОВА ММ, КИСЕЛЕВА А.А., 1978: Обзор видов высших растении Байкальского заповедника/ З.А.Васильченко, М.М.Иванова, А.А.Киселева // Флора Прибайкалья. - Новосибирск: Наука.
- 114 с.
Proceedings from International conference, 14.2-18.2.2008, Kostelec nad ernmi lesy, Czech Republic, Леса и лесное хозяйство Иркутской области, 1997:
- Иркутск. - 288 с.
ПЕТРОВ А.Н., 1991: Конспект флоры макромицетов Прибайкалья. - Новосибирск: СО Наука. - 81 с.
ПЕТРОВ А.Н., 2003: Региональная коллекция чистых культур, как источник перспективных для фармакологии штаммов высших базидиомицетов /Петров А.Н, Еникеев А.Г., Розанов С.Е.//Успехи медицинской микологи. - М.:
Национальная Академия Микологии. – Т. 1. - с.292-293.
FOREST ECOSYSTEMS OF TRANSBAIKALIA (RUSSIA) BOIKOV T.G., SUTKIN A.V.
Institute of General and experimental biology Siberian Branch Russian Academy of Sciences, Sakhyanovoi str., Ulan-Ude, 670047, Buryatia, Russia, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Abstrakt Forest of Transbaikalia borrows the huge area 29140,3 thousand hectares. It is compound 82,9 % of its territory and 3 % of Russia forests. Forest ecosystems are generated by various breeds. Depending on environmental conditions and ecological requirements of breeds, ecosystems, generated by them, are separated territorially. The most adapt for severe constraints grow in Northern Transbaikalia. Distribution of forests in mountains is subordinated to high-altitude laws. Deciduous forests have a secondary origin. All forests at Baikal play a huge protective role.
Keywords: forest ecosystems, biodiversity, structure, resources, Transbaikalia INTRODUCTION The role of a forest in history of development of mankind, in creation of material and spiritual culture are invaluable. The need of the human for forest does not decrease. However to concern to a forest as to raw material, would be absolutely insufficiently. A forest this place dwelling of all variety of plants, animals and the human a source of their feed, outside of a forest their life is impossible.
The forest is the powerful ecological factor in the nature. It is carries out the greatest nature-protective function – water security, soil-protective, climate improving and others.
However, by present time the majority ground ecosystems including forests, have undergone radical changes because of human activity. In natural zones favorable for a life the human transformed and uses from 20 up to 75 % of territory (Millenium…, 2005). Productive natural ecosystems, including forests remain is very little. Simultaneously to reduction of the area of a live cover of the Planet, there is its simplification. Here therefore the United Nations sound alarm that loss natural ecosystems and a biodiversity has global scales and in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro: “The Agenda for XXI century” (Повестка…, 1992) has proclaimed the concept of steady development “The Concept about a biological variety” (Конвенция…, 1992).
Russia, including Siberia and Transbaikalia are the main ecological donors of the Planet, and bring the huge contribution to maintenance of stability of biosphere (Россия в 2015…, 2005). Here the worlds largest were kept natural boreal large forests (22 % world) and a huge specific variety is concentrated. Boreal forests reserve the significant amount of carbon and play a key role in maintenance of gas balance in an atmosphere (Залиханов и др., 2006).
Forests of Transbaikalia carry out all above specified functions and owing to the geographical position, to mountain character of a relief of territory play a huge role of the natural barrier blocking a way to winds, and are a place of concentration of atmospheric precipitation, the power supply of 336 streams and the rivers water-protection of a zone of the largest fresh water lake of the Planet – Baikal.
MATERILAS AND METHODS The object of research was a vegetative cover of Transbaikalia forest, including being in a protective zone of lake Baikal. To long-term stationary researches anticipated natural survey and routing supervision in many territories and in various (natural and artificial) forest plantings. Because of them representative sites forest and adjacent with them (steppe, water, etc.) ecosystems have been certain.
On them, the trial areas that have allowed receiving materials about a variety, composition, structure of forest stands, an underbrush and vegetative cover of forest ecosystems are incorporated.
Ecology and diversity of forest ecosystems in the Asiatic part of Russia Research of composition and structure of vegetation is lead on V.M. Ponyatovskaya (1964), V.N. Sukachyov, S.V. Zonn (1961), A.V. Pobedinsky (1966). The General characteristic about forest fund of Transbaikalia is given on materials of Forest agency of Buryat Republic (Медведев, 2004).
RESULTS AND DICUSSION The important place in natural resources of Transbaikalia borrows a forest. Here large forests are borrowed with the area 29140,3 thousand hectares, that makes 82,9 % from all territory. The general stock of wood makes 2351,8 million м (Медведев, 2004).
In comparison with other zone of vegetation, the forest zone in mountains of Transbaikalia has the greatest width. The bottom limit of its distribution is marks on 460 (500-800) m above s.l. on northern and approximately on 1000-1200 m above s.l. on southern slopes. The top limit of distribution forest in various mountain constructions is also not identical. It is in mountains Stanovoe uplands at height of 1100-1300 m above s.l., while in conditions of a dry climate in East Sayan ridges at height of 2000-2200 m, and under favorable conditions of humidifying on northern macroslope of Khamar-Daban ridges are marked of 1400-1500 m above s.l.
On various sites of territory of Transbaikalia structure of forest creation breeds are not identical. At Baikal, in particular at southern coast prevail dark coniferous breeds;
here they have landscape creation value. At movement on the east in a vegetative cover the role of dark coniferous – Abies sibirica Ledeb., Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Picea obovata Ledeb. They grow only in the most humidified places – on the bottoms of the mountain rivers gradually reduces. In north-east of Transbaikalia the Larix sibirica Ledeb. concedes the positions in conditions of a long and seasonal frozen ground to Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr. Character of forest vegetation, type of zone and composition of forest creation breeds of mountains of a south-west of Transbaikalia (Sayan mountains, Khamar-Daban, Dzhidinsk uplands) noticeably differ from northern mountain circuits.
The forest zone of a south-west part is presented by a Larix sibirica, a Pinus sylvestris L., Pinus sibirica, Abies sibirica, Picea obovata. Thus, the bottom part of a forests zone of northern slopes at a level of 700-1000 m and southern – at height of 1400-1900 m above s.l. is presented by light coniferous taiga.
In foothills of East Sayan Pineta forests, mainly Pinetum mixtroherbarioso-vacciniosum vitis-idaea, Pinetum vaccinioso myrtillus and large-herb prevail. In the south of Transbaikalia, in pools of large river arteries of Selenga, Uda, Khilok are presented steppeficated and forb, soil cover forest, Pinetum rhododendroso dauricum and Pinetum mixtroherbarioso vaccinioso vitis-idaea. Pineta forests of mountain circuit Ulan-Burgasi are presented mainly by Pinetum rhododendroso dauricum, Pinetum duschekioso fruticosa, Pinetum ledoso palustre and Pinetum vaccnioso myrtillus. In mountain ridges of Sayan, Dzhidinsk uplands and on southern macroslope of Khamar-Daban significant areas are borrowed by larch forest, on which southern macroslopes they – unique forest representatives of vegetation, reaching up to the top border of a forests.
Here the vertical distribution of forest vegetation is subordinated to following laws. In the bottom parts of mountains are placed Larisetum mixtroherbariosum. The significant areas of an average part of slopes of mountains are borrowed Larisetum vaccinioso vitis-idaea subass. ledoso palustre-hylocomnioso splendens. With them in the neighbourhood, on higher marks settle down Larisetum rhododendroso dauricum, Larisetum hylocomnioso splendens-cladinosum. At the top border of a forest in a rare forest stand the underbrush of a Rhododendron L. is supplemented plentifully with a Betula divaricata Ledeb.
Mutual relations light coniferous forests and dark coniferous taiga in the majority are defined by conditions of humidity of territory, softness and humidity of a climate. Usual forests from Pinus sylvestris and Larix sibirica of northern macroslopes at height of 700-1200 m above s.l. in Khamar-Daban ranges are replaced by dark coniferous, mainly Pineta sibirica. The last require the raised humidity of air and soil and therefore are dated for multisnow areas of Transbaikalia what are basically East Sayan mountains and Khamar-Daban. In other territories of the area dark coniferous forests are limited or they are not presented at all also because their growth is interfered by wide development of a long-term frozen ground.
