«МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования «НАЦИОНАЛЬНЫЙ ИССЛЕДОВАТЕЛЬСКИЙ ...»
The further ways to improve the processes and schemes of oil residues processing are intensively researched all over the world nowadays. One of the priority fields is the implementation of gasification process of the oil residues, coke, asphalt from the deasphalting and other processes. Another one is the development of power technological schemes which provide oil-refining factories with required electric power and water steam. Gasification processes of the oil resi dues can be used for formation of hydrogen which is consumed by oil-refining factories in great volumes, and synthesis gas production (СО+Н2) for its further processing in synthetic oil fuel, methanol and other products. The technology of gasification contributes to the rundown oil refining.
The process of hydrocracking, providing higher motor fuel output in comparison with catalytic cracking, is in creasingly used in the industry, and the combination of catalytic cracking and hydrocracking will promote the creation of optimal schemes of oil refining with the maximum output and required range of motor fuels.
WATER SUPPLY OF BIG EUROPEAN CITIES V.D. Pokrovskiy Scientific advisors professor E.M. Dutova, associate professor L.V. Nadeina National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia In Prague in 2009 in the course of academic exchange program training we were given an opportunity to visit several European cities and to see their water supply. Analysis of the literature [1,2] allowed us to determine the main tendencies of development of water supply, such as a reduction of surface water supply (Table 1) and an increase the ПРОБЛЕМЫ ГЕОЛОГИИ И ОСВОЕНИЯ НЕДР underground water supply, the complication and the transition to the "natural" cleaning system, the construction of water intake facility under the direct effect of the residential development, the use of systems reinjection into aquifers.
Table Proportion of surface \ underground water supplies in major European cities The centralized underground water supply is not possible due to the complex geology which is hard rock in Prague. The groundwater is mainly used for crop irrigation on the individual country sites. Prague is supplied with three water intakes: Zelivka, Karana, Podoli and 75% water use by urban population is provided with Zelivka. Pumping water from the water intake is carried out through the culvert system and tunnels at a distance of more than 70 km from the city, this completes with the storage dam of height 58 m, of length 620 m and water storage capacity of 264 million m3.
Such distant location is necessary to preserve ecological compability of water supply source. Treatment facili ties in Karan are built upon the confluence of the rivers Jizerks and Labe River. Treatment facilities were put in commis sion in 1914 and became the first treatment plants, delivering portable water in Prague. Podoli is just one water intake using groundwater sources and only 1% water use by urban population is provided with Podoli.
Karana delivers 24% of the total volume of water and Podoli delivers only 1%. The source in Karana is river water and the source in Podoli is groundwater.
Berlin occupies the territory of 35 km in width and 45 km in length. There are 3,4 million inhabitants in Berlin.
It has 15 water stations with an average per capita 150 liters of water per day and that is less than in Tomsk. Berlin’s water supply is underground, wells are located in the city and 1200 wells at a depth of 26 to 170 meters are drilled. Water is chlorinated only at 2 stations, at the rest stations the impurities of iron and manganese are removed by the method of aeration. There are 4 sanitary zones from 2,5 km up to 10-20 meters. Berlin's waterworks system is completely automa tized, only seven men are maintenance workers .
Zurich is situated on both banks of the northern extremity of Lake Zurich and the river Limmat flowing out of this lake. We can add that 52% of the overall amount of pumping water is used for household and drinking needs of the population, 26% of pumping water is used for industry, 12% is used for the needs of other customers and 10% of pump ing water is unrecorded expenses and leakage of water. Zurich urban water supply provides water not only the city but also 57 small towns and.
In XV century the central water supply was formed by spring water from the surrounding mountains . A new filter plant with Lake Zurich water intake was built in 1880s. It was replaced by a new station Moos in 1914 and it con tinued working today. The spring water supply system is expanded. The capitation structure in the valley of the rivers Sihl and Lortse began operating from 1902.
We were greatly interested in Hardgof water intake station, which is located on the left bank of the river Limat.
There are two stages to purify water: first, it is chlorinated, then it is passed through charcoal filters and it is pumped into the aquifer, which is cut off from the influence of residential construction and polluted river water by treated water rein jection in wells. It creates the difference of pressures to reduce the river side and the side housing development. This system requires heavy expences and investments, but it allows to get clean, "natural" water that undoubtedly has a posi tive influence upon people health.
Секция 20. GEOLOGY, MINING AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING (ENGLISH, GERMAN) References Шевелев Ф.А., Орлов Г.А. Водоснабжение больших городов зарубежных стран. – М.:Стройиздат, 1987. – 351 с.
Подземные воды Мира: ресурсы, использование, прогнозы / под ред.И.С. Зекцера;
Ин-т вод. Проблем РАН. – 2.
М.: Наука, 2007. – 438 с.
3. http://www.nestor.minsk.by/sn/1997/31/sn3112.htm 4. www.Vzurih.ru LIMESTONE FACIES CARBONATE ANALYSIS OF BATURAJA FORMATION, NEGERI AGUNG – GEDUNG LEPIHAN AREA, SOUTH SUMATERA F.S. Pracoyo Scientific advisors professor A.T. Roslyak, associate professor Y.V. Savinyx associate professor L.V. Nadeina National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia Research area is Negeri Agung – Gedung Lepihan, southwest Garba Mountain, where the South Sumatera Ba sin placed, ± 195 km south from Palembang ± 60 km southwest from Baturaja. In this research area there are big limes tone outcrops and it is interesting to make detail research. Based on lithostratigraphy, limestone characteristics can be compared with Baturaja Formation in South Sumatera Basin. Aim and main research are facies changed vertically and fauna associated in limestone sedimentation in research area. Also the historical detail of limestone’s growth can be ex plained, and the implication concerning in depositional environment that influenced by energy mechanism from the sea wave (Irwin, 1965) physical, chemical and biological characteristics in every facies (Wilson, 1974). Method of research is to prepare a topographic map as a basic map with a scale 1:25.000, then to collect information with previous publica tions about general geology in this area, such as Van Bemmelen (1949), De Coster (1974), Gafoer (1994), other books and papers about carbonates sedimentation and depositional environment characteristics. Research on the field focused on limestone outcrops and located along Way Lungku river. Petrography – thin section analysis in laboratory has been used of polarization microscope.
Orogeny process has occurred 3 times at least in General Geology South Sumatera Basin, from mid Mesozoic to recent (De Coster, 1974). First orogeny occurred in mid Mesozoic, the metamorphism process occurred in Paleozoic sediments and Mesozoic. Pre Tertiary Zone has a lateral spreading northwest – southeast. Second orogeny has characte ristics west – east extensional forces and resulted as a collapse terrain, called Terban with north – south direction. This period occurred in Last Cretaceous – First Tertiary. Then a structural chain was made as a basement or a Pre Tertiary topographic and deposited sediment at First Tertiary. Third orogeny occurred in Pliocene – Pleistocene. These structures have dominantly northwest – southeast direction. Stratigraphy South Sumatera Basin is divided into three parts, such as Pre Tertiary, Tertiary, and Quaternary. Pre Tertiary, for example, Schist, Phyllite, Marble, Quartzite, Metasediment, or we called it as Tarap Formation which is predicted Pre – First Jurassic. Garba Formation placed at Garba Mountain com posed of Chert, Basalt, and lava-Andesite which was predicted Last Jurassic – First Cretaceous. Tertiary rocks can be found in east, south, and north of Garba area, i.e. quartz sandstone (Talang Akar Formation) was deposited nonconformi ty above Metasediment Pre Tertiary rocks, transition – sea environment deposit or coastal zone (Reineck and Singh, 1975) with no present planktonic or bentonic fossils were characterized. Limestone (Baturaja Formation) founded such as corals, crystalline limestone, laminated limestone, they are very compacted, environment deposit in the sea with abundant planktonic fossils were characterized middle shelf (between 30 – 100 meters) (Adi P.K, 1996), minerals;
dolomite, cal cite, mud carbonate. Sometimes it founded the wave ripple structure sediment in grainstone type. Structure sediment cross bedding with dip 70° has indicated a shallow sea (Mckee and Sterrett, 1961). Grey dark fine sand carbonate, abundant fossils, indicate marine (shelf) environment deposit (Reineck, 1975). Many wood fossils founded, clearly struc ture sediment parallel laminated, gradually color from green glauconite to white were founded in some outcrops, but there are not present fossils. Based on physical – chemical characteristics they were deposited on transition – sea envi ronment. Quaternary rocks distributed most of the all surface South Sumatera Basin, for examples;
Tuff (Ranau Forma tion), and alluvial deposit. Tuff characteristics are white, not compact, good porosity, grain supported, many quartz, feldspar, glass. Fossils are not present, but characteristics of this rock are the same as rocks near the Lake of Ranau or we called Ranau Formation rocks. Coarse to granule size of sand has indicated on shore environment deposit. Alluvial depo sit is loose material from igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks, and metamorphic rocks. Alluvial deposit was predicted Holo cene – Recent, and on shore environment deposit. In South Sumatera Basin as Tertiary Sediment Basin sedimentation cycle process of transgression and regression occurred actively. Structural geology in the research area is very interesting and complicated. It was recorded on outcrops clearly. Saka reverse fault is the main fault at that area, right lateral fault Negeri Agung that effect into the south, left lateral fault Saka. And also the big syncline Ngepah and anticline Selabung were interpreted from the strike/dip sedimentary rocks data on the Ngepah river and Selabung river outcrops. Axis anti cline and syncline is west – east, with flank in the north and south 15° - 17°. Carbonate rocks have specificity in a way formed. No detritus from the shore, chemical formed, and the important things are the organisms. Carbonate clastic as a fragmentation or secondary formed (i.e. oolite) and deposited similar as detritus. Texture is the most important thing in carbonate rocks than mineralogy composition, because it is related with reservoir characteristics in oil-gas industries and also for sedimentation, digenesis analysis. Carbonate rocks texture is divided into primary texture and secondary texture.
Primary texture includes organic skeletal framework, clastic, and matrix. Secondary texture related with cement filled pores between grains which is showed as a crystal effect partially or fully of matrix and grains. Basic classification car ПРОБЛЕМЫ ГЕОЛОГИИ И ОСВОЕНИЯ НЕДР bonate rocks is based on petrography analysis (Folk, 1959, 1961;
Plumley, et al, 1961) and general struc ture of rocks (Embrie and Klovan, 1971). Generally elements of texture are matrix, calcite cement, grain, organic skeletal framework, crystal effect. These elements can give us understanding of concept sedimentation process and diagenesis that formed the rocks.
Limestone Megascopic Series generally from the bottom to the top of Baturaja Formation dominated with clas tic coarse limestone. Organism fragments are still clearly visible, but also are already filled with crystals from carbonate minerals. So there is presumption that limestone series has already recrystallized or neomorphism. But the main result is limestone facies identification of Baturaja Formation from megascopic - microscopic analysis and variety contents of organisms. Bottom series consist of fine coarse clastic limestone and some samples which show that they were recrystal lized. Middle Series mostly founded variety of organisms. Dominated organism imprints as a fragment and a small size of calcareous skeletons, as a matrix. Upper section from this series is physically more rounded grain, good porosity, loose, not so fresh condition because of oxidation process or weathering, carbonate and ferrous oxide cemented, thickness of outcrops. This series varied from 20 – 250 cm. Characteristic similarity of grain in top series is as like as middle series.
There is no compact and moderate porosity from bottom to top all this series.
According to the microscopic limestone analysis the research area has three characteristics that similar like me gascopic series, they are bottom series, middle series, and top series. That series showed very different changes. The dif ferent characteristics would help to identify limestone facies of Baturaja Formation. Mud carbonates in Bottom series are very abundant. Also they showed recrystallized or neomorphism result process. Matrix supported sub-rounded grain.
Mud carbonates closed most all of pores and made poor porosity in bottom series. Moulds of organism and formed min erals are fragments and the small sizes as a matrix (fragment sizes 4mm, matrix 0.2mm - 0.03mm). Mould organisms association showed they are abundant (such as coral fragments (recognized like Sclerectinian) and unrecognizable coral form). Echinoid also presents in much percentage. Molusks and Big Foraminifera showed equal quantities. Ostracoda form is very rarely founded. Small Foraminifera forms in little percentage. The importance of this series indicated green algae as characteristics. Middle series matrix is formed by variety of fragments. It was known as special characteristics.
Fragments were formed by mould organisms and fragments were formed from carbonate minerals presented dominantly.
Neomorphism or recrystallized result process is still showed in these series. That is proved by carbonate minerals filled in the mould organism. Association of organisms is also very abundant and has multiple diverse of types in this series. Coral (Sclerectinian) and Echinoid as an organism fragments are mostly founded in much percentage. Molusks, blue algae, green algae, and red algae are special characteristics for this series. Several big foraminifera such as Lepidocyclina, Nummulites started to give contribution to form these series. Ooid, Brachiopod, planktonic and bentonic foraminifera are also present. It is difficult to identify accurately organism shells with rounded – ellipsoidal form but it is classified as a Geopetal. Shell fragments where the condition like join-patched one with other shells will be identified as interclast fragments. Many organisms were broken, this situation makes difficult to identify, but all of them is also essential factor that formed this serial and classified as other fossil fractions. Top section from this serial has many small size detrital organisms and minerals, caused by recrystallization process. Small size of carbonate minerals that filled in mould organ ism has predicted as accumulated transport process. Top series microscopic analysis showed that transportation process has already occurred with present rounded grain shape dominantly, small amount of mud carbonate, and lithic has also founded. Grain supported and weathering process was indicated with cement 0.03mm. This condition indicated good porosity. Grain supported dominantly, decreased of clearly mould ferrous oxide cement mixed with carbonate cement.
Grain size mostly 0.1mm – 1.5mm, matrix 0.03mm – 0.1mm, and organism form very often showed from our samples for this serial. But big foraminifera (Spiroclypeus) presents in large amount. Some of planktonic and bentonic foraminifera also can be identified but not significant percentage. Mollusks, echinoid, brachiopods, green algae, red algae are always present from bottom series until top series but amount in this serial decreased siginificantly.
Facies division based on data that have described before present the group of limestone series as lithofacies consists of three factors like physics, chemistry, and biology. They can be classified into three facies: facies A, facies B, and facies C. Facies A occupied the bottom from all these group limestone series. Megascopic characteristics fine grain and recrystallized, white – brown colors, no fragment size 2mm, grain size 0.03 – 2mm less than 10%, matrix sup ported, compact to massive, moderate to poor porosity. From the microscopic analysis result as mudstone, wackestone (Embry and Klovan, 1971) matrix supported, sub rounded grain shape, mud carbonate in big amount and closed of pores, poor porosity. Fragments size 4mm, matrix size 0.03mm – 0.2mm. Minerals dominated with mud carbonates, calcite, fossil fragment, dolomite. Organism association dominated with coral fragments (sclerectinian,and other types like cor al). Echinoid was in high percentage. Molusks and Big Foraminifera showed equal quantities. Ostracoda form was very rarely founded. Small Foraminifera form in little percentage. Facies B occupied the middle from these limestone groups.
Grey color, silt to very fine grain, not enough compact, moderate to poor porosity, freshly samples condition mostly founded, some samples were recrystallized, small amount fragments with size 2mm, shell fragments and also as matrix.
Generally grained, not compact – loose, weathering process was occurred, ferrous oxide and carbonate cement present, moderate to good porosity. Microscopic analysis showed that packstone and little floatstone were dominated (Embry and Klovan, 1971). Fragments and matrix were formed by shells organism and minerals (fragments size 0.2mm - 10mm, matrix size 0.03mm – 0.2mm). Recrystallized, grain supported and mud carbonate was still dominated. Rounded – angu lar grain shape, moderate to poor porosity. Dominant minerals are mud carbonate, calcite fossil fragments, and dolomite.
Organism association is variety. Usually organism acts as fragments, they are coral (Sclerectinian) and Echinoid and they are also in a large percentage. Blue – green algae, red algae are special characteristics for this facies. Big foraminifera (Lepidocyclina, Nummulites) and other organisms that support formed i.e. ooid, brachiopod, small foraminifera (plank tonic and bentonic), geopetal, interclast fragment, detrital fossil. We called the top of these group series as a facies C.
These facies have characteristics with fine grain to coarse grain size, brown and grey colors, recrystallized, ferrous oxide Секция 20. GEOLOGY, MINING AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING (ENGLISH, GERMAN) cement has indicated of weathering process, not compact – compact, moderate porosity. Based on microscopic analysis dominantly these facies consist of grainstone, and a small amount of mudstone (Embry and Klovan, 1971) that indicated transportation process. Grain dominated, lithic presented, recrystallized, small amount of mud carbonate, grain supported, weathering process known from ferrous oxide cement mixed with carbonate cement, fragment size 0.1mm – 1.5mm, matrix 0.03mm – 0.1mm, and cement 0.03mm, relative good porosity. Grain from sedimentation process showed do minantly and significantly dropped mould organism. But some samples still could indentify big foraminifera (Spirocly peus), planktonic and bentonic foraminifera. Molusks, echinoid, brachiopod, geopetal, ooid were still existed from bot tom series. Burrowing type of mould organism was also founded. Green algae and red algae gave special characteristics for this facies. Based on similar characteristics of limestone lithology according to megascopic, microscopic analysis and also integration with physical, chemical, and biological attribute, bottom series were classified into Facies A, middle series were classified into Facies B, and Facies C – for top series.
All of these facies have similar characteristics with depositional environment model for carbonate sedimenta tion from Wilson (1974), and depositional environment zone based on mechanism or wave energy from Irwin (1965).
Facies A have characteristics which could be classified into zone Z depositional environment (Irwin, 1965) or relative quiet wave or low mechanism energy. And also Facies A are classified into depositional environment between evaporate platform and open marine platform (Wilson, 1974). It supported with thin section analysis, that samples have wackestone (Embry and Klovan, 1971) dominated and green algae proved for characteristic in that depositional environment. There by, Facies A also could be classified into back reef zone (Wilson, 1974). Fact properties of Facies B could be classified between margin zone Z to the sea and front zone Y depositional environment (Irwin,1965) that medium to high wave or medium to high mechanism energy. The thin section analysis showed dominantly with packstone and floatstone (Embry and Klovan, 1971). Green – blue algae and red algae gave more accurate information to determine that depositional envi ronment. Reef wall (Wilson, 1974) also could be classified for Facies B. Facies C attributes support to classify into last margin zone Y to the sea where high energy of mechanism is. Grainstone texture (Embry and Klovan, 1971) dominantly identified at the thin section analysis and could be classified depositional environment between organic reef and fore slope (Wilson, 1974). Supported by green – blue algae and more red algae at the thin section samples analysis fixed de termine depositional environment of fore reef (Wilson, 1974). Generally limestone series in research area for vertical series consist of Facies A for bottom series, Facies B for middle series, and top series for Facies C overall have characte ristics of coursing upward. But for lateral spreading limestone Baturaja Formation didn’t show significant difference.
From east to west geological mapping area 45km2 is also crystalline limestone and coarse grained as lithology properties top limestone at west that proved the same or similar characteristics with top series or Facies C. Strike of sedimentation is in the northeast – southwest and dipping of sedimentation is in the southeast. Microscopic analysis of the samples of each facies based on texture have a relative porosity for characteristics (Facies A with poor porosity, moderate – poor porosity for Facies B, and Facies C with grainstone texture). That condition proved for good porosity.
According to that information Facies C is good, suitable and recommended for reservoir rock in petroleum sys tem. In connection with that information Baturaja Formation has an important role as reservoir at several exploration – exploitation fields in South Sumatera petroleum system. It proves that there is another place, not far from the research area where oil field with a similar characteristics reservoir was discovered.
References Adams, A.E, Mackenzie, W.S, Guilford, C, 1988, Atlas of Sedimentary Rocks Under The Microscope, 1 st edition, 1.
English Language Books Society, Longman Group. UK Ltd, London.
2. Asquith, B.G, 1979, Subsurface Carbonate Depositional Models: A Concise Review, Penwell Publishing Company, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA.
3. Bemmelen, R.W, Van 1949, The Geology of Indonesia, General Geology of Indonesia and Adjacent Archipelagoes, Vol I A.
4. De Coster G.L, 1974, The Geology of The Central and South Sumatera Basins, Proceeding of IPA, June.
5. Gafoer. S, dkk, 1994, Geologi Regional Lembar Baturaja dan sekitarnya;
Peta Geologi Skala 1: 250.000, PPPG, Bandung.
6. Kadar. P. Adi, dkk, 1996, Paleoenviromental indicators for The Miocene of Kutai Basin.
7. Lutherbacher, H.P, 1979, Environment Distribution of Early Tertiery Microfossils, Tremp Basin, Northern Spain, Esso Production Research European Laboratories, Spain.
8. Scholle, P.A, Bebout, D.G, Moore, C.H, 1998, Carbonate Depositional Environments. 4 th Printed. AAPG Memoir 33, AAPG, Tulsa, Oklahoma. USA.
9. Walker, R.G, James, N.P, 1992, Facies Models: Response To Sea Level Change. Geological Association of Canada.
10. Wilson, J.L, 1974, Carbonate Facies in Geologic History, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, NewYork. dalam Koesoemadinata, H.R.P, 1987, Reef Exploration Course, IWPL – MIGAS Programme, Jurusan Teknik Geologi, Institut Teknologi Bandung.
11. William, H, Turner, F.J, Gilbert, C.M, 1982, Petrography An Introduction to Study of Rocks in Thin Section, W.H.
Reeman and Co.
ПРОБЛЕМЫ ГЕОЛОГИИ И ОСВОЕНИЯ НЕДР OIL AND GAS PIPELINE COATING ANALYSIS О.I. Rakitin, S.S. Goncharik Scientific advisors associate professor V.A. Shmurygin, associate professor T.V. Korotchenko National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia Today, steel pipes are considered to be one of the main components of hydrocarbon pipeline networks. Being mechanically strength, corrosion resistant and operated under low and extremely high temperatures, as well as at high pipeline working pressure, steel pipes have no alternatives. It directly concerns trunk and gathering pipelines, which are operated under the pressure more than 100-150 atmospheres. It also concerns steel fittings, i.e. branches (taps), diminish ing pipes, gate valves, and tee-joints .
According to severe durability and reliability requirements imposed to the petroleum pipeline systems inner and outer coatings must be characterized by the reliable protective properties. Despite the diversity of present pipeline coat ings, it is impossible to choose a universal coating which would meet all the imposed requirements and provide necessary pipeline corrosion protection under any operation conditions. It can be explained by a lot of different aspects. First of all, modern pipelines are complex engineering constructions which can be hundreds and thousands kilometers in length.
Pipelines cross different climatic zones, including such obstacles as rivers and swaps, permafrost and wildernesses, motor roads and railways. Secondly, pipeline systems include connecting elements (branches, tees, and gate valves), tie-in, looping and other equipment. Besides, compressor and pump stations are placed at a definite distance from one to anoth er. All these pipeline elements, including the pipes themselves, must be protected from corrosion for a long operation period .
Today, four types of pipeline coating are applied: bitumen, paint, glass-enamel, and metal-sprayed coatings.
Each coating has its own advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, the application and the choice of a coating depend on pipeline characteristics, construction method, the aggressivity of transported medium and environment [2, 3].
Let us analyze glass-enamel and metal-sprayed coatings, made from glass-enamel and aluminum. They have been recently implemented in pipeline engineering and have already shown quite high efficiency. These types of coatings are characterized by high durability and thermal resistance. The main advantage of these coatings is that they can be ap plied for inner pipeline protection. Besides, metal-sprayed coatings are insensitive to mechanical impacts. However, glass-enamel and metal-sprayed coatings are characterized by some significant drawbacks and restrictions. Firstly, glass enamel coating can be applied in pipes with maximum diameter being 500 mm;
metal-sprayed coatings are applied in pipes being 300 mm in diameter. Secondly, coatings can be only factory-made. There are severe surface preparation re quirements. Both types of coating are quite expensive. Moreover, glass-enamel coatings are sensitive to mechanical im pacts and characterized by severe storage, transportation and construction requirements. Also, the technologies of field joint-coating are still not defined. As for metal-sprayed coatings, organosilicