«МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования «НАЦИОНАЛЬНЫЙ ИССЛЕДОВАТЕЛЬСКИЙ ...»
One of the problems of field development is an inefficient injection. The consequence of such injection is a formation of pressure decline. The main problem of the Igolskoe field is that pressure declines in several blocks during the cumulative and current overcompensation (cumulative compensation 117%, current compensation 119%). It means that volume of injected water is higher than volume of produced liquid. Theoretically, good sweeping efficiency suggest ing all the injected water is fully utilized to push the oil towards the producers without any wastage of the injected water.
Field practice shows different causes of inefficient water injection and pressure decline . These causes fall into two categories related to geological features of the reservoir, and to mechanical and artificial problems.
An accurate reservoir description – the internal, three-dimensional variation of reservoir rock properties – is es sential to effective reservoir management. Knowledge of reservoir geology is particularly important to predict reservoir performance [4-6]. Otherwise, there can appear errors in geological modeling and incorrect interpretation of the geology.
Causes related to geology and insufficient reservoir description:
1) Presence of highly-permeable layers (HPL), which were not identified earlier, during geological interpreta tion. The consequences of this are the following: water can flow in undesirable direction to other layers;
to other produc tion wells or flow in an aquifer . Production logging (PL) data allow to analyze profiles with obvious flow in one per foration. The profiles where there is directional flow in one perforation (interlayer) constitute more than 80% of total flow in a well. Analysis of PL data showed that there are only 8 injection wells with such profiles. These wells were ana lyzed in order to locate abnomally high injectivity and they were compared with regions of pressure and water loss, but there are no relations with regions of low pressure. According to the analysis of logging data obtained from these wells SP curves show a smooth change in properties, without leaps and fluctuations, inside the layer U1(2). In addition it is confirmed from the  that the layer U1(2) does not contain highly permeable layers.
2) Naturally fractured rather than porous reservoirs. Water can migrate not only through pore channels but frac tures as well. Moreover, simulation of fractured reservoir and porous reservoir is different. As a consequence there is insufficient maintenance of reservoir pressure. According to  the upper Jurassic deposits mainly the layer U1(2) of field I is a porous formation. The analysis of indicator researches confirms a facial model of the field.
3) Presence of faults which can result in water loss and pressure decline as there can be poor hydrodynamic in teraction between blocks of faults and water injected in a certain zone may not influence the pressure in the other section.
ПРОБЛЕМЫ ГЕОЛОГИИ И ОСВОЕНИЯ НЕДР According to "Tectonic Map of Jurassic structural layers of sedimentary cover of western areas of Tomsk region and seismic section of field I there are no faults.
Causes related to mechanical/artificial problems:
4) Autohydraulic fracturing (HF) which is a formation of fractures in injection wells due to high injection pressure. It can lead to uncontrolled growth of fractures and water leakage into the underlying horizons and injection water loses. In the field the injection pressure is commontly higher than reservoir fracturing pressure, as a result autohy draulic fracturing (HF) occurs in the injection wells. The results of indicator researches (see Table) showed that almost the entire volume of injected indicator that comprised about 95% by injected mass (indicator tests №1, №2, №3) was taken from nearby production wells. Only in the injection well №6 77% of indicator was lost and 23% of it was taken from nearby wells. This can be explained by the fact that this well is located between inner and outer oil-water contact and the water was most likely lost in aquifer. Subsequently, it can be deduced that the fractures were formed by auto HF distributed within a producing formation U1(2) in the desired direction, and the water loss is not related to fractures.
5) The leakages, cracks, bad cement quality and annular circulation in the injection wells.
Comparatively high losses identified in the wells №4 (11.7% loss) and №5 (34.4% loss) are explained by the fact that in these wells the leakage of string was detected. So there is a possibility that there are water losses in the injec tion wells with leakages.
Table Results of indicator research № of Ind. test 1 2 3 4 5 Total amount of produced indicator, % 93,8 92,3 95,40 88,3 65,6 Ineffective injection, % 6,2 7,7 4,60 11,7 34,4 77, Then the production logging data and high injectivity well analysis was carried out. It was identified that wells (from 87) had been operating with abnormal injectivity for the last 6 months (Figure). The objectives of PL are to locate casing leaks, tubing leaks, packer leaks, behind the casing flow, communication through the annulus due to poor cement, and thief zones . The PL research was conducted in 161 injection wells. In 53% of wells the research (to de termine the leakage) was carried successfully and while in 47% it did not reach the desired objective. The leakage was detected in about 25% of wells.
The results of comparison of high injection rate wells with PL data show that in 66% (23 wells) of the high in jectivity wells leakages are supposed to occur, in 17% (6 wells) of wells leakages were not detected, and in 17% (6 wells) of wells PL was not carried out successfully. Thus it can be said that 66% of high injectivity wells are with leakages, that confirms their high injectivity (see the Figure). It explains abnormally high injectivity in those wells. Consequently, the great amount of the water is, probably, lost in these wells. The regions of wells with leaks were compared with low pres sure blocks and as it can be seen from the Figure, they coincide. Thus it can be concluded that the fundamental cause of ineffective water injection and low reservoir pressure in such blocks is the leakages, thief zones and problems with con nection's integrity in the injection wells.
Fig. Relations between location of high injectivity wells with leaks and blocks with low reservoir pressure injectivity from 100 to 150 m3/day with leakages/ annulus circulation injectivity more than 150 m3/day PL unsuccessful (no information) no leakages/ anulus circulation blocks with low reservoir pressure The next step was the analysis of the injection wells behavior in the simulation model and ineffectively injected water volume evaluation. The wells with significant difference in simulated and actual injection were selected, thus there were 15 wells chosen for the analysis. It can be said that the leaks in these wells make the largest contribution to field water loss and pressure decline.
Recommendations and results Секция 20. GEOLOGY, MINING AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING (ENGLISH, GERMAN) As it was proved the main cause of pressure decline and inefficient water injection is leakage, behind the casing flow and thief zones in the injection wells. It is recommended to carry out repair and insulation works (RIW) in those wells with leakages and significant overinjection, as these wells have main influence on water loss and pressure decline in the field I, and to carry out PL in the wells with high injection rates in which PL researches were carried out unsuc cessfully. There are also possibilities of overinjection.
Conclusion The fundamental cause of water loss and low reservoir pressure on the Igolskoe field is the leakages, cracks in injectivity tubing, thief zones and problems with connection's integrity in the injection wells, due to which water is lost.
Furthermore, low-quality of cementation works or cement distraction around the casing can be the cause of water flow in lower/upper non-productive but permeable horizons as well, all this leads to water losing and insufficient efficiency of reservoir pressure maintenance system.
The wells with high overinjection were chosen for a detailed analysis which showed water and pressure loses in I field barely depend on geological and facial structure of the field I, as well as autohydrofracturing in the injection wells.
Consequently it is recommended to carry out RIW to remove leakages and make RPM system more efficient.
References 1. Cased Hole Log Interpretation Principles/Applications, Schlumberger, 1997.
2. Essen G.M., SPE, Zandvliet M.J., SPE, Van den Hof P.M.J., Bosgra O.H., Jansen J.D., SPE, Delft, Robust Waterflooding Optimization of Multiple Geological Scenarios // SPE Journal. – 2009. – № 1. – pp. 202 210.
3. Geological structure and petroleum potential of Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous sediments of south-east of West Siberian plate/ V.S. Surkov., 2006. 258 p.
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF OPERATING NATURAL GAS FIELD (ORENBURG CONDENSED GAS DEPOSIT) T.V. Kozyreva, O.S. Dmitrieva Scientific advisors associate professor N.V. Krepsha, assistant D.S. Malukova National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia Orenburg gas condensate deposit (OGCD) is situated beside Orenburg within Volga-Ural oil and gas province.
The main extracted gas is methane. It is recovered from 1300 -1800 m. Gas condensate from Orenburg deposit has vari ous kinds of colours from colourless to black and it contains 76 g/m3 methane. It also includes 47 % of hydrogen sulfide, 3 % of carbon dioxide from general structure.  Further environmental impact of polluting substance from Orenburg condensed gas deposit will be considered.
Gas production industry is mainly presented by stationary sources of Gazporm dobycha Orenburg. There are exhaust of construction equipment and mechanics, motor transport, boiler and portable electrical power plant working on fuel oil and gas ;
hydrocarbons form fuels and lubricants stores, filling station, fuel tank;
smoke from engines, burning re mains of wood and constructional materials (Tab. 1).
Table Concentration pollutant in atmosphere in cities of Orenburg (according to date of 2009)  Name Hazard Average annual Maximum single Number of ran- Maximum permissible class concentration, concentration, dom exceedings, concentration (MPS) mg/m mg/m3 mg/m3 air pollutant in work space, mg/m Methane 2 0,8 8,4 10,5 2, Carbon monoxide 4 0,7 2,0 2,8 Nitric oxide 3 0,45 1,3 2,9 0, Sulphur dioxid 3 0,35 1,7 4,85 Formaldehyde 2 1,9 2,6 1,4 0, TOTAL 22,45 17, Another source of air pollution is industrial enterprises, oil-processing industry, mechanical engineering, heat and power engineering, motor and rail transports.
Total amount of polluting substances from stationary source of limited company Gazporm production Oren burg is 905 000 tons, 50 % of which was conditionally cleared.
Structure of air pollution (Fig.): the bulk is methane – 63,3 %, carbon monoxide – 25,2 %, nitric oxide – 6,5 %, sulphur dioxide – 3,2 %.  ПРОБЛЕМЫ ГЕОЛОГИИ И ОСВОЕНИЯ НЕДР 3,2% 6,5% methane carbon monoxide 25,2% nitric [nitrogen] oxide 63,3% sulphur dioxide Fig. Structure of emissions from OGCD Gazporm dobycha Orenburg belongs to 3rd hazard class according to air pollutant mass and species composi tion. As we can see in the table, random exceedings of MPC are 22,45 mg/m3 but maximum permissible concentration air pollutant in workspace proper supposed to be 17,9 mg/m3. Methane, nitric oxide, formaldehyde exceed maximum per missible concentration several times.
Condensed methane gas deposit has bad influence not only on atmosphere but also on lithosphere and hydros phere, flora, fauna and on a human. The theresults of environmental impact assessment on atmosphere by OGCD is given in Table 2.
Table Environmental impact assessment of condensed gas deposit  Stationary source of Gazporm production Orenburg Nature-conservative measures Atmosphere Exhaust of building machines and mechanics, motor transport, Hermetization of gathering facili boiler and mobile power plants with burning oil and fuel gas;
ties, transport, storing, oil and gas hydrocarbons store of fuels and lubricants, filling station, fuel processing;
utilization of associated tank;
smoke from engines, burning remains of wood and petroleum gas, flares liquidation;
building materials exhaust drilling gas recovery;
Analysis of ecological condition of Orenburg region gives reasons to characterize it as area with comparatively complicated environmental situation. To sum up, operating condensed gas deposit has bad influence on environment.
There are natural gas release exceeding MPC and which are created by development and transportation. To avoid it some nature-conservative measures need to be taken. Some measures for atmosphere protection were offered to Gazporm dobycha Orenburg. It includes hermetization of gathering facilities, transport, storing, oil and gas processing;
utilization of associated petroleum gas, flares liquidation;
exhaust drilling gas recovery. These measures abidance will assist emis sion decrease in the area.
References Mountain encyclopedia/ edited by. Е. А. Kozlovsky. — М.: Encyclopedia of the Soviet Union, 1984.
2. Ivanov S.I. The problem of environmental pollution from operating natural gas field with complex composition.
Environmental monitoring // Environmental protection in oil and gas industry. – Moscow, 2010. – pp. 2 – 7.
Environmental report from joint-stock company «Gazpom», 2009. –17 p.
Practical manual for specialty № 11-101-95 for development section "Environmental impact assessment" 4.
substantiation of investment for building enterprises, buildings and constructions. – Moscow, 1998.
Tetelmin V.V., Yazev V.А. Environmental protection in oil and gas industry. – Dolgoprudny, 2009.
6. Maximum permissible concentration air pollutant in workspace, 2003.
PAST AND FUTURE OF KUZBASS OIL L.К. Kudryashova Scientific advisors associate professor T.A.Gaydukova, senior teacher T.F. Dolgaya National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia It is generally agreed that the coal and oil together – the incompatible concepts, i.e. where there is one thing, it is meaningless to look for another, in spite of a unified organic theory of the formation of these minerals. But, as practice shows, this assertion is not always true, or more precisely – is not true at all. Donetsk, Pechora and other coal-bearing Секция 20. GEOLOGY, MINING AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING (ENGLISH, GERMAN) basins may serve as an example, where considerable reserves of oil and natural gas have been found. There are even some more examples.
Moreover, figuratively speaking, «the oil is found in large quantities even within coal layers». For example, in the Kuzbass, fat coal of Kolchuginsky suite of wide distribution, can serve as a powerful resource base for oil-like liquid products along with Barzas sapropel coal – excellent source material for oil-like products. Thus in this case, the coal spe cialization of Kuzbass confirms rather than refutes the possibility of opening major oil and gas deposits.
We can do a survey to carry out prospecting for oil and gas in the Kuzbass, having considered the views of some scientists on the petroleum potential of the Kuzbass, depending on the degree of geological and geophysical know ledge of mineral resources and justifying the return on resuming the search for oil and gas, considering the current eco nomic development of the Kuznetsk Basin.
Today, the problem of oil production and refining is very important in the world. Most Kuzbass geologists are the ones with whom we have to discuss this question, answer in an affirmative, while among oil specialists of Tomsk and Novosibirsk there are just fans of Kuzbass oil. And it is not surprising, because their teachers were the masters of petro leum geology – O.G. Jero, V.S. Muromtsev, F.K. Salmanov, I.A. Ivanov, N.P. Zapivalov, N.N. Rostovtsev, who began their working career in the Kuzbass.
But the fact is the oil hasn’t been found in Kuzbass area. Why? Ask the professionals and in return there is only a sarcastic smile, hiding an 80-year long dramatic history of oil exploration in the Kuzbass.
It turns out that the first liquid oil in Kemerovo region was discovered in 1955 near the village of Uzuntsy in the southern Kuzbass. Then, similar oil shows were observed in some other parts of the region. Very interesting data are gathered by geologists of the Kuzbass indispensable companions of oil – bitumen. Based on the expansion of the oil shows and bitumen, scientists and experts estimate the probable reserves of oil and gas condensate in the Kuznetsk Basin by 860.8 million tonnes. The amounts, which correspond to more, than 10 large or 40 medium-sized reserves of liquid hydrocarbons. Having these prospects for the discovery of oil commercial deposits, Kemerovo region may well provide itself and nearby regions with its own oil and gas for many decades .
Targeted research and drilling activities in the period from 1958 to 2000 were not conducted. The most active oil exploration in the Kuzbass was conducted in the period from 1938 to 1959, but was suspended after the discovery of large deposits in the West Siberian Plain.
What is the cause of previous oil exploration failure in Kemerovo region? Professionals think that not in a lack of favorable structures for oil deposits formation, but mainly in the specific character and complexity of the geological structure of the Kuzbass, compared with that of the West Siberian plate. The fact is that the Kuznetsk depression is a typical intermountain trough.
There are many reasons to confirm why the basic productive horizons in the central part of the basin remained unopened: failures in Kuzbass oil exploration were accompanied by engineering deficiency.
In 1997, the western region held deep geophysical surveys, which revealed a series of geological structures for commercial oil or gas condensate. At the end of 2001 in Belovo area the first in the Kuzbass region key "Podnadvigovaya number 1" was constructed. Its project depth – was 5000 meters. Besides the main purpose of studying the geological structure of deep-lying Lower Paleozoic age deposits, the geologists were challenged to identify potential oil reservoir rocks and rock-caps. The well was supposed to cross the entire coal-bearing sequences, which are complicated by the disjunctive dislocations. Geological information on the "Podnadvigovaya number 1" could be decisive for further oil exploration in the region. However, there are still some difficulties.
Three long years passed from the well design to the start of drilling. In 2001 near the village of Novobachaty geologists began to work, but in February 2002, the works were stopped at the depth of 585 meters due to the suspension of public financing. The well was «dying» with millions of rubbles already invested. Accordingly, the prospects for Kuz bass oil and gas were escaping. It is worth emphasizing that this was not the first abandoned intent of a promising find ing.
Let’s consider the views of some scientists and geologists on the prospects of oil-bearing Kuzbass strata.
In 1932, I.M. Gubkin put forward the idea of possible oil - bearing structures in the Kuznetsk Basin. The main points in favor of the successful Gubkin decision are the following:
1. The presence of the Devonian liptobiolithic coal and oil shales capable to be transformed into the source rock;
2. Numerous shows of bitumen in Devonian north-eastern Kuzbass margin;
3. Certain similarity of the geological Kuzbass structure with Appalachian oil-bearing regions in North Ameri ca, where rich deposits of oil and gas are confined to the rocks underlying coal-bearing deposits.
To clarify these states of affairs, I.M. Gubkin offered to drill a rotary deep hole in the central part of Kuzbass.
Gubkin believed that coal and oil are the caustobioliths of the same origin. He also believed that the vein Kuz bass asphaltites formed due to oil, rising through fissures from the deeper horizons of the Kuznetsk Basin. He considered that the asphalt is the final product of liquid oil weathering.  Another scientist – M.K. Korovin – in 1927 while studying tectonics and stratigraphy of the Ob-Yenisei inter fluves in the south-east part of the West Siberian Plain suggested the prospects for oil and gas in that region.  He be lieved that according to the medium and the Upper Paleozoic formations structure and facies composition it is better to distinguish a system of bays, lagoons of the Ob-Yenisei sea, later developed into the intermountain basins - the structure, particularly favorable for oil accumulation. These are Kuznetskaya and Minusinskaya, Chulym-Yeniseiskaya, Biisk Barnaulskaya, Zaisanskaya and Taimyrskaya.
Intermountain troughs of the system and especially the Kuznetskaya and Minusinskaya Basins in the Middle and Upper Paleozoic were often characterized by lagoon conditions and semi marine regime.
ПРОБЛЕМЫ ГЕОЛОГИИ И ОСВОЕНИЯ НЕДР Despite the fact that from 1933 to 1958 minor oil shows were identified in the Kuznetsk Basin. Petroleum geol ogists, oil companies still continue to study the properties of this oil and its origin .
Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, M.D. Skursky, believed that the Paleozoic-Mesozoic Kuz netsk Basin is rich in carbon-bearing carbonate-black shale, oil shale, argillaceous rocks, capable under favorable condi tions to produce oil that looks like a sponge, and can soak up the mantle carbohydrates, converting them into oil.
Kuzbass scientist L.I. Solovyev also drew some conclusions on oil from the Kuznetsk Basin, made its classifi cation and synthesized the information obtained during drilling.
Bitumen, oil and gas shows are direct signs of oil and gas. In the Kuzbass region more than 600 of these seeps are known, and they are distributed throughout the sedimentary strata, from the Devonian and to the lower divisions of the Cretaceous period.
Bitumen shows in the Kuznetsk Basin occur in the outcrops, mines, wells in many areas. The complete absence of oil phenols and alkenes excludes the coal origin of oil.  The chemical properties of oil in Tomsk region are similar to those of the first class oils.
An interesting assessment of petroleum potential of the Kuznetsk Basin was given by V.S. Muromtsev. Accord ing to the current understanding of the organic origin of oil and anticlinal theory of occurrence, he outlined the basic cri teria for evaluating oil and gas prospects.  The scheme of the possible distribution of facies favorable for oil formation was made.
Muromtsev also paid special attention to the tectonic background of oil formation. In the Kuznetsk Basin, on the basis of this, he identified the following types of deposits:
• Structural deposits;
• Litho-stratigraphic reservoirs;
• The deposits associated with the fractured zones in the rocks.
The geologist from Novosibirsk – Zapivalov believes that the Paleozoic geological-structural level as a whole in Western Siberia is traceable by the littoral in the Kuzbass, and promising for finding high-flow-rate oil and gas depo sits. Paleozoic is considered to be the main source of increasing resource base of oil and gas provinces.
Despite the validity of high availability of oil prospects in the Kuznetsk Basin, well drilling is not conducted.
Today they prefer not to extract, but refine oil from other regions.  Nowadays, there are many different views, opinions on the prospects of oil and gas in Kuzbass;
most of which are confirmed by practice. But, while the coal industry has enormous potential, there is no hope for oil exploration and production.
References Korovin M.K. Oil-bearing prospects in Western Siberia. – Novosibirsk, 1945.
2. Muromtsev V.S. Evaluation of oil and gas potential of the Kuznetsk Basin // Geology and petroleum potential of Kuzbass: Proceedings SNIIGGiMS. – Leningrad, 1959. – № 4. – pp. 276 – 290, 3 – 11.
Romanova N. In the Kuzbass coal engaged in oil // Science in Siberia. – Novosibirsk, 2008. – № 33.
Soloviev L.I. Geography of the Kemerovo region. Nature. – Kemerovo: «SKIF» - «Kuzbass», 2006. – pp. 113 – 115.
5. Skursky M.D. Gold-rare-earth rare-metal-neftegazougolnye fields and their prediction in the Kuzbass // GOU VPO «Kuzbass State Technical University» – Kemerovo: Kuzbassvuzizdat, 2005. – 627 p.
6. Vasilyev B.D. By the 120th of Lenin Prize Laureate Professor MK Korovin. // Proceedings of the TPU. Exploration and development of oil and gas fields. – Tomsk, 2002. – Vol. 305. – № 8. – pp. 6 – 8.
Vorobev V., Bezenchuk M. Oil Kuzbass to better pore // MC in the Kuznetsk Basin (regional weekly). – Kemerovo, 7.
2002. – № 30.
GEOCHEMISTRY OF BEITIANTANG DISTRICT’S GROUNDWATER E.A. Kupriyanov Scientific advisors professor S.L. Shvarsev, associate professor L.V. Nadeina National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia The chemical composition of groundwater of district Beitiantang To study the groundwater of Beitiantang district (China, Beijing) were used the results of chemical analysis of water samples from 19 wells. Total mineralization varies from 0,6 to 1,8 g/l, it means, that here, both fresh and light– salted water might be observed.
The pH value varies from 7,0 to 7,8. According to pH value, the water is mostly neutral, although there might be alkalescent water (in the northern part of the area).
Ionic composition of groundwater is represented mainly by ions HCO3–, SO42–, NO3–, Cl–, Ca2, Mg2, Na and K.
The predominant anion of groundwater is Hydrogen – ion (varies from 0,2 to 0,6 g / l, the average– 0.3 g / l) which is mainly widespread in the south–west of the investigated area.
The content of chloride – ion varies from 0,05 to 0,4 g / l, average value is 0.2 g / l. There is also sulfate – ion, whose concentration varies from 0,08 to 0,2 g / l, average value is 0.1 g / l. The dependence of the content of the anions is shown in Figure 1, which indicates that with the salinity increase, the concentration of the main ions also increases.
Секция 20. GEOLOGY, MINING AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING (ENGLISH, GERMAN) 700, 600, Ion content, mg/l HCO3 500, Cl 400, 300, 200, SO42 100, 0, 500 1000 1500 Mineralization, mg /l Fig. 1. The dependence of the content of the main anions of groundwater of Beitiantang district Calcium strongly dominates among the cations (varies from 0, 08 – 0, 2 g / l, its average content is – 0,1 g / l).
Calcium is mainly presented in the western part of the investigated area area. The second–largest cation in content is – magnesium – 0,037 – 0,1 g / l (average value is – 0,07 g / l). Natrium – 0,07 – 0,2 g / l (average content is – 0,01 g / l).
The content of potassium is very small in comparison with calcium ions (the average content of K is 0,001 – 0, 01 g / l).
As it is seen in Figure 2, the content of Ca2, Mg2, Na, as well as the content of major anions, increases with the amount of ions.
300, 250, Ca2+ 200, Ion content, mg/l Na+ 150, 100,0 Mg2+ 50, K+ 0, 500 1000 1500 Mineralization, mg/l Fig. 2. The dependence of the content Ca 2 +, Na +, Mg2 + and K + groundwater of Beitiantang district on mineralization.
According to the classification of O. Alekin, the groundwater of district Beitiantang is predominantly hydrocar bonate calcium – magnesium and it is only the results of analysis of 6 wells which show the predominance of chloride anion whose circulation area coincides with the circulation area of calcite.Consequently, the southwestern region of the investigated area is more mineralized, and the basic elements of which, as mentioned above, include bicarbonate and calcium.
For a general brief characteristic of the chemical composition of water, its main features are combined in one formula, which is called after the prominent Russian scientist, M. Kurlov and is widely used for mineral water.
Microcomponent composition in the results of analysis is presented very poorly. There are no such important microcomponents for the study as Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, etc. Those components which are available such as (Fe, Mn, and F) do not significantly affect the overall picture of the chemical composition of groundwater. Iron is almost absent. It was probably due to the fact that the samples with water stayed motionless for a long time, as a result the component precipi tated.
Equilibrium of groundwater of Beitiantang district with carbonate and sulfate minerals The composition of the groundwater cannot be understood without considering the equilibrium in the «water– rock» system. The paper analyzes the equilibrium of the groundwater with carbonate and sulfate minerals.
The calculation of the equilibrium of water with the rocks was carried out by the method described in R. Gar rels and Ch. Christ (1968) for the temperature of 25 0C (standard conditions). The calculations needed to calculate the reaction kvotant of active component concentrations were done using the software package HydroGeo, created by M.
Bukaty. The question about the direction of the transformation of mineral substance in the prevailing hydro geochemical conditions was carried out using the stability fields of minerals, built in different coordinates. Since each sedimentary ПРОБЛЕМЫ ГЕОЛОГИИ И ОСВОЕНИЯ НЕДР rock is an aggregate of paragenetic association of mineral and organic components and the liquid–fluid phase, the system «water – rock» refers to the most complex heterogeneous systems with interphase interaction . The investigation of the geochemical characteristics of groundwater is essential for studying their interactions with the host rocks, and for deter mining their degree of saturation in carbonates under standard conditions.
The complexity and directivity occurring in the system of the processes as well as the variety of patterns and the formation of secondary mineral phases and geochemical environments, forms of transporting of many chemical ele ments and compounds used in searching can be estimated on the basis of thermodynamic calculations with charting the stability of minerals.
According to the values of the solubility of minerals of underground water first things which are crystallized during the evaporation of water are the carbonates of alkaline–earth metal. This stage is common for the underwater of different hydrochemical types. Initially, there is the crystallization of calcite but the sequence of deposition of other car bonates depends on the concentration ratio of the remaining Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions in solution. Thus, Mg / Ca 7 leads to the formation of dolomite, and in Mg / Ca 40 Dolomite changes into magnesite.
Among the carbonate minerals, the most widespread is calcite, therefore, firstly, we will consider its state of equilibrium with the groundwater of the investigated area.
The diagram with water saturation shows the lines of the equilibrium with calcite at a given temperature. If the points which characterize the composition of specific samples of water are above the line, then the groundwater is satu rated in calcium carbonate, and if below – it is not saturated (Figure 3).
- -2, - lg [Ca2+] Calcite -3, - -4, Aqueous solution - -5, - -6 -5 -4 -3 - lg [CO32-] Fig. 3. Equilibrium diagram of groundwater with calcite at 18 ° C. Beitiantang district The diagram clearly shows that underwater, in most cases, is saturated to calcite. A similar pattern is observed with the saturation of water in relation to dolomite (Figure 4).
- - - [Mg2+Ca2+] Dolomite - - - Aqueous solution lg - - - -12 -10 -8 -6 - lg [CO32-] Fig. 4. Equilibrium diagram of groundwater with dolomite at 18 ° C. Beitiantang district The chart shows that all the groundwater is saturated to dolomite and is able to swage it out of the solution at a given temperature.
At certain concentrations of residual carbonate ions and magnesium in solution after the deposition stage of cal cite can be formed magnesite. When interacting with magnesite (Figure 5) the balance of water with this mineral is also not observed. This is due to increased values of salinity, pH, and high activity Ca2+ ion, which becomes dominant.
Секция 20. GEOLOGY, MINING AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING (ENGLISH, GERMAN) - -2, -3 Magnesite -3, lg [Mg2+] - -4,5 Aqueous solution - -5, - -6 -5 -4 -3 - lg [CO32-] Fig. 5. Equilibrium diagram of groundwater with magnesite at 18 ° C. Beitiantang district The calculations revealed that the groundwater of Beitiantang is saturated to in relation to calcite, and is not sa turated to dolomite and magnesite, and therefore are not able to swage them in the form of secondary minerals. Carbo nates make up the newly formed secondary solid phase that is formed throughout the interaction time in the «water–rock»
system. The formation of carbonate minerals occurs during all the time on a regular pattern, which is determined by such parameters of the hydrogeological environment as pH, temperature and salinity of groundwater .
The next solid phase that is crystallized after calcium carbonate and magnesium is cast. For its formation it is necessary that groundwaters were saturated with cast.
In Figure 6 there is a chart of the equilibrium of groundwater with gypsum. It is seen that the underwater is un balanced with this mineral that is incapable of swaging it out of secondary minerals.
- Gypsum -2, - [Ca2+] -3, Aqueous solution -4.
lg -4, on mineralization.
- -5, -5 -4 -3 -2 - lg[SO42-] Fig. 6. Equilibrium diagram of groundwater with gypsum at 18 ° C. Beitiantang district The groundwater also does not reach equilibrium with epsomite and tenardit, which explains the relatively high concentrations of sulfate ions in groundwater (Figure 7).
Unlike clay and carbonate minerals, the balance of sulfate salts is often seasonal, which is set only in the driest period, when there is no precipitation and evaporation is particularly intense. Seasonal nature of equilibrium determines the seasonal and local formation of secondary salts .
ПРОБЛЕМЫ ГЕОЛОГИИ И ОСВОЕНИЯ НЕДР Epsomite -0, 4 Tenardit - -1,5 Aqueous solution - lg [Na+] lg [Mg2+] -2, Aqueous solution - - -3,5 - - - -4, - - -5 -4 -3 -2 - -5 -4 -3 -2 - lg[SO42-] lg[SO42-] A B Fig. 7. Equilibrium diagram of groundwater with epsomite (A) and tenardit (B) at 18 ° C. Beitiantang distric Assessment of the extent of groundwater contamination by chemical elements (Beitiantang area) Consider the chemical composition of groundwater of district Beitiantang in terms of its ecological status.
It is known, the chemical characteristics of groundwater is primarily determined by its genetic type. The amount of rainfall strongly affects its evaporation . The climate of the region is hot and evaporation dominates over precipitation, the landscape is steppe with small islands of vegetation. Accordingly, the studied underwater, can be attri buted by G. Kamensky to groundwater of continental salinity and salinity of groundwater is due to evaporation processes of the concentration of salts. It can be checked by using the relationship Cl/SO42–, the so–called chloride–sulphate ratio . If its value varies from 0,9 to 1,1, then the evaporation of water takes place (Figure 8).
Cl-/SO42- 2, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0 500 1000 1500 Total mineralization, mg/l Fig. 8. Dependence of chloride–sulfate ratio of the total mineralization.
The graph shows that not all points fall in this limit It can be concluded, if the value of this ratio is less than 0.9, then, in addition to the evaporation of water there is an additional source of sulfate. The same thing happens with the chloride at a value of chloride and sulfate ratio over 1.1 .
The chloride contamination is common in the west, northwest and southwest of the investigated area, whereas the sulfate contamination extends from north to south district. The areas, whose values fall in the range from 0,9 to 1,1, are located in the east, northeast and southeast of the investigated area.
It is also important to note that at this salinity maximum content of NO3– is 5.78 mg / l . But the results of chemical analysis of water samples, show that nitrate content exceeds permissible values ten times more, indicating sig nificant pollution of water by this component.
If to take into consideration water pollution by manganese and fluorine, it is negligible except for a few points:
the well J31, where the average content of F equal to 0 and only at this point there was a sharp jump to 1.9 mg / l, while the content of Mn, respectively, from 0 to 7.3 mg / l, which in nature cannot be (Figure 9).
Секция 20. GEOLOGY, MINING AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING (ENGLISH, GERMAN) 2, 8, F content, mg/l Mn content, mg/l 1,5 6, 1,0 4, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0 500 1000 1500 0 500 1000 1500 Mineralization, mg/l Mineralization, mg/l A B Fig. 9. Dependence of the content of F (A) and Mn (B) in the groundwater of mineralization (Beitiantang district) Mineralization, mg/l 0 500 1000 1500 46, 48, Depth, m 50, 52, 54, 56, Fig. 10. The dependence of the total mineralization of the depth of groundwater In general, we can conclude that groundwater status of the area from the point of view of ecology today is cha racterized as dysfunctional. There is an additional source of components such as NO 3–, SO42–, Cl–, and F and Mn. Such a source could be a huge waste landfill which existed on the study area before. Various household plastics, food waste, as well as a variety of other organic residues have negatively impacted on groundwater status in the region.
In favor of anthropogenic pollution of water is the fact that the mineralization with depth is not increasing, which is typical for the groundwater forming in vivo supergene zone. Maximum depth from which water samples were taken, salinity ranges from 700 to 800 mg / l, while the lowest – from 1200 to 1700 mg / l (Figure 10).
References Геологическая эволюция и самоорганизация системы "вода – порода": в 5 томах. Том 1. Гл. ред. Шварцев С.Л.
– Новосибирск: Издательство СО РАН, 2005. – 244 с.
Геологическая эволюция и самоорганизация системы "вода – порода": в 5 томах. Том 2. Гл. ред. Шварцев С.Л.
– Новосибирск: Издательство СО РАН, 2007. – 389 с.
Общая гидрогеология / С.Л. Шварцев. Учебник для вузов – М.: Недра, 1996. – 423 с.
Шварцев С.Л. Гидрогеохимия зоны гипергенеза. – М.: Недра, 1998. – 336 с.
DIE BENUTZUNG VON KOMPLEXEN TITANTETRACHLORID MIT VINYLMONOMEREN IN DER SYNTHRSE VON MODIFIZIERTEN PETROLEUMHARZ E.A. Kustova, T.V. Sinyavina Wissenschaftliche Betreuerinnen Dozentin L.I. Bondaletowa, Lehrerin S.W. Schestakova Nationale Polytechnische Forschungsuniversitt, Tomsk, Russland Die Anwesenheit von funktionellen Gruppen in Polymeren ermglicht chemische Modifikation, Strukturierung und andere polymeranaloge Umwandlungen, um Produkte mit einem bestimmten Satz von Eigenschaften zu erhalten.
Deshalb ist das Erhalten von Polymere mit reaktiven Gruppen in ihrer Zusammensetzung ein aktuelles Problem in der modernen petrochemischen Industrie.
Synthetische Analogen einiger Naturprodukte: Pflanzenl oder Holz-Harze sind kohlenwasserstoffenthaltende Petroleumharze, die neben den Vorteilen auch einige Nachteile haben. Die Verbesserung der Qualitt der Petroleumharze ПРОБЛЕМЫ ГЕОЛОГИИ И ОСВОЕНИЯ НЕДР und ihre Leistungsfhigkeiten kann durch ihr Modifizieren erreicht werden. Die modifizierenden Petroleumharze be kommt man durch Modifikation eines Ausgangsstoffes und Erdlharze.
Synthese von Erdlharze wird durch radikalische oder ionische Polymerisation von ungesttigten Kohlenwas serstoffen (Monomer), die der Rohstoff enthlt, durch den Bruch von Doppelbindungen oder ffnung von Zyklen durch gefhrt. Monomere (Styrol, Vinyltoluol, Dicyclopentadien, Inden, etc.), die sich in der Zusammensetzung der flssigen Pyrolyseprodukte enthalten, kommen leicht in eine kationische Polymerisation, die mit der Bildung von Carbokationen und mit nachfolgendem Transfer der positiven Ladung in der Kette verluft. Kationische Polymerisationskatalysatoren sind die Protonsuren und die aprotischen Sure. Breite Verwendung hatte Protonsure H2SO4. Die Verwendung dieses Katalysators verschlechtert aber die Farbe der hergestellenden Harze und der Prozess wird durch die Schwierigkeit der Entfernung aus Polymerisat hochmolekularer Sulfonsure und Sulfonsureester, die zur Bildung einer stabilen Emulsion fhrt, erschwert. Deshalb wird in den letzten Jahren H2SO4 bei der Polymerisation nicht verwendet und durch aprotische Katalysatoren und Katalysator-Systeme der Ziegler-Natta-Katalysatoren ersetzt. Letztere sind komplexe Verbindungen, die bei der Reaktion von Alkylderivate von Metallen der Gruppen I-III des Periodensystems mit Halogeniden der ber gangsmetalle (z. B. AlR3 und TiCl4) entstehen .
Polare Monomere wie Acrylnitril (AN) und Butylmethacrylat (BMA) werden aktiv durch radikalische oder anionische Mechanismen polymerisiert und knnen nicht durch kationische Mechanismus polymerisiert werden, weil sie eine geringere Elektronendichte an der Doppelbindung haben. Es ist bekannt die Mglichkeit der Polymerisation von polaren Monomeren unter der Einwirkung der Initiatoren auf Basis von bergangsmetallen .
Zugleich ist ein Verfahren von Erhalten der modifizierten Erdlharze durch Copolymerisation C 9-Fraktion der flssigen Pyrolyseprodukte von Kohlenwasserstoffen und Acrylmonomere unter der Einwirkung von Titantetrachlorid und die katalytische System Titantetrachlorid - Diethylaluminiumchlorid entwickelt. Acrylmonomer fungiert als ein komplexes Titantetrachlorid – Monomer – Titantetrachlorid .
In dieser Hinsicht ist das Ziel der Arbeit Untersuchung der Polymerisation von Monomeren Fraktion C9 der flssigen Pyrolyseprodukte unter der Einwirkung des Komplexes Titantetrachlorid – ein polarer Comonomer.
Als die polaren Comonomeren werden Butylmethacrylat und Acrylonitril bei 10% genommen.
Butylmethacrylat (Siedepunkt 163 C) und Acrylonitril (Siedepunkt 77,3 ° C) wurden von Hemmerstoff durch einfache Destillation unmittelbar vor jeder Synthese gereinigt. Titantetrachlorid wird mit der Qualifikation "hoher Reinheit" be nutzt und nicht weiter gereinigt.
Das Vorschungsobjekt ist C9-Fraktion, das im Temperaturbereich von 130 bis 190 C siedet.
Polymerisation von Monomere der Fraktion C9 wurde unter der Einwirkung der Komplexe von Titantetrachlorid und Butylmethacrylat, oder Titantetrachlorid und Acrylonitril der verschiedenen Strukturen durchge fhrt: Titantetrachlorid – Butylmethacrylat, 1 : 1 (moln.) – A1;
Titantetrachlorid – Butylmethacrylat, 1 : 2 (moln.) – A2;
Titantetrachlorid – Acrylonitril, 1: 1 (moln.) – B1, Titantetrachlorid – Acrylonitril, 1 : 2 (moln.) – B2, bei der Temperatur 80 C im Laufe von 2 Stunden. Dekontamination des Komplexes wurde mit Propylenoxid bei 10% berschuss durchge fhrt . Die erhaltenden Petroleumharze wurden zweierlei abgesondert: Entfernung von nicht umgesetzten Kohlenwas serstoffen bei Raumtemperatur und Atmosphrendruck, Rckstanden von Harz in Fllungsmittel – Ethanol (Verhltnis von Harz: Fllungsmittel ist 1: 5).
Bei der Addition zum Comonomer (Butylmethacrylat und Acrylonitril) bildet Titantetrachlorid farbigen Kom plex. Das wird durch Kernspinresonanz 1H-Spektroskopie (Tabellen 1 und 2) besttigt. Strukturformeln von Moleklen Butylmethacrylat und Acrylnitril mit der Benennung der Protonen sind an Abbildung dargestelt.
Abb. Strukturformeln von Butylmethacrylat (a) und Acrylnitril (b) Im Kernspinresonanz 1H-Spektroskopie der Komplexe wird Absetzung der Signale der olefinischen Protonen von Butylmethacrylat und Acrylnitril in schwachen Feld und Signale der metylenischen Protonen von Butylmethacrylat in -Stellung zum Sauerstoff der Estergruppe beobachtet (Tabellen 1, 2). Eine betrchtlichere Absetzung der Signale im schwachen Feld wird fr die Komplexe A1 oder B1, d.h. fr die Komplexe von Zusammensetzung 1: 1, beobachtet.
Polymerisation von Monomere der Fraktion C9 unter Einwirkung Komplexe A1 und A2 fhrt zur Bildung des Butylmethacrylat modifizierende Harzes mit Ausgang 26 – 35 % in Laufe 40 – 60 Minuten, aber unter Einwirkung Kom plexe B1 und B2 erhaltet das enthaltende Glied von Acrylnitril mit Ausgang 60 – 65 % in Laufe 20 Minuten Harze.
Секция 20. GEOLOGY, MINING AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING (ENGLISH, GERMAN) Tabelle Bedeutung von chemischen Wandlung der Protonen in einem Molekl Butylmethacrylat und Komplexe der Butylmethacrylat – Titantetrachlorid Bedeutung von chemischen Wandlung der Protonen,, m.T.
Substanz 1 2 3 4 5 6 Butylmethacrylat 5,469 6,024 1,870 4,078 1,570 1,340 0, Komplex A2 5,794 6,459 1,971 4,501 1,700 1,383 0, 0,325 0,435 0,101 0,423 0,130 0,043 0, * Komplex A1 5,981 6,62 2,069 4,632 1,780 1,460 0, 0,512 0,596 0,199 0,554 0,210 0,120 0, * * Die Differenz chemischer Wandlung der Proton von Monomer und Komplex Tabelle Bedeutung von chemischen Wandlung der Protonen in einem Molekl Acrylnitril und Komplexe der Acrylnitril – Titantetrachlorid Bedeutung von chemischen Wandlung der Protonen,, m.T.
Substanz 2а Acrylnitril 5,621 6, Komplex B2 5,847 6, 0,226 0, * Komplex B1 5,885 6, 0,264 0, * * Die Differenz chemischer Wandlung der Proton von Monomer und Komplex Die durch Trocknen isolierenden Harze, die unter Einwirkung Komplexe A1 und A2 (PH1 und PH2) hergestellt werden, sind in Xylol lsbar. Und die unter Einwirkung Komplexe B1 und B2 (PH3 und PH4) herstellende Harze werden verlieren die Lsbarkeit nach der Absonderung aus Reaktionslsung.
Alle in Ethanol rckstehenden Harze sind unlsbar. Deshalb sind Bedeckungen direkt von den Reaktionslsun gen durch Gieen bekommen. Sie haben Eigenschaften, die mit Standardmethoden im Vergleich zu den Eigenschaften von Anstrich auf Basis unmodifizierendes Harzes (ErdlharzC9) in Tabelle 3 dargestellt sind.
Die Tabelle 3 stellt dar, dass Haltbarkeit bei dem Schlag und Festigkeit von Erdlanstrich nahezu unverndert sind. Bei Anwendung des Titantetrachlorids in groen Mengen im Komplex wird Haltbarkeit der Harze, die sowohl Butylmethacrylat als auch Acrylnitril modifiziert sind, bei der Biegung betrchtlich gesunken. Die Adhsion des An strichs wird fr alle Anstriche auf Basis modifizierender Harze verbessert.
Tabelle Eigenschaften des Hutchens von Erdlharz Haltbarkeit bei dem Biegung, Haltbarkeit bei dem Schlag, Erdlharz Adhsion, grad Festigkeit mm zm Erdlharz С9 4 0,2 1 PH1 2 0,4 20 PH2 1 0,6 2 Ph3 2 0,2 20 PH4 2 0,2 1 Die so bekommenen Resultate zeigen, dass die Polymerisation der Monomeren der Fraktion C 9 unter Einwir kung Komplexe von Titantetrachlorid mit polaren Comonomeren Butylmethacrylat, Acrylnitril zur Herstellung modifi zierender Harze fhrt, bessere Adhsion haben.
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ПРОБЛЕМЫ ГЕОЛОГИИ И ОСВОЕНИЯ НЕДР Фитерер Е.П., Бондалетов В.Г., Бондалетова Л.И. Полимеризация высококипящих фракций пироконденсата на 6.
каталитических системах типа Циглера-Натта // Изв. вузов. Химия и хим. технология. – 2004. – Т. 47. – Вып 1. – С. 127 – 130.
MARINE SEISMIC SURVEYS IN THE ARCTIC D.A. Mikheenko Scientific advisors senior teacher V.V. Rostovtsev, associate professor N.Y. Gutareva National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia In 2008 USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) published their report about geological surveys carried out all over the world. Main objective of this survey was to detect the most appropriate and undiscovered oil basins and estimate re sources of hydrocarbons there. According to this report the largest undiscovered resources of hydrocarbons are concen trated in the Arctic. Of particular interest to scientists are certain territories like Arctic Alaska, Amerasian Basin, East Greenland Rift Basin, East Barents Basin and West Greenland-East Canada territory. These localities are expected to contain over 90 billion barrels of oil, 1669 trillion cubic feet of natural gas and 44 billion barrels of natural gas liquids .
Table Main Arctic hydrocarbon basins Main oil-bearing areas (million barrels of oil) Main gas-bearing areas (billion cubic feet of natural gas) Arctic Alaska 29960,88 West Siberian Basin 651498, Amerasian Basin 9723,58 East Barents Basin 317557, East Greenland Rift Basin 8902,13 Arctic Alaska 221397, East Barents Basin 7406, West Greenland-East Canada 7274, From the given above data it is obvious that 70% of the prospective oil reserves occur in five main provinces and more than 70% of undiscovered gas resources belong to the other three.
Arctic conditions are really tough and make a real trial for both living beings and equipment. The coldest month is January with temperature falling to 50 degrees below zero. This temperature is characteristic of Siberian Area in Arctic District – one of the coldest areas in the Arctic. Over the most extensive shelf area which contains oil deposits belonging to Arctic Alaska, the temperature is 36 degrees below zero in winter and 5 degrees above zero in June which is the warm est month there. The biggest part of Arctic water space is covered by migrating ice: approximately 11 million of km2 in winter and 8 million of km2 in summer. Such distinctive feature of the Arctic partly depends on solar radiation and per manent alteration of world drifts. Numerous icebergs and hummocks drifting among Franz Josef Land, Canada and Ca nadian Arctic Archipelago represent a real danger for vessels, which are necessary part of any survey.
With regard to marine seismic surveys, it should be pointed out that they are applicable for three main objec tives: for field prospecting, specification of information about previously found deposits and for hydrocarbon production control on a field . In this respect the Arctic is not an exception, however there are some limitations.
Vessel seismic surveys, commonly applied for field prospecting, can be employed in the Arctic as well but the procedures will vary. For instance, in iceless area 3-D seismic technology can be used as there is enough space for ma noeuvre of a vessel. 2-D survey can be used in this environment as well. East and South part of Barents Basin are among areas which remain iceless all the year round, that condition facilitates the application of both methods. On the contrary in waters of the Greenland Sea, which is covered by ice during the biggest part of the year, the conduct of vessel surveys may become problematic. However, even in this case it is possible to overcome this obstacle. Although application of special icebreaker can provide a chance to do 2-D seismic surveys, for 3-D surveys, iceless path in water will not be suf ficient to trail an entire 3-D array with at least 6 km length and 500 metres in width . The problem of dimensions of acquisition configuration is one of the main challenges related to seismic surveys in ice water. Even the smallest 2-D system (vessel + one streamer + one source) has the length of 6 km at least and it is hard enough to tow it directly behind the vessel along a tiny path through the ice. Nevertheless, Norway and Canada have already acquired some experience in this area.
The systems for seismic survey conducted in the Arctic are mainly based on the use of special bottom deployed equipment. The most sophisticated and wide-spread is Ocean Bottom Cable system (OBC), which is successfully utilized all over the world, thus it can become the subject of special interest.
The main distinctive feature of this system as compared with conventional systems is that there is no need to tow all the streamers behind the vessel. They are deployed on the sea bottom and the only thing to be towed is a source array. The employment of 4-C receivers (3 geophones and 1 hydrophone) provides an opportunity to get more accurate data on rock particle movement in any dimension. There are modifications of this system for 3-D marine seismic survey and for 4-D marine seismic exploration . Both of them have many features in common, but they are intended for dif ferent targets. The simple 3-D modification is intended for a single survey of the area while the second one is utilized for Секция 20. GEOLOGY, MINING AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING (ENGLISH, GERMAN) permanent reservoir monitoring. In comparison with conventional systems there are a lot of advantages of 3-D OBC sys tem modification. High accuracy and advanced processing data capability, facility to work in shallow water, virtually unlimited offsets, high spatial resolution, design flexibility and ability to obtain coverage in congested fields (if pipelines are at the bottom and rigs are near) are among them. Alongside with the whole range of the benefits there are some seri ous drawbacks, which can produce a number of difficulties and restrict the application of this method. The main and the most troublesome one is connected with fleet size. To conduct the survey it is vital to have at least three vessels at dis posal. The first and the second vessels will operate OBC systems and receive signals at the same time while the third one is used as a source. Moreover, one more vessel is needed, this one will be connected with all bottom cables and receive data from them. As this last vessel is equipped with major hardware and software it is usually the most expensive in a fleet. Moreover, this vessel causes a real problem for getting accurate data and doing all work in time. Permanent move ments and reconnections to bottom cables result in a great waste of time and fuel, and can bring about uncertainty in bot tom cables position. Currently there occurred a solution to this problem. It is connected with the usage of special re cording buoys instead of the main vessel. The system was first successfully tested on the Ekofisk field (North Sea) in the fall of 2002.
Geophone positioning brings about a different problem. When the array of plenty of geophones is being de ployed at the bottom it is necessary to consider that each of them should have an appropriate position which allows straight vertical resolution. That constitutes a challenge. There are some ways of solving this problem: to use Remote Operation Vehicles (ROV) to deploy our geophones and hydrophones, to add inclinometers to each geophone, to employ omnidirectional geophones or utilize special accelerometers instead of geophones. Application of ROVs and getting suf ficient accuracy increase cost of the surveys. Employment of streamers with inclinometers affects survey price and di mensions of the equipment. Omnidirectional geophones often influence signal-to-nose ratio in some data processing pro cedures (as a consequence, the usual frequency is 12-20Hz). Utilizing special accelerometers instead of geophones is not a new technology intended to solve the above mentioned problem. I/O Company with its VectorSeis accelerometer can serve as an example. This one is capable to determine vertical orientation with great accuracy - up to a few tenths of a degree. The entire system was named VSO (VectorSeis Ocean) and was tested with recording buoys on the Ekofisk field.
The first commercial VSO system with six cables was used in the Gulf of Mexico (in 2005) with approximately 1.500 4 component station on 25-meter spacing .
Many companies around the world utilize 4-D seismic surveys at the production stage to detect main fluid movements inside the formation i.e. to produce permanent reservoir monitoring. These surveys are also called 4-D seis mic surveys. As in the previous case OBC is the system commonly used around the world, but there is no need to use three or more vessels, two or even one is generally necessary in some cases. The first vessel is with sources and another one is needed to deploy the cables. In some instances it is possible to arrange the OBC system on the bed and forget about service of this vessel until the survey ends. The receiving vessel is not always required. The receiving stations may be located on the land, right in the sea or on the rig. It depends on the target of the survey – to explore exactly the single bordered area over a very long period. To arrange OBC like in the previously described case ROVs can be utilized .
Accelerometers can be used instead of geophones too. 4-D seismic surveys in the Arctic give a great opportunity to carry out and test new methods like OBC for operations in such tough conditions. An icebreaker to deliver the equipment on ice is one thing that is essential. The geophysicist crew should merely deploy all equipment in special observation station.
The subsequent exploration operations are carried out by ROVs. All the data will be transmitted to special stations by wireless connection with each other and main data analysis station. This idea may sound a bit weird, but there appeared some interesting patents in this area .
In conclusion it should be noted that the summary of investigations conducted in the Arctic environments is in tended to consider the prospects of Arctic exploration for Russia. As one of the biggest players on the Arctic field Russia has all the chances to become the main oil-producer and major country involved in shelf-exploration activities in this region. To set this objective is of the same importance as the task to achieve it. Nowadays Russia has insufficient experi ence in the fields of the Arctic research conduct, rig operation and special vessels engineering. The latest request of Rus sia to increase basic 322-km area of shelf boundaries was declaimed by the Commission. However, if we could prove that the Lomonosov and the Mendeleev ridges have continental origin, connected with Russian territory, we would have all the chances to get adjacent territories in our ownership. There were three main expeditions to the North Pole: Arctic 2005 to claim Mendeleev ridge in our property, Arctic-2007 to prove that Lomonosov ridge is a prolongation of Sibe rian continental shelf and Arctic-2010 to prove and confirm all the previous data. Russian officials claimed the applica tion to the Commission with the request of including both ridges in the shelf territory of Russia. That was feedback for the similar Canadian officials’ request.
Nevertheless, at present we should bear in mind to contribute to development of fleet for exploratory surveys and oil rig industry. There are several appropriate vessels which are able to carry out marine seismic surveys in Russia.
Most of them belong to Sevmorneftegeofizika and Dalmorneftegeofizika – the world-known companies, involved in marine geophysical surveys. The situation with oil rigs is vague – nowadays the country is forced to buy them abroad.
This branch of industry is really undeveloped in our country;
therefore Russian companies have to buy these construction assemblies in Norway – the world’s leader in this area. Thus, the Arctic exploration leadership requires development of oil rig construction facilities and the Arctic directed industry in general.
References 1. IAGC, Marine Seismic Operations Overview. 2002, March.
Musser J., Ridyard D., A Robust Approach to 4-D Obc Acquisition // Oil & Gas Eurasia. - 2005. - № 6.
ПРОБЛЕМЫ ГЕОЛОГИИ И ОСВОЕНИЯ НЕДР 3. Pat.PCT/US08/08400 USA. Undersea Seismic Acquisition Michael W. Norris, Marvin L. Johnson. Claimed.
4. USGS, Arctic Oil & Gas Resource Report. 2008.
GROUNDWATER OF THE BOTTOM CURRENT OF THE RIVER TOM AS A SOURCE FOR DRINKING WATER SUPPLY O.S. Naymushina Scientific advisors professor S.L. Shvartsev, associate professor I.A. Matveenko National ResearchTomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia Groundwater quality was studied in the right-bank part of the Tom river undercurrent valley within the bounds of the second terrace above the flood-plain (Figure). Two relatively small swamps are located here, which are poorly drained. Four small rivers flow in this area, but their discharge in the summer time is only 0.8 – 4.9 l/sec in the mouth part.
Fig. Arrangement scheme of the investigated area (M.A. Zdvizhkov) The climate of considered territory is acutely continental with clearly defined four seasons (winter, spring, summer, autumn). The average annual air temperature (data for Tomsk) is -0.6 0С. By the quantity of atmospheric preci pitation the given territory belongs to a zone of moderate humidifying. There are 517 mm on the average .
Deposits underlying swampy-lake sediments are represented by Oligocene-Quaternary argillo-arenaceous units with lavishly spread groundwater. Top of these deposits is built by thin (2 – 3 m) soft-permeable sandy clays, which serve as an underlying bed (though weak) for swamp waters, forming the perched water. Below sandy clays there mainly lie sand and gravel-pebble alluvial deposits with interbeds of clays and sandy clays, irregularly spread over the territory.
Grittiness of the section is high, reaching in places 90 – 95%. Sand composition is quartz-feldspathic showing its wea thering (authegene kaolinite). All this determines considerably high water abundance of these deposits: hydraulic conduc tivity values vary from 0.5 to 14 m/d specific discharge of well runs up to 0.03-35 l/sec, transmissivity rate reaches m2/d.
Gently hilly (horseback) relief, extensive atmospheric precipitates ( 500 mm/yr), insignificant evaporation, shallow bedding (4-6 m) of groundwater, and the presence of hydraulic connection between swampy (perched water) and ground waters contribute to bogging development. Specifically, bogginess is confined to the areas of occurrence of rela tively soft-permeable sandy clays, occupying the lower parts. It is important to note, that there is hydraulic connection between swampy and ground waters.
In the central part of investigated territory from August till December, 2009 104 samples from 13 wells have been selected. On a chemical compound groundwater are ultrafresh and moderately fresh (general mineralization fluc tuates from 90 to 300 mg/l), hydrocarbonate calcium, more rare hydrocarbonate calcium magnesium, neutral (рН makes 6.5 – 7.5). On rigidity waters are basically soft or average. Maintenances of chlorine- and sulfates-ions are rather low (less than 10 and 12 mg/l accordingly). Maintenances of NO3, PO4 and NH4, on the contrary, are a little raised. Ground water differ the high maintenance of iron that is explained by low Eh values of waters and the high maintenance of organ ic substances.
Quality of groundwater was estimated from two parties: first - from the point of view of water quality for the drinking purposes, secondly – from a medical and biologic position for normal functioning of a human body.
In the first case for an estimation of water quality standard regulations were used [2, 3], defining that the water arriving to the consumer, should be pleasant in organoleptic case and safe for health;
thus it is meant that the maintenance of harmful substances in water shouldn't exceed maximum permissible concentration.
Секция 20. GEOLOGY, MINING AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING (ENGLISH, GERMAN) In the second case the specifications of water quality developed by modern scientists taking into account ecolo gy were used: sizes of the bottom limits of biologically significant concentration (NPBZK) of components in the potable water , recommended limits (RP) of components maintenances in potable water , and also the method of an estima tion of potable water quality about their physiological adequacy for population health (Copt) .
Quality of groundwater of investigated territory for the drinking purposes was estimated on sixteen indicators.
According to three standard regulations were observed maximum concentration limit excess in underground samples on Fe maintenance, and also NH4 (Table).
Thereby, according to the sanitary regulations 184.108.40.2064-01  water on quality isn't suitable for the drinking purposes owing to raised maintenance Fe in spite of the fact that concentration of individual chemical substances 1 and classes of danger is in admissible limits.
According to the sanitary regulations 220.127.116.116-02  investigated water for the purpose for packing up on quality doesn't concern neither potable water of the first category, nor to potable water of the highest category, i.e. can't be used for sale in reservoirs.
From the point of view of an estimation of potable water quality about their physiological adequacy for popula tion health, on size of the bottom limits of biologically significant concentration (NPBZK) components in investigated waters slightly exceed maintenances of Ca, Mg and Fe;
on recommended limits - maintenances of hydrocarbonates and Ca;
on optimality coefficient basically all investigated groundwater are of 3 categories and also are "optimal" for popula tion health.
Table Indicators of quality of investigated water in comparison with recommended limits and maximum permissible concentration of components in potable water Сi/MPCi* Сi/MPCi* Сi/MPCi* Stand. Stand.
Content, Stand. Stand. Stand.
NPBZK Сi/ Compo- Reg. Reg. Stand.
mg/L RP  Ci/RPi Reg. Reg. Reg.
nent  NPBZKi 1116-02, 1116-02, Reg.
(Ci) 1116-02, 1116-02, 1074 - first c. highest c. 1074 - first c. highest c.
НСО3 219,2 50-160 1,37 - - 400 0,55 30-400 0,55 - Сa 52,8 15-30 1,76 27,5 1,92 130 0,41 25-80 0,66 - Mg 8,3 3-12 0,69 7,5 1,10 65 0,13 5-50 0,17 - 2 (по N) NH4 0,8 - - - - 0,1 8,0 0,05 16 0, Feобщ. 0,4 0,05 - 0,5 0,8 0,375 1,07 0,3 1,33 0,3 1,33 0,3 1, * - Maximum permissible concentration Thus, underground water of investigated territory possesses a specific chemical composition and can be suitable for the drinking purposes only after deironing.
References Евсеева Н.С. География Томской области. – Томск: Изд-во Том. ун-та, 2001. –222 с.
Санитарно-эпидемиологические правила и нормативы. Питьевая вода. Гигиенические требования к качеству 2.
воды централизованных систем питьевого водоснабжения. Контроль качества. СанПиН 18.104.22.1684-01. – М.:
Минздрав РФ, 2001. – 16 с.
Санитарно-эпидемиологические правила и нормативы. Питьевая вода. Гигиенические требования к качеству 3.
воды, расфасованной в мкости. Контроль качества. СанПиН 22.214.171.1246-02. – М.: Федеральный центр госсанэпиднадзора Минздрава России, 2002. – 27 с.
Барвиш М.В., Шварц А.А. Новый подход к оценке микрокомпонентного состава подземных вод, используемых 4.
для питьевого водоснабжения // Геоэкология. – 2000. – № 5. – С. 467 – 473.
Шварцев С.Л., Копылова Ю.Г. Оценка качества питьевой воды скважины «TWC» в процессе ее 5.
водоподготовки, поиск новых источников высоко качественной воды в районе г. Томска. Отчет о НИР. – Томск:
ТПУ, 2001. – 31 с.
Кац В.Е., Достовалова М.С. Оценка качества питьевых вод на предмет их физиологической полноценности 6.
для здоровья населения (на примере Республики Алтай) // Материалы науч. конф. «Проблемы поисковой и экологической геохимии Сибири». – Томск: Изд-во ТПУ, 2003. – С.231 – 232.
7. Shvartsev, S. L. 2008. Geochemistry of fresh groundwater in the main landscape zones of the Earth. Geochemistry International. 46 (13): 1285 – 1398.
ПРОБЛЕМЫ ГЕОЛОГИИ И ОСВОЕНИЯ НЕДР GAS FLOODING IN RUSSIA. REASONS AND CAPABILITIES A.M. Nelaev Scientific advisor associate professor A.A. Volf Tyumen State Oil and Gas University, Tyumen, Russia According to strong trend, the amount of hard-to-produce oil gets bigger, and recovery coefficient contrary brings down. This trend can be shown in Figure 1.
Fig. 1. Dynamics of hard-to-produce oil and recovery coefficient at Russian oilfields Because of that, we need to enhance recovery of the oil, using various techniques of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). One of such methods, which is the most effective, is gas flooding. Why is it so? Let’s observe Table 1, which demonstrates using of different EOR methods in the USA, the most developed country in this attention.
Table Current EOR projects in the USA Although we can observe reducing of general number of EOR projects, their amount and diversity is anyway bigger, than Russian ones. But among all the numbers of EOR projects in the USA we can emphasize gas flooding;
num ber of gas flooding projects gets bigger with every year. And the most popular kind of gas flooding is CO 2 injection.
Now let’s take a quick glance at the world map, where main CO2 projects are marked (Fig. 2).
As you can see, there are a lot of CO2 projects all around the world (although the USA and Canada are leaders), where CO2 injection is being implemented with various reasons. But if we concentrate our attention at the territory of Russia, we will understand that we have not such projects.
So what are the main advantages of CO2 over other displacing agents? Let’s take a look at Figure 3 and find them out.
The main feature of CO2 is its ability to be mixed with oil. Water can’t do this, so CO2 creates general mix with oil, and this general mix easily goes through the porous space.
So now let’s observe one of the brightest examples of CO2 projects all over the world. It is called Weyburn and it is situated in Canada – in country, where CO2 projects are also widespread (Fig. 4).
As you can see, Weyburn has standard oilfield history. First of all, usual water flooding was implemented, then they have drilled additional amount of vertical wells and, finally, additional amount of horizontal wells were also drilled at the Weyburn oilfield. All these methods gave them good amount of oil, but, when recovery started to get down, they have decided to use gas flooding as a way of EOR. And, as it is clearly shown at the picture, to 2010 they have already got additional recovery and, as prediction, they will have almost equal amount of oil, using CO2 injection at the oilfield.
Секция 20. GEOLOGY, MINING AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING (ENGLISH, GERMAN) Fig. 2. CO2 projects worldwide Fig. 3. How CO2 displaces residual oil Fig. 4. Weyburn success Now let’s discuss criteria for CO2 injection implementing – both for reservoir, oil in this reservoir and for the depth of CO2 injection.
For miscible displacement, depth must be great enough to allow injection pressures greater than the MMP, which increase with the temperature and for heavier oil. The recommended depths are given in Table 2.
As you can see, in the first part of the table I made comparison between proper parameters and Romashkinskoe oilfield, which can be a candidate for CO2 injection.
Finally, in this article we can make some conclusions about capabilities CO2 injection in Russia. Let’s take ex perience from The North America – the most successful region in CO2 flooding. Then let’s compare it with current situa tion in Russia and see, what we must do to successfully use gas flooding – and CO2 injection particularly – in Russia.
ПРОБЛЕМЫ ГЕОЛОГИИ И ОСВОЕНИЯ НЕДР Table Criteria for CO2 injection implementing Which reservoir to choose?
Criteria Romashkinskoe oilfield Crude oil Gravity, kg/m3 922 796 to Viscosity, cp 10 2, Composition High percentage of intermediates (C5 to C12) Reservoir Oil saturation, % 25 Type of formation Sandstone or carbonate Sandstone Porosity, % 15 15- Permeability, md 1 40- Which depth to choose?
Gravity, kg/m3 Depth, greater than, m 823 828 to 865 866 to 887 1 CO2 miscible 888 to 922 1 922 Fails CO2 screening 922 to 979 CO2 immiscible 979 Fails CO2 screening *MMP -Minimum Miscibility Pressure Table Key conclusions for CO2 injection implementing Parameter North America Russia CO2 sources There are many natural CO2 sources Not such amount of them, but it is that could provide the country with worth to mention Astrakhanskoe gas this gas. condensate field, which is really huge and can be compared with North American analogs.
Such fiscal projects don’t exist, so it is Fiscal regime There are tax reductions for EOR projects (but different rules from state worth to pay attention on this very to state). important economic factor.
Infrastructure New pipelines were rapidly developed As CO2 injection is not that popular in to feed CO2 into areas with mature oil Russia, the development of such pipe fields. lines is not in the process.
Low CO2 and transportation costs The cost for delivered CO2 costs has Again, because of not that wide usage dropped approximately 40 % since the of CO2 injection, price drops were not 1980s. made.
Screening methods to reduce risks CO2 Companies has developed proven We can use same criteria and it is also tools to help to select the best CO2 possible to take North American expe flood candidates. rience. Of course, we must take into consideration local peculiarities.
References 1. Bennaceur, C. Carbon capture and storage in the global energy perspectives. - International Energy Agency, 2010.
2. Yakutseni V.P., Petrova Yu.E., Sukhanov. Dynamics of the relative contents of residual oil in the overall balance // Oil and gas geology. Theory and practice. – Moscow, 2007. – № 11. – pp. 11 – 12.
Kryanev D. Tertiary oil recovery // Nefteservis. – Moscow, 2010. - № 3. – pp. 18 – 21.
4. Mathiassen O.M. CO2 injection for Enhanced Oil Recovery. Trondheim: Stavanger: Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 2003. – 96 p.
Taber J.J., Martin F. D. and Seright R. S. EOR Screening Criteria Revisited – Part 2: Application and Impact on Oil 5.
Prices. – Spere, 1997. – 205 p.
Zheltov J. P. Development of oilfields. – M.: Nedra, 1986. – 333 p.
Секция 20. GEOLOGY, MINING AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING (ENGLISH, GERMAN) CURRENT STATE AND MAIN TENDENCIES IN THE PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY E.A. Novoseltseva Scientific advisor associate professor M.V. Vlasova National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia The rational use of oil, an irreplaceable energy source, and raw materials for production of petrochemicals, lu bricants, bitumen and coke is an important task for many countries.
The depth of the oil refining at the enterprises of Russia is about 70 %, whereas in the developed countries of the West it reaches 80-95 %. It can be explained by the low percent of sinking processes used at the domestic factories, which doesn’t exceed 13 % of oil refining volume (55 % at the American factories). As a result, production of motor fuels at Russian factories is limited while production of fuel oil makes more than 30 % of the processed oil volume. The quality of oil products leaves much to be desired and doesn’t fully meet modern requirements, especially it concerns eco logical characteristics.
One of the main tendencies in the use of oil in the world economy is the decrease of its consumption as the boi ler and furnace fuel in electric-power and heat-power industries and its increased consumption as the transport fuel and petrochemical raw material. The oil use in the world economy (% of mass) can be seen in the following table.
Table Oil consumption in the world economy oil use in the world economy year 1980 transport 38.6 including motor transport 27.8 electric-power and heat-power in- 51.5 dustries (boiler and furnace fuel) petrochemistry 5.2 8. nonpower-production use (oils, 4.7 5. bitumen, paraffin, coke) These changes in the oil consumption are caused by the advance development of the vehicles with the internal combustion engines in comparison with the power development, i.e. the excess of motorization rates in comparison with electrification rates for the recent years.
Nowadays petrochemistry accounts for the smallest amount, about 8 %, of the consumed oil. In other countries this amount fluctuates within 2...10 %. It is quite probable that by the end of the XXI century petrochemistry will become the only area of the oil use.
Qualitative and quantitative sudden change in the tendencies of world oil refining development occurred at the turn of 1970-1980 when the price increase for oil led to the reduction of its extraction and consumption as boiler and furnace fuel and thereby to the reorientation to the advanced and deep oil refining. Oil refining volume, total power and the number of oil-refining factories gradually decreased after 1970. Low-power, less profitable oil-refining factories were mainly closed. It led to the growth of specific capacity of oil-refining factories mainly in the processes of direct distilla tion of oil, which were reconstructed into other secondary processes.
However, contrary to the pessimistic forecasts volumes of oil extraction and refining in the world increased a little by the end of the expired century and reached the level of 1979, 3.2…3.3 billion tons a year. Modernisation of the operating oil-refining factories in the USA and Western Europe is aimed at the development of technologies of ecologi cally clean motor fuel refining (reformulated gasolines and low-sulphur diesel fuels).