Representatives of dark coniferous forests in places of the growth are usually formed the mixed forest stands, but in process of deterioration of separate climatic parameters primary positions are almost always displaced to one breed more adapted for changing conditions and then it’s formed almost one-specific forest stands.
The most exacting to conditions of growth is the Picea obovata and consequently Piceeta sibirica in Transbaikalia are in valleys of the rivers where form a number of communities, characteristic for two vertical zones of forest vegetation, light- and dark coniferous. Only on Khamar-Daban Piceeta sibirica borrow other topological position.
Exacting to conditions of dwelling the Abies sibirica grows on fertile damp soil. It finds perfect conditions in places of the raised humidity of the air environment. Therefore the significant areas of Abieta sibirica are concentrated to northern macroslope of Khamar-Daban, where Abieta sibirica take various positions foothill, rise up to the top border of a forest, meet in a subalpine zones in the form of Abieta sibirica parks.
Abieta sibirica of Khamar-Daban have distinctive feature: in a coastal part of Baikal there were the unique climatic conditions which have served to preservation of many nemoral relic plants. Here there is a number of communities in which relic plants are subdominants of a grassy cover.
From dark coniferous breeds the Pinus sibirica is less exacting to conditions of growth;
therefore Pineta sibirica are widespread to territories of Transbaikalia. However their basic areas are nevertheless on Khamar-Daban where the Pinus sibirica is accompanied everywhere with a Picea obovata and Abies sibirica. In other ranges they are not present;
they are replaced with a Larix sibirica or Pinus sylvestristhat specifies high fertility soil, borrowed by a Pinus sibirica on Khamar Daban.
The forest zone of mountains is borrowed mainly by coniferous forest, however often locally in it Betuleta and Populeta are spread. The last to a thicket grow in the places close to residing of the human habitat that specifies on that many of the places Proceedings from International conference, 14.2-18.2.2008, Kostelec nad ernmi lesy, Czech Republic, of softly leaf forests have a secondary origin and have arisen under influence of economic activities of the human, mainly – as a result of fires and fellings.
The vegetation of the north of Transbaikalia (Stanovoe uplands, Vitimskoe plateau) has the prominent features noticeably distinguishing it from mountains of the south. Here prevail Larisetum gmelinii generated from most hardy in extreme conditions of the north of Larix gmelinii. However in the mountains directly adjoining northern Baikal, enough greater areas borrow dark coniferous forests that are caused by warming and humidifying influence of Baikal. In process of removal from the Baikal hollow the Pinus sibirica and an Abies sibirica gradually disappear, and in valleys of the rivers there is only a Picea obovata. As to Pineta sibirica their presence is occasionally marked in intermountain hollows and on good insolation southern slopes of mountains.
From other features of forests of the north of Transbaikalia it is necessary to note that participate in their formation forest creation breeds, unknown in the south – Chosenia arbutifolia (Pall.) A. Skvorts. on flood-plains shingle of the rivers and a Betula lanata (Regel) V. Vassil. – on stony looses. In northern forests also other structure of underbrush in which prevail a Betula divaricata, a Betula fruticosa Pall. and Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel also takes place. Northern Lariseta gmelinii are various enough on all extent of mountains, forming at the top border of open forest communities with underbrush from the same bushes. Thus, the top border of a forest is surrounded always with plantings Pinus pumila.
In mountains of northern Baikal (Bargusinsk ridge, part of Verhneangarsky) in structure of a forest complex dark coniferous forests (basically Pinus sibirica) are borrowed significant enough areas, however here cedar forests gradually concede positions to other types of a forest, remaining basically in narrow valleys of inflows of the Verhnea Angara.
The domination in northern forests of Transbaikalia of Larix gmelinii, thrickets of Pinus pumila in underbrush and also presence of Betuleta pendula, and on rivers shingle – Chosenia arbutifolia allows despite of presence on the Baikal ridges subzones of dark coniferous taiga, to consider forests in the north of Transbaikalia as a single whole with North-Transbaikalian vegetation.
In mountains of the north of Transbaikalia Pineta sylvestris become very rare, their separate islands meet on high above flood-plain terraces, on abrupt sandy, well warmed up slopes where the steady frozen ground recedes on significant depth.
Mountain circuits of Stanovoj uplands have significant heights, as a result of their crests and tops fall outside the limits the top border of a forest. The territory of mountain slopes is covered by Lariseta gmelinii.
Owing to temperature inversions in intermountain downturn of the north of Transbaikalia there are adverse conditions for forest breeds, therefore the bottoms and the bottom terraces of the rivers often are borrowed by yerniks – characteristic of shrub communities from Betula fruticosa.
Dark coniferous forests. The dark coniferous forests 2277,9 thousand hectares, including Abies sibirica – 160,3, Abieta sibirica – 276,2, Pineta sibirica – 1885,4 thousand hectares borrow territory. Middle age of plantings is 110 years, average completeness is 0,52, a class of bonitet is IV.
Cedar forests (Pineta sibirica). Significant territories of cedar forests are located on Northwest macroslopes of mountain circuits at Baikal and Dzhidinskoe uplands where they form wide enough strip, since a level of 1000-2000 m and finishing the top border of a forest. For cedar forests of Khamar-Daban participation as co-edificator of others dark coniferous breeds – Abies sibirica and Picea obovata are characteristic.
In age structure of Pineta sibirica prevail (62,5 %) middle age individuals. The areas of Pineta sibirica of other age categories (young individuals, ripe and old individuals) are practically identical – 12,3-12,9 %.
The forests generated by a Pinus sibirica, are presented to Transbaikalia by greater variety of types. Their prevailing part concerns to the category of Pinetum hylocomnioso splendens. In such forests co-dominants of grass-shrub sublayer are following plants act: Rhododendron dauricum, Vaccinium vitis-idaea L., Vaccinium myrtillus L., Ledum palustre L.
depending, on in what abundance and a combination with each other specified plants participate in formation of a sublayer, various types of Pineta sibirica are formed. Among them are formed: Pinetum vaccinioso vitis-idaea-hylocomnioso splendens, Pinetum bergenioso crassifolia-vaccinioso vitis-idaea-hylocomnioso splendens, Pinetum vaccinioso myrtillus-hylocomnioso splendens, Pinetum bergenioso crassifolia-vaccinioso uliginosum-hylocomnioso splendens, etc. Among this types the Pineta sibirica with participation of usual green mosses are distributed in the optimal places of existence – on flat slopes of various points, abrupt slopes or the water-separate areas.
In places of relatives of subsoil waters find a refuge damp herbage groups of dark coniferous forests. In the grassy cover is formed by such moistureloving of plants as Equisetum palustre L., Carex pediformis C.A. Meyer, Allium microdictyon Prokh., Mitella nuda L., Oxalis acetosella L. Damp conditions of ground thus often promote growth in a underbrush of a Duschekia fruticosa (Rupr.) Pouzar. and to prevalence in a grassy cover tall herbage.
On abrupt stony slopes where it is not felt a full prosperity of moisture in ground, it is widely spread Pinetum bergenioso crassifolia in which practically there is no cover from a moss. Such type cedar forests are widely spread on northern macroslope of Khamar-Daban and in the east of ridge Tunkinskie goltsy.
Pineta sibirica damp of East Sayan rise up to the top border of forest vegetation where form crooked forest with a low (0,3 0,4) density of crones. Such forests are presented by only small set of types, but the most widespread from them is Pinetum rhododendroso dauricum-hylocomnioso splendens. For habitats with a dry continental climate in underbrush structure of open forest the main thing becomes a Rhododendron parvifolium Adams. With increase in height of ridges the Pinus sibirica becomes very rare and the shrub sublayer gets independent expression, existing alongside with high-mountainous formations.
For the top strip of vegetation of mountain constructions of the north of Transbaikalia, in particular for Bargusinsk ridge, one more type of dark coniferous forests – the Pinetum pinoso pumila-hylocomnioso splendens is characteristic. The Same type of Pineta sibirica is noted on Khamar-Daban.
Ecology and diversity of forest ecosystems in the Asiatic part of Russia Fir forests (Abieta sibirica) are characteristic for territories of Transbaikalia with as much as possible high humidity of air and soil and borrow 276,2 thousand hectares. In their structure prevail (43,7 %) ripe and mature individuals, group of middle ages borrow 29,1 %. Favorable conditions of humidifying for their growth are created on northern macroslope of Khamar Daban ridge where the greatest territories of Abieta sibirica are concentrated. The mountain-forest zones on baikal terraces of Khamar-Daban from Solsan up to Babushkin is formed by exclusively of dark coniferous taiga with significant participation of Abies sibirica. Abroad forests are placed the Abieta sibirica parks alternating of tall herbage. Higher levels of ridges borrow alpine-subalpine meadows and thrickets of Pinus pumila. The highest elements of a ridge are covered by high-mountainous tundra with impregnations of the alpine meadows. Abieta sibirica are spread mainly within the limits of the central and northeast part of Khamar-Daban coastal circuit in area of the greatest accumulation of moisture and a powerful snow cover.
Reduction of humidity of air and soil conducts more often to shifts of the areas borrowed by Abieta sibirica, in depth of a mountain construction or to replacement of a dominating role of a Abies sibirica in forest on a Pinus sibirica. That, apparently, is connected with reduction of height of snow cover and the general increase in continentality of a climate.
Participation of Abies sibirica in structure of dark coniferous taiga is especially great in central part of Khamar-Daban. Only at east coast of Baikal the Abies sibirica rises highly on slopes and forms the top border of a forest. Often enough the Abies sibirica forms forests together with Pinus sibirica. Pure Abieta sibirica of Khamar-Daban is presented by Abietum vaccinioso myrtillus, Abietum bergenioso crassifolia, Abietum aconitoso barbatum, Abietum vaccinioso vitis-idaea, Abietum calamagrostioso epigeios, Abietum anemonoidoso altaica, Abietum waldsteinioso ternata, Abietum abioso sibirica hylocomniosum splendens.
The grass-shrub sublayer in various Abieta sibirica is expressed unequally. In valleys of the rivers with a cover from the Aconitum barbatum Pers. and Calamagrostis langsdorfii (Link) Trin. it magnificent enough, and except for the specified species it is represented even more with 25 plants. In Abietum vaccinioso myrtillus and Abietum bergenioso crassifolia the number of plants of this circle is very limited. Practically in all others Abieta sibirica in construction of this sublayer participate: Trientalis europaea L., Linnaea borealis L., Maianthemum bifolium (L.) S.F. Schmidt, Dryopteris carthusiana (Vill.) H.P. Fuchs, Vaccinium vitis-idaea. The most original types of fir forests on Khamar-Daban are endemic – Abietum anemonoidoso altaica and Abietum waldsteinioso ternata, peculiar for foothills, and also high-mountainous Abieta sibirica with underbrush from traillung shrub forms of Abies sibirica.
Abieta sibirica of Khamar-Daban concerns to number of ancient vegetative formations. Over its grassy cover is dominated by taiga group of plants, but alongside with them in structure of herbage there are relic of broadleaf forests. In separate associations the specified relic borrow dominating position. Presence of relic testifies to communication of a fir taiga of this mountain construction with broadleaf-coniferous forests of plyocen. The fir taiga at southern coast of Baikal finds out also some floristic similarity to Abieto-Tilieta – of Kuznetsk Ala tau, broadleaf forests of the Europe and keeps affinity with similar forests of the Far East.
On the bottoms of valleys of the rivers of Khamar-Daban are characteristic Abietum equisetoso palustre and Abietum alliumoso victoralis-veratrumoso lobelianum. In high mountains of western macroslope of a Bargusin mountain construction are usual Abietum vaccinioso myrtillus-rhododendroso aureum subass. pinoso pumila.
Thus, distribution of fir forests in territory of Transbaikalia is limited by continentality of climate, their continuous territories are concentrated, mainly, in Khamar-Daban mountains and partly to western slope of Bargisin ridge, in other places their limited areas meet on the bottoms of the separate rivers. Such forests are characterized by weak development of shrub underbrush at an abundance of grass vegetation and ferns. Abieta sibirica are the ancient type of the forest which have kept since time of the tertiary period, and are a refuge for growth of nemoral relic and protection demand (Бойков, 2005).
Spruce forests (Piceeta obovata) grows on the area 160,3 thousand hectares. In their structure prevail (72,5 %) ripe and mature individuals. The areas middle ages forests are equal 15,8 %. Such forests demand for growth of damp places of dwelling. Optimum conditions for growth at all levels of mountains down to high mountains are created at flowing humidifying. These requirements conditions of the ecological environment of Piceeta obovata limit their distribution on territories, therefore pure Piceeta obovata meet locally, and as the component of types of a forest (dark- and light coniferous) Picea obovata meets more widely. It is probable, in this connection Piceeta obovata to the east from Baikal borrow the smallest areas, giving up the place of valley Lariseta sibirica. In structure of shrub layer the Ledum palustre and Vaccinium myrtillus can take part.
The types of Piceeta obovata are very not numerous. The most widespread group of Piceeta obovata – are Piceetum hylocomnioso splendens. The most typical type of Piceeta obovata from this group is Piceetum equisetoso palustre hylocomnioso splendens. Piceeta obovata are very rare. In structure of grass-shrub sublayer the dominant role are played Calamagrostis langsdorfii and Vaccinium vitis-idaea.
In valleys of the short rivers of northern macroslope of coastal mountain arch of Khamar-Daban quite often there is characteristic only for this territory Piceetum dryopteroso carthusiana, and in tops of river valleys at surplus of a moisture are widespread, but is very rare, Piceetum aulacomnioso palustre and Piceeta sphagnosum.
Light coniferous forests in mountains of Transbaikalia settle down in the bottom parts of a forest zones and borrow the area 13012,9 thousand hectares. They are formed with a Pinus sylvestris, Larix sibirica and Larix gmelinii, possessing an opportunity to grow in conditions of a seasonal frozen ground and arid climate at the minimal deposits. Larix gmelinii besides it is capable to grow on frozen soil. Such feature in ecology of larch finds reflection in typological structure: Larisetum gmelinii have some characteristic types. For Pineta sylvestris and larch formation of pure one-pedigree forest stands is characteristic. Only in after fire stages in such forests gradually win predominating positions and supersede coniferous breeds birch.
Proceedings from International conference, 14.2-18.2.2008, Kostelec nad ernmi lesy, Czech Republic, Pineta sylvestris borrow almost the fifth part of the territory of Transbaikalia covered by 3024,8 thousand hectares. Their structure is presented mainly by three age conditions - young (37,3 %), middle ages (35,2 %), ripe (20,7 %) individuals.
Mature Pineta sylvestris only 10 % is presented Average completeness of individuals – 0,52. The basic territories – more than 60 % of all Pineta sylvestris – are in pools of the rivers Uda, Kurba, Hilok, Temnik and Bargusin. Pineta sylvestris grow in the diversified conditions. However they first of all dominate on sandy and sandy hollows where any other type of a forests cannot compete to them, and in mountains Pineta sylvestris are capable to grow on abrupt stony slopes. However it does not mean, that the pine cannot lodge on rich substrata: pine forests high bonitet on rendzinaare known. As thermophilic breed, a pine grows in the bottom part of a forest zones and forest-steppe, at height of 900-1000 m above s.l., and within the limits of these zones prefers well warmed habitats - southern exposition slopes The typological structure of Pineta sylvestris is various, however the group of types Pinetum rhododendroso dauricum, Pinetum mixtroherbariosum, Pinetum hylocomnioso splendens prevails.
Pinetum rhododendroso dauricum are widespread basically in southern mountain and forest-steppe parts of Transbaikalia.
The structure of this group of Pineta sylvestris includes some types. Alongside with a Rhododendron dauricum their dense difficultly passable underbrush often forms Duschekia fruticosa. Owing to strong dense underbrush grass-shrub the circle is developed poorly. On a background brown left fall grow Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Linnaea borealis and rare – Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth, Maianthemum bifolium, Pulsatilla patens, Sanguisorba officinalis L. The mosses cover is distributed on the area non-uniformly, in the form of spots. The Ledum palustre and a Vaccinium myrtillus can take part in other types of a forest of this group of Pineta sylvestris the big place in structure of shrub circle.
In southern forest-steppe areas of Transbaikalia in conditions of dry climate Pineta sylvestris are widely presented by Pinetum mixtroherbariosum. In conditions of poor soil and arid climate in this territory development of mesophilous plants is not obviously possible. In a ground vegetative cover of these woods find development forest-steppe and steppe plants: a Carex pediformis C.A. Meyer, Pulsatilla patens, Iris ruthenica Ker-Gawler, Veronica incana L., Calamagrostis epigeios, Galium verum L. and others. Depending on position on district and structure co-dominants, from this group of Pineta sylvestris in southern Transbaikalia there are various types.
In Pribaikalye, in conditions of good humidifying and riches soil Pineta sylvestris in which structure prevails tall grasses were generated is Pinetum calamagrostioso epigeios, Pinetum dryopteroso carthusiana, Pinetum brachypodioso sylvaticum.
For northern areas, Sayan mountains and Pribaikalye, and also for shadow slopes and flat water-separate tops prevalence Pinetum hylocomnioso splendens is characteristic. Their moss cover is formed with green mosses, and grass-shrub sublayer is represented with characteristic taiga plants: Vaccinium myrtillus, Bergenia crassifolia (L.) Fritsch, depending on domination of the last, in a cover Pinetum myrtillosum are allocated Pinetum vaccinioso uliginosum, Pinetum bergenioso crassifolia. On sandy terraces of average current Selenga river and its inflows are generated and seldom there are Pinetum cladinosum.
For mountain circuits Northern Baikal (Bargusin ridge and its western macroslope) the combination forest creation breeds of a pine is surprising and Pinus pumila. Аnywhere it is more so widely not presented together, that, possibly, is connected with inversion climate the phenomena on Baikal. Usually such pine forest has a high density and bonitet. The underbrush supplements Duschekia fruticosa, and shrub in mainly the Vaccinium uliginosum and Vaccinium vitis-idaea make. The grassy cover is rarefied, moss dense.
On abrupt slopes of mountains in conditions of a damp climate significant enough areas borrow from Baikal Pinetum bergenioso crassifolia, and in valleys of the rivers at a good drainage marsh Pineta sylvestris are usual.
The significant areas in territory of Transbaikalia near to settlements and along iron and highways are covered by Pinetum mixtroherbariosum, basically the anthropogenous origin, formed on a place of radical types Pinetum rhododendroso dauricum and Pinetum vaccinioso uliginosum. As a result of cutting down, fires and other activity of the human in forests positions of herbage have amplified, and in a forest stand in a significant abundance there was Betula pendula Roth.
Thus, Pineta sylvestris of Transbaikalia differ greater variety. Unlike pine forests of the European Russia here have received the big distribution light types, the small areas are borrowed under Pinetum hylocomnioso splendens. Have was extended original for our territory Pinetum rhododendroso dauricum, Pinetum pinoso pumila and Pinetum bergenioso crassifolia.
Larch forests are the basic landscape creation breed in Transbaikalia and borrow the area 9988,1 thousand hectares. They are presented mainly (51,1 %) ripe and mature by individuals. The share middle age also is significant – 23,8 %. On larch forests 60 % of all area covered by a forest are necessary. Forests of the south of Transbaikalia are formed with a Larix sibirica, other territory in a zone of a permafrost of northeast, that is 80 % of all larch forest, it is borrowed by Larisetum gmelinii. In vertical zone larch forests borrow the coldest habitats: northern slopes, the bottoms of valleys, the top parts of a forest zone up to the top border of a forest from 900 up to 1500 m above s.l. the larch forms pure forest stands, sometimes with an impurity of Betula pendula, Pinus sylvestris, Picea obovata IV and V classes bonitet is more often. A stock of larch forests is heisted up 120 to 150 be rare can 250 м3 /hectares. Low-productive larch forests on poor soil watersheds and in mountains zone have the big soil-protective value.
The typological structure of the forests generated by a Larix sibirica and Larix gmelinii, has similar features and characteristic differences. Lariseta sibirica are widely presented by Larisetum mixtroherbariosum, Larisetum mixtroherbarioso-vaccinioso vitis-idaea and Larisetum hylocomnioso splendens, and for Lariseta gmelinii most typical types with a underbrush from Rhododendron dauricum, Ledum palustre, Pinus pumila and dwarfish birches (yernik type).
Deciduous forests borrow the area 1665,4 thousand hectares, their age of 39 years, completeness 0,62. Birch forests in Transbaikalia borrow the area 1181,5 thousand hectares. In their structure prevail (44,8 %) middle ages individuals, it is high enough (29,9 %) also a share of young ages, and the areas, ripe and mature is hesitaded from 10,3 up to 15,7 %. The most part of Betuleta pendula (30 %) is in northern and northeast areas. The Betula pendula forms more often the individuals of IV class mixed with another breeds bonitets. Their productivity is low. Such forests in the majority have a secondary origin, are formed Ecology and diversity of forest ecosystems in the Asiatic part of Russia on a place of the radical coniferous forests shown by fires, felling, and represent one of stages of restoration of primary forests.
Therefore in such birch forests always there are typical taiga plants, mosses and bushes – Ledum palustre, Duschekia fruticosa etc. Structure of secondary Betuleta pendula is combined enough and depends on character and intensity of influence of the anthropogenous factor. Among derivative Betuleta pendula prevail usual Betuletum mixtroherbariosum and Betuletum vaccinioso vitis-idaea-mixtroherbariosum. The underbrush of Betuleta pendula is not expressed, but the dense grassy cover magnificently develops.
The floristic structure and structure of other types (Betuletum rhododendroso dauricum-mixtroherbariosum, Betuletum vaccinioso myrtillus, Betuletum hylocomnioso splendens), widespread at Baikal, also specifies their secondary origin after sparing felling of a pine forest stand as a result of which other sublevels of a forest cover noticeably have not suffered. In essence birch forests represent final regenerative stages of a coniferous forest. Radical Betuleta pendula in territory of Transbaikalia practically are absent. Their small territories, probably, were still kept in a forest-steppe zone of Pribaikalye on damp sites of a relief on northern slopes and in mountain valleys south-west.
For mountain areas Stanovoe uplands are characteristic undersized and Betuleta alba from Betula alba L. They settle down mainly in the top part of a forest zone, on abrupt stony slopes of all expositions. Their habitats differ high humidity of air, in the multisnow winters and damp enough soil. Under flat such birch forest subalpine bushes, Pinus pumila, Rhododendron aureum Georgi, usual forest species develop: the Ledum palustre, Vaccinium myrtillus, and a Vaccinium vitis-idaea, dominate also lichens and green mosses.
Aspen forests (Populeta tremula) represent a secondary formation on a place of the burned down coniferous forests on the area 474,2 thousand hectares that makes 2 % of the area covered. In structure of Populeta tremula almost equal shares prevail middle age (31,6 %) and ripe and mature (30,7 %) and young (27,8 %) individuals. Pure Populeta tremula have III-IV classes бонитета and a stock of forest nearby 100 м3 on 1 hectares. The basic part of Populus tremula L. individuals is in a taiga strip of Pribaikalye, as a rule, on powerful muddy soil, in foothills and on valleys of the large mountain rivers. In a zone of a permafrost of Populeta tremula practically is not present. The riches soil under Populeta tremula promote development under flat woods high harbage. The big typological variety of Populeta tremula it is not observed. In connection with growth of preparations of forest of coniferous breeds the areas covered by Populeta tremula, increase.
Populeta suaveolens forests are characteristic only for sandy adjournment of valleys of the rivers of southern forest-steppe areas of Transbaikalia. Their areas are small – 5,8 тыс hectares. In connection with that a poplar low is rock created environment ability of all individuals of its park type, and the herbage under flat has casual character. In forest-steppes of Transbaikalia grow Populeta tremula forb forests, in other places especially at sufficient humidifying is more often, a wide circulation have tall grassis and shrub types. On ridge Khamar-Daban are usual Populeta laurifolia with participation of nemoral relic: Populetum anemonoidoso altaica and Populetum waldsteinioso ternata.
Chosenieta arbutifolia groves have platitudes of dwelling with a poplar fragrant, namely sand-and-shingle adjournment of the rivers. It is formed the pure radical plantings representing one the first stages of settling by vegetation of valleys of the mountain rivers. Such plantings basically are characteristic for valleys of the rivers of north-east areas of Transbaikalia, east coast of Baikal up to a mouth Bargusin river on its valley. The bird cherry often takes part in addition of plantings, Padus avium Mill., Sorbaria pallasii (G. Don fil.) Pojark., Crataegus sanguinea Pall., Spiraea media Fanz Schmidt, Rosa acicularis Lindley. The grassy circle sometimes is not developed completely, but in most cases it make characteristic for valleys forests of a plant.
Ulmetum pumila the relicts which have kept here since time of the tertiary period, are widespread on friable sandy soil river valleys of southern steppe and forest-steppe zones of Transbaikalia in valleys of the rivers Dzhida, Hilok, Chikoj and Uda.
These low (4-5) open boreal woodland individuals create here the characteristic landscape reminding savannas. The structure of such rarefied individuals does not differ from Ulmus pumila groves of adjacent steppe territory of East Transbaikalia.
The Transbaikalia possesses various resource potential of a phytogenesis. Its economic development for a long time went and will proceed in the further, leaning on this huge natural potential. However its use in all territory and in particular in a catchment basin of Baikal should not put damage of integrity of a vegetative complex.
Forests of Transbaikalia bear a greater loading as created environmental ability and protected environment roles and of great importance as a source of forest and other wood production. A total area of the grounds Transbaikalia as 1st of January 2002 is 29133,7 thousand hectares, including forests makes the grounds – 23147,4 thousand hectares. In the general stock of plantings the stock of forest of a larch makes - 53,5 %, pines - 19,5 %, a cedar - 14,5 %, birches - 4,0 %, aspens - 2,9 % (Медведев, 2004). In structure willow-shrub breeds are included a subject protection Chosenietum arbutifolia (nearby 2 thousand hectares), growing basically on northeast coast of Baikal.
Distribution of separate forest breeds on territory of Transbaikalia unequally. In north-east areas (Muisky, Bauntovsky, Eravninsky with a total area 117,4 thousand km2) participation Larisetum sibirica. The area reaches 73 %, and among coniferous – 98 %;
in an average forest-steppe part of Transbaikalia the Pineta sylvestris prevails, in mountainous places of a south-west (ridges Malchansky, Dsydinsky, Khamar-Daban) the significant areas are borrowed by dark coniferous a taiga, first of all Pinus sibirica. The most part of forests is in a water-security zone of Baikal where the special mode of wildlife management is established.
The forests which are carrying out water-security, sanitary-and-hygienic functions, and also the territories of a special purpose designation carried to Forests I of group, borrow the area 11069,3 thousand hectares (38 % of a total area of forests), the second – 4943,2 (17 %), the third – 13121,2 thousand hectares (45 %). Operational forests concern basically to III group and partially to the second. Forests I and II groups are mainly in a 70-kilometer zone of Baikal where fellings of the main using are forbidden.
Proceedings from International conference, 14.2-18.2.2008, Kostelec nad ernmi lesy, Czech Republic, Feature of forests of Transbaikalia is prevalence ripe and mature individuals, especially among coniferous breeds. Ripe and mature forest individuals borrow on the average 39,3 % from the areas is covered of forests, including mature – 50,4 %..
The natural increase in coniferous forests of Transbaikalia, under available data, provides their normal restoration. Necessity in forest landings arises basically on fire area where natural renewal of breeds proceeds slowly, growth of young growths is stretched for 15-20 years. Regenerative ability Larisetum gmelinii on frozen soils also is problematic. In Pribaikalye and the central part of Transbaikalia more than 80 % of cuttings down and fire area are restored natural. On sites after continuous fellings natural renewal proceeds slowly and is stretched on tens years. A total area it is artificial the created forests by present time has reached 70 thousand hectares.
The highest average stock of forest among coniferous breeds is characteristic for Pineta pumila and Piceeta obovata – 165 170 m /hectares, for Pinus sylvestris decrease up to 120, and the lowest is inherent Lariseta sibirica – 100 m /hectares and less. From small-leaved breeds are more productive Populeta suaveolens – 140 m/hectares, and to less production give Betula pendula – 64 m/hectares. The stock of Pineta pumila reaches thrickets 37, and yerniks – only 5–10 m/hectares.
In forests of Transbaikalia it is concentrated 2243,8 million m3 of forest that makes 3 % from the all-Russian stocks. The stock ripe and mature reaches wood individuals 878,8 million m3, including the most valuable coniferous breeds – 814, million m3.
Preparation of wood until recently was conducted basically in pine forests of the central part of Transbaikalia, Lariseta sibirica north-east and south-west zones for industrial preparation were used only partially. In 80th the total amount of preparation of wood reached 5-6 million м3, in the last (1993-1994) – has considerably decreased. Now settlement wood cutting area is 6480,8 thousand m3. Continuous use wood-cutting area fund within the limits of specified settlement wood cutting area is a basis of achievement the optimum of their age structures. In 2001 volume wood-cutting area issued by logging tickets, on fellings of the main using 1118,5 thousand m3 has made. It is cut actually down 773,1 thousand m3. That has made 69,1 % from volume. Use settlement wood-cutting area has made 12,4 %, thus is most full used settlement wood-cutting area on pine section – 48,4 %.
Owing to rigid natural-climatic conditions of growth of a Transbaikalia forest are unproductive and have a low gain of wood.
The general stock of forest makes nearby 2,4 billion м3, including coniferous – 1726,6 million м3, of them Larix sibirica and Larix gmelinii – 987,9, Pinus sylvestris and Pinus pumila – 367,3, Pinus sibirica – 304,6, Picea obovata and Abies sibirica 66,7, Betula pendula – 71,3, Populus tremula – 50,5 million м3.
The dry climate, high inflammability light coniferous forests promote devastating forest fires. In cause of damage forests ecosystems, they surpass fellings of the main using. New to fumes lead to negative changes of a lot figures of forests fund and bring the certain contribution to decrease in stability of forests.
The basic parameters of development of wood branch specify unsatisfactory housekeeping in woods of Transbaikalia.
Settlement wood-cutting area in the planned volume it is not carried out owing to many reasons (a mountain relief, absence of the arranged roads and technics for work on the abrupt slopes, new technologies and so forth), and, as is known, in a buffer zone of Baikal. It for the 30-years period has considerably decreased, mainly, owing to translation of forests in I and II groups.
The volume of preparations for the period with 1960 on 2001 has decreased across Transbaikalia with 10 up to 1-2 million м3.
The parameter wood about 1 hectares here is low, that specifies on unsatisfactory an environment and a situation in system of a forestry. One of the reasons of this phenomenon - the unsatisfactory attitude to the scientifically-proved concept of conducting a forestry. However it specifies as well almost unlimited wood potential. The new wood concept contains principles of communication of conducting a forestry and preparation of wood. Behind a wood during its all life it is necessary to conduct leaving till the moment of approach of the main fellings and to spend them on the area of 15-25 % from annual volume. Expediently thus to provide compensation of expenses on forest restoration in cost of wood on a root. This concept provides I shall eat wood due to introduction of new technics and increase in volumes of wood for deep processing.
By careful use of significant wood resources can quite use and other natural values of forests (medicinal, berry, etc.).
CONCLUSIONS 1. Forest ecosystems of Transbaikalia borrow the huge area – 29140,3 thousand hectares and 82,9 % of its territory.
2. Forests of Transbaikalia differ significant typological and coenological variety.
3. Arid environmental conditions of forest growth of Transbaikalia have owed to low efficiency and a low gain of forest.
4. The dry climate and high inflammability of coniferous woods promotes devastating fires. The last bring the certain contribution to decrease in stability of forests.
5. Forests of Transbaikalia are the significant ecological donor of a planet, bringing the big contribution to maintenance of stability of biosphere.
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Рио-де-Жанейро, 3-14 июля.
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ПОНЯТОВСКАЯ В.М., 1964: Учет обилия и особенности размещения видов в естественных растительных сообществах //Полевая геоботаника. Т. 3. М.–Л.: Наука.
Россия в 2015 году: цели и приоритеты развития, 2005: Доклад о развитии человеческого потенциала Российской Федерации за 2005 год. Программа развития ООН.
СУКАЧЕВ В.Н., ЗОНН С.В., 1961: Методические указания к изучению типов леса. – М: Изд-во АН СССР.
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Biodiversity Synthesis. World Resources Institute. Wash., DC: Island Press.
WOODY PLANT OCCURRENCE AND ADAPTATION IN MARGINAL AND EXTREME SITES IN KAMCHATKA HOLUBEC V.
Dept. of Gene Bank, Crop Research Institute, Drnovsk 507, 161 06 Praha 6 - Ruzyn, Czech Republic, e-mail:
email@example.com ABSTRACT Kamchatka Peninsula was visited in 1995, 2005 and 2007 to study plant genetic resources. Plant species have very wide ecological amplitude. They occupy much more diverse environments than European flora. Several woody species were chosen to study the limits of their distribution under extreme conditions of altitude, soil, snow cover, wind and volcanic features. Alnus kamtschatica (Regel) Kom., a common small tree found along water gullies, climbs up volcanic ridges, forming multiterminal polycormons and is able to withstand being covered by volcanic debris and ash. In winter the shrubs can be flattened by deep snow on steep slopes in the mountains. The same species forms prostrate habits with terminals growing in mossy surfaces with branches protruding to a height of less than 15 cm. The resulting polycormon is then formed by strong winds to an aerodynamic shape. Similar behaviour was observed for Sorbus kamtschatcensis. Kom. On the other hand, Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel., has its centre of distribution in subalpine shrubland, extending up to alpine ridges, where the plants are formed by strong winds to aerodynamic shapes. It is not rare;
plants can be seen within birch taiga in considerable shade, still growing like larger shrubs.
Birch forests – taiga- are the most common vegetation in Kamchatka. Taiga of Betula ermannii Cham. occupies altitudes from sea to forest level. Even if it originally grows on drained organic soils, it also can be seen climbing mineral volcanic slopes. It often forms the boundary between forest and tundra, where it extends over periglacial soil mound-like microstructures developing above permafrost. Waterlogged basins are the preserve of shrubby Betula exilis Sukacz. Lonicera kamtschatica (Sevast.) Pojark. is a typical shrubby undergrowth in taiga. However, it thrives on vast forest-free land burned by frequent fires caused by volcanic activity and humans.
Plants probably utilised free niches in the relatively poor flora, apart from their original altitudinal zonality, and now we can find typically alpine species on the shady cliffs above the ocean. As a result, the species can create various life forms.
INTRODUCTION The Kamchatka peninsula lies between the latitudes 52° and 62° N in the Far East, extending as far as the Pacific Ocean. The Central Mountains (Sredinny khrebet) in the longitudinal orientation form a spine of Kamchatka reaching altitudes over m. The Kamchatka River divides it from the eastern volcanic ridge, or rather chain, of active volcanoes. The highest Mt.
Kliuchevskaya reaches 4750 m. A high volcanic activity is documented by the presence of 127 volcanoes, out of which 28 are active, as being an important stress factor. The climate of Kamchatka is diverse. The Pacific Ocean brings a high rainfall of over 1000 mm on the eastern ridges. The inland climate is rather continental, lying in the rain shadow, where annual means drop to 300 mm. Winter temperatures drop here to -30°C and frosts of -40°C are not exceptional. These harsh and diverse environmental conditions co-influenced in the evolution of Kamchatka’s unique flora. The number of taxa is not large compared with the large territory, comprising 1166 taxa on specific or subspecific level, that belong to 410 genera and families (Yakubov and Chernyagina, 2004). A higher share of endemic plants is caused by the isolation of vegetation by sea and a narrow strip of tundra connecting the mother land.
The natural vegetation of Kamchatka is formed mainly by taiga, out of which birch forests represent over 80 % (Charkevich and Cherepanov, 1981). It is replaced by forest-free tundra in the north that prevents migration of species to the north.
Therefore, the flora of Kamchatka peninsula has developed like an island flora.
Proceedings from International conference, 14.2-18.2.2008, Kostelec nad ernmi lesy, Czech Republic, MATERIAL AND METHODS Kamchatka Peninsula was visited in 1995, 2005 and 2007 to study and collect plant genetic resources of fruits and other potentially economic plants for food and agriculture (Holubec et al. 2008). To study ecological limits, 5 native species of Kamchatka were chosen: Alnus kamtschatica (Regel) Kom., Sorbus kamtschtcensis. Kom., Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel., Betula ermannii Cham. and Lonicera kamtschatica (Sevast.) Pojark.
They were studied in typical and marginal environments under stress of abiotic factors. Growth habits, plant height and shape were noted. Life forms according to Raunkiaer (1905), root system and secondary rooting were studied in erosion openings and gullies. Phytocenological relevs were provided for various habitats. A combined scale of abundance and dominance was used (Prach, 1964). Lonicera kamtschatica was measured and evaluated according to the descriptor list (Plekhanova, Korneichuk1988) for morphological and organoleptic traits.
Table 1. Visited localities within Kamchatka Locality Latitude Longitude Altitude: localized site Year (range visited) m Petropavlovsk- N 52° 58’14,5 E 158°42’50,0 120 (30-520) 1995, 2005, Kamchatski Vachkazhec N 53° 04‘45,9 E 157°54‘44,8 410 (120-1300) 1995, 2005, Moroznaya N 53° 06‘21,9 E 157°51‘09,7 580 (150-600) 1995, 2005, Goreli N 53° 09‘10,0 E 158°32‘10,0 50 (45-55) Avacha N 53° 12‘50,0 E 158°44‘40,0 1300 (200-2700) 1995, Kozelskaya N 53° 14‘18,4 E 158°49‘13,3 650 (300-2100) Malki N 53° 35‘20,0 E 157°55‘20,0 150 Bakining N 54° 00‘27,8 E 157°53‘04,3 530 (150-1200) Kozyrevsk N 56° 08‘30,0 E 159°55‘05,0 30 Kliuchi N 56° 32‘10,0 E 160°50‘20,0 50 RESULTS Alnus kamtschatica (Regel) Kom. (Alnus fruticosa Pall. s.l.) is a common woody plant, growing along water gullies, as small curved trees in upper forest level. Higher up in the subalpine zone, plants form large densely branched shrubs up to 4 m high. The alder climbs up ridges forming multiterminal polycormons on steep, usually cold slopes, with northern orientation.
In winter, terminals are often curved downhill by deep snow cover and they subsequently shoot a large number of upright branches. These are again curved by sliding snow. Similarly shaped shrubs arise from being totally covered by volcanic debris and ash on steep volcanic slopes. This is caused frequently by torrential flooding or occasionally by volcanic eruptions. The plants were seen regenerating from depths of more than 1 m, forming roots from horizontal branches. The distribution of Alnus kamtschatica extends to the alpine zone, mainly on northern slopes. The species forms prostrate habits with terminals growing in mossy surfaces, with only the branches protruding to a height of less than 15 cm (Fig.1).
Fig. 1. Alnus kamtschatica in prostrate form in gravel on the ridge, Bakining, 1200 m.
Ecology and diversity of forest ecosystems in the Asiatic part of Russia The resulting polycormon makes secondary roots from horizontal branches in suitably wet conditions. On the other hand, no rooting was observed on plants growing in larger rocks. When plants were covered by fine deposits, branches were thin with many roots, resembling underground stolons. Alnus kamchaticha often forms dense interlocked branches, covering slopes that can be classified as “species-poor communities”. Phytosociological relevs on plots 2 x 2 m showed 1 to 5 species with asectators Salix berberifolia, Ledum decumbens, Empetrum sibiricum, Cassiope lycopodioides and occasionally Diapensia obovata. The whole stand of Alnus kamtschatica is formed by strong heavy winds to an aerodynamic shape, where branches are longer in depressions and shorter on convex ridges. The species can display three life forms: phanerophyte, chamaephyte and hemicryptophyte (Fig. 2).
Fig. 2. Life forms of Alnus kamtschatica: a-phanerophyte in forest, b-chamaephyte on avalanche slopes, c-chamaephyte in slide rock, d hemicryptophyte – terminal in mossy level, on ridges Sorbus kamtschatcensis Kom. (S. aucuparia L. ssp. sibirica (Hedl.) Kryl. is a small tree or shrub, growing in larch or birch forests, usually up to 800 m. It forms simple trunk trees in denser forest or curved branched trunks in open forests and towards the timberline. It was seen also in subalpine shrubland zone growing above 800 m together with Alnus kamtschtcensis. Here it formed multiterminal large shrubs, densely branched, 1-2 m high. Together with alder it was seen out of its normal distribution area, forming dense shrubby stands on volcanic slopes, withstanding total coverage by volcanic ash during torrential flooding.
It was not a common distribution but within alder polycormons it was protected and therefore survived. In addition, wild rowan, Sorbus kamtschtcensis, is a wild fruit collected by local people. They use rowan for making jams and wine. It is also available in markets in a fresh state. From this point of view, wild rowan is a genetic resource of fruits.
Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel., is a shrubby pine belonging to the 5-needle group (subgenus Strobus Lemmon emend. Little et Critchfield). The main habitat in Kamchatka is within subalpine zone extending up to alpine ridges. It forms dense shrublands, with interlocked ascendant branches, difficult to access. Bushes are pressed to the ground by the weight of heavy snow cover in winter;
plants can grow easily on avalanche slopes. At higher altitudes of alpine zone and on ridges, the plants are formed by strong winds and by abrasion by snow crystals (Fig. 3). The plants on ridges can have prostrate habit (chamaephyte) or with terminals growing in moss (nearly hemicryptophyte). It is not rare;
plants can be seen in the lowlands within birch taiga in quite a deep shade, but also on rock cliffs at the ocean. The plants keep their growing habit like larger shrubs (phanerophyte).
Fig. 3. Pinus pumila, prostrate form on the ridge, Vachkazhec, 1300 m.
Proceedings from International conference, 14.2-18.2.2008, Kostelec nad ernmi lesy, Czech Republic, The cones bear large edible seeds which can be used as nuts like Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica). Therefore, they are important as a food crop and can be considered as a genetic resource.
Betula ermannii Cham. Birch forests – taiga- are the most common vegetation in Kamchatka. Taiga of Betula ermannii occupies altitudes from sea to the forest level. In water logged valleys it is replaced by alluvial forests with prevailing Salix udensis, S. macrolepis and Populus suaveolens. Therefore flooding is an important factor that prevents Betula ermanii from growing. In spite of originally growing in organic soils, it can occasionally be seen climbing up to mineral volcanic slopes. It often forms forest limits to the tundra, forming open park stands of individual trees. Betula ermanii also extends over periglacial soil mound-like microstructures developing above permafrost. In this case it forms open park forests. The life form is nearly exclusively phanerophyte, only rarely can be classified as chamaephyte, especially on transitions to permafrost tundra.
Lonicera kamtschatica (Sevast.) Pojark. (L. caerulea L. s.l.). is a typical shrubby undergrowth in the birch taiga. It forms large bushes 1-1.5 m tall that can be classified as phanerophytes. The bushes are larger and denser in open forest or forest clearings. A high water table is a limiting factor in their growth. The honeysuckle can be seen on the margins of peat bogs but only on raised banks. Then the bushes are considerably lower, with their lower branches in the mossy surface level, where rooting was often observed. Even if it is a typical forest level species, it climbs up to subalpine zone, forming prostrate bushes with lower branches rooting in the dense grass/mossy level. It can withstand deep snow cover or avalanche snow movement on the mountain slopes. It rarely reaches alpine zone and there it can form completely prostrate forms with branches in moss or underground like hemicryptophytes. The honeysuckle can also be found in mineral soils, volcanic ash and pumice. It can be subjected to covering by water-deposited volcanic debris from eruptions. Uncovered bushes were observed on Kljuchevskaja volcano on the sides of erosion gullies. Plants can regenerate even from old branches covered by debris more than 90 cm deep.
They subsequently grow through, and form roots on, covered branches. Within localities Tolbachik, Kliuchi and Goreli we found regenerated bushes after fire caused by volcanic activity and man. Regenerated bushes were much more robust, 2-2.5 m tall and usually erect (Fig.4). Good trophic lower altitude conditions cause growing of large erect bushes with no ascendant rooted branches but do not affect fruit size (Graph 1).
Graph 1. Variation in morphological characters of Lonicera kamtschatica. (Localities: B- Bakining, G- Goreli, M- Moroznaya, V Vachkazhec) Ecology and diversity of forest ecosystems in the Asiatic part of Russia 80 Bush shape, 1- Fruit lenght, mm Bush height, cm B M M V B B V B M M Locality B G G M G G The fruits of Kamchatka honeysuckle are nice and entirely/always sweet, similar to blueberries in taste. They belong to very promising small fruits for many properties, including a high content of ascorbic acid and earliness – they mature 2 weeks before strawberries. They are regularly collected by local people and koriak bears.
Fig. 4. Dense stand of Lonicera kamtschatica, regeneration after fire, Goreli, 45 m.
CONCLUSIONS Competition normally limits the various species to growing in the most suitable sites. However, their abilities to grow in a wider range of environmental conditions are much greater. The flora of Kamchatka is not very rich in number of species.
Plants in Kamchatka occupy free niches in a relatively poor flora apart from their original zonality and thus demonstrate their potential. Alnus kamtschatica appeared to have the widest ecological amplitude in growing conditions from the considered species and therefore showed a large potential for growing as a cultivated shrub. Lonicera kamtchatica and Sorbus kamtschatcensis are important genetic resources for fruits. They can be grown in a wide range of conditions except waterlogged. The study of species distribution limits, extreme sites and plant adaptations in extreme conditions thus brings information useful for cultivation.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The contribution is based on projects MZe CR QF3223 and 1G46066. The author is obliged to Dr. Valeri Karpenko and Natalia Nikolaevna Neprjakhina for help in Kamchatka..
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ALTITUDINAL ZONALITY OF VEGETATION OF CENTRAL AND SOUTHEASTERN PART OF KAMCHATKA PENINSULA ON EXAMPLE OF MODEL AREAS VEGETAN STUPOVITOST STEDN A JIHOVCHODN STI POLOOSTROVA KAMATKA NA PKLADU MODELOVCH ZEM KOUTECK T1., KOHUTKA A. 2, GEBAUER R1., FUNDOV I. 2, DRESLEROVA J. Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry in Brno, Department of Forest Botany, Dendrology and Geobiocoenology, Czech Republic, firstname.lastname@example.org Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Department of Dendrology and Forest Tree Breeding, Kamck 1176, 165 21 Prague 6 – Suchdol Ecology and diversity of forest ecosystems in the Asiatic part of Russia ABSTRACT The paper gives an example of altitudinal vegetation zonality of model areas on southeastern and central part of Kamchatka peninsula. The first model area was established near Esso village in the central part of Kamchatka, the second one in the surroundings of Petropavlovsk Kamchatsky. There were described 4 vegetation belts for each area and basic characteristic were proposed. Special attention was paid to the floodplain communities, too. The paper include the list of diagnostic plants species for each vegetation belt.
1. VOD Vegetan stupovitost obecn vyjaduje souvislost sledu rozdl prodn vegetace se sledem rozdl vkovho a expozinho klimatu. Je zvisl pedevm na teplotnch pomrech a na mnostv a asov distribuci atmosfrickch srek (Buek, Lacina 2002). S mnc se nadmoskou vkou se tak obvykle vytv charakteristick sled vegetanch formac s vlastn strukturou a fyziognomi, kter lze vylenit jako vegetan stupn. Vegetan stupn pak mohou slouit jako nadstavbov jednotky pro typologick lenn vegetace, na jeho zklad lze optimalizovat hospodaen a zsahy v krajin.
Za hlavn faktory, je spoluutvely souasn vegetan kryt Kamatky, meme povaovat geografickou polohu, relif a historii utven krajiny (Yakubov 2007). Poloostrov je dlouh 1100 km a jeho osa probh piblin severojinm smrem.
V severn sti se tak meme setkat se zonln tundrou, zatmco jih je ovlivovn monzunovmi vzduchovmi masami z Tichho ocenu se srkovmi hrny pes 2000 mm (Khomentovsky 2004). Znan klimatick rozdly lze pozorovat i ve smru rovnobek, a to hlavn dky relifu. Poloostrovem se thnou 2 vrazn horsk psma - vchodn a stedn vulkanick hbet, mezi nimi se ve stedn sti nachz rozshl deprese, oznaovan jako centrln kamatsk nina. Dky tomuto uspodn panuje na pobech ocenick klima, zatmco v centrln nin je klima kontinentln. Souasn vegetan pomry tak vznamn ovlivnilo tvrtohorn zalednn, kter zpsobilo vrazn pokles biodiverzity. Dky izolaci poloostrova od refugi v jin sti Asie nebyla toti mon zptn migrace druh v dob poledov.
V ocenickch stech poloostrova se dnes setkme s monodominantnmi porosty Betula ermanii, zatm co kontinentln centrln oblast pokrvaj porosty svtl tajgy s Larix cajanderi a Picea ajanensis. Dalm vznamnm vlivem psobcm vegetaci zvlt v podob disturbanc je i souasnosti aktivn vulkanick innost. V dsledku heterogenity prodnch pomr je na Kamatce vylieno 6 floristickch rajn. Celkov se z Kamatky udv 1166 druh a poddruh cvnatch rostlin, z eho tvo 97 druh deviny (Yakubov, Chernyagina 2004, Khomentovsky 2004). Procentick zastoupen hlavnch devin v lesnch porostech je nsledujc: Betula ermanii 47%, Pinus pumila 25%, Alnus fruticosa 14%, Betula platyphylla 6%, Larix cajanderi 4% a Picea ajanensis 2% (Khomentovsky 2004).
2. CL A METODIKA Clem tohoto pspvku je charakterizovat vegetan stupovitost ve dvou odlinch modelovch oblastech, je byly autory studovny v letech 2007 a 2008. Jednalo se o okol osady Esso v centrln (kontinentln) sti Kamatky a okol Petropavlovska Kamatskho na (ocenickm) jihu poloostrova. Vegetan stupn byly vylieny na zklad devinnho patra a dle tak pomoc indikanch druh, je byly sledovny v ternu. daje o jejich ekologii a rozen v rmci poloostrova byly erpny z Katalogu flry Kamatky (Yakubov, Chernyagina 2004), piem stejn publikace poslouila i jako nomenklaturn standard. Ne uveden vty druh charakteristickch pro jednotliv vegetan stupn mohou bt dobrou pomckou pro snadnj orientaci v druhovm bohatstv zdej flry.
a) Oblast Petropavlovska Kamatskho V okol Petropavlovska jsme vegetan stupovitost sledovali v jin sti Nalyevskho parku v dol Pinaevskaja, dle nad mstem Jelizovo v dol ky Polovinka (lokalita Goluble ozera) a subalpnsk a alpnsk vegetace byla studovna tak v oblasti Mutnovskho vulknu. Klimatick pomry jsou zde charakteristick vysokmi srkovmi hrny jak v lt, tak i v zimnm obdob (bn je i nkolik metr mocn snhov pokrvka). Celkov me za rok spadnout i pes 2000 mm.
Teplotn je klima typick chladnmi lty a mrnmi zimami.
Lesy jsou tm vlun tvoeny porosty Betula ermanii, je se vyskytuje od moskho pobe a na horn hranici lesa, kter se nachz piblin v 800 m n. m., v dolch otevench vtrm od moe pak ne.
b) Modelov zem u osady Esso Studovan oblast se nachz na zem Bystrickho prodnho parku zpadn osady Esso, na hebeni s nejvy ktou Digeren-Olengende 1950 m n.m. Svahy tohoto hbetu se zvedaj z dol eky Bystraja, jeho dno se u Essa nachz v nadmosk vce 450 m n. m. Klima lze hodnotit jako kontinentln, tedy s chladnmi zimami a lty vrazn teplejmi, ne je tomu v oblasti Petropavlovska. Prmrn ron srkov hrny se pohybuj okolo 800 mm. Lesn porosty zde na rozdl od jihu poloostrova tvo svtl tajga s dominantnm Larix cajanderi.
3.CHARAKTERISTIKA VEGETANCH STUP (VS) Prodn prosted Kamatky je na rozdl od zem Evropy velmi mlo ovlivnno zsahy lovka. Krom okol sdel lze souasn spoleenstva povaovat za potenciln vegetaci. Vjimku tvo dostupn oblasti centrln Kamatky, kde probh pomrn intenzivn tba Smrku a modnu.
Ne uveden charakteristika vegetan stupovitosti modelovch zem je doplnna soupisem charakteristickch druh.
Kriterii jejich vbru byly mimo indikan hodnoty tak monost snadn determinace v ternu (chyb proto kritick skupiny Proceedings from International conference, 14.2-18.2.2008, Kostelec nad ernmi lesy, Czech Republic, druh) a tak etnost vskytu (pevn se jedn o bn, asto dominantn druhy). Snahou rovn bylo, aby jejich rozen zasahovalo do obou sledovanch oblast, take seznam diagnostickch druh je spolen.
I. Stanovit hydricky normln a) Modelov oblast Petropavlovska Kamatskho 1. Vegetan stupe bezov nich poloh Tento vegetan stupe lze vymezit pro polohy chrnn ped chladnm proudnm od moe v rozpt 0 a 600 m n. m. (v dolch orientovanch k pobe je horn hranice VS posunuta ne). Spoleenstva tohoto vegetanho stupn se obvykle nachz pod rovn nzk oblanosti, kter bv velmi ast.
Zcela dominantn a prakticky jedinou devinou stromovho patra je tzv. kamenn bza (Betula ermanii), kter vytv pevn jednoetov svtl porosty. Ojedinle ji me doplovat Betula platyphylla. V keovm patru se uplatuj Sorbus sambucifolia, Lonicera coerulea, Lonicera chamissoi, v such typech Juniperus sibirica, Spirea beauverdiana a jednotliv, ppadn na extrmnch stanovitch astji i Pinus pumila a Alnus fruticosa. V zapojen porosty se msty rozvoluj v typick lesn polanky. Bylinn patro je tvoeno zstupci kamatsk lesn flry. Vedle nkolika druh ostic a zstupc rodu Calamagrostis se uplatuj nap. Allium ochotense, Cimicifuga simplex, Lilium debile, Cacalia hastata, Cacalia kamtschatica, Equisetum hyemale, Trillium camtschatcense, Maianthemum dilatatum, Pteridium aquilinum, Melica nutans, Millium effusum aj. ada z uvedench druh v tomto vegetanm stupni vyznv (viz ploha 1: seznam diagnostickch druh).
Zcela specifick je potom pben vegetace vystaven chladnm vtrm z Tichho ocenu. Vedle kamennch bz se zde vyskytuj msty kompaktn porosty Pinus pumila, se ktermi se jinak meme setkat a na horn hranici lesa (Khomentovsky 2004).
2. Vegetan stupe bezov vych poloh Druh vegetan stupe lze stle jet oznait jako lesn. Od 1. se li nim, msty a netvrnm vzrstem Betula ermanii, absenc druh nich poloh a msty rozvolnnm zpojem, v jeho mezerch se uplatuj Pinus pumila a Alnus fruticosa.
Pevldaj stle lesn druhy, avak vce bvaj zastoupeny kapraorosty (nap. Dryopteris expansa) a zstupci eledi Ericaceae. Vegetan stupe zasahuje na horn hranici lesa, kter se nachz v nadmoskch vkch okolo 800 m n.m., v blzkosti pobe pak ne. Ve vt me se tak zanaj uplatovat horizontln srky.
Z druh, kter v tomto VS vyznvaj, je mon zmnit nap. Lonicera coerulea, Lonicera chamissoi, Ledum palustre, a tak ob bzy, ze synuzie bylin pak Cypripedium guttatum subsp. yatabeanum, Lycopodium clavatum, Maianthemum bifolium, Orthilia secunda, Trillium camtschatcense, aj.
3. Vegetan stupe Pinus pumila - Alnus fruticosa Vegetan stupe borovice zakrsl a oliky je charakteristick vyznvnm lesnch druh a nstupem flry horsk tundry.
Zprvu pomrn kompaktn porosty Pinus pumila a Alnus fruticosa, v nich se jet jednotliv mohou vyskytovat i bzy, se postupn rozvoluj, m vznikaj travinobylinn spoleenstva se subalpnskou a alpnskou kvtenou. Stupe zasahuje piblin do nadmosk vky 1000 m n. m.
Z devin se vraznji zanaj uplatovat rododendrony (Rhododendron aureum a R. kamtschaticum), dle Ledum decumbens, Salix arctica, Arctous alpina aj. V synusii bylin se objevuj Anemone narcissiflora subsp. sibirica, Castilleja pallida, Coptis trifolia, Phyllodoce coerulea, Poa malacantha. Mezi vyznvajc naopak pat Rosa amblyotis, Sorbus sambucifolia, Juniperus sibirica, Clematis fusca, Atragene ochotensis, Linea borealis, Cacalia kamtschatica, Gymnocarpium dryopteris, Heracleum lanatum, Lycopodium annotinum, Streptopus amplexifolius, Phegopteris connectilis, atd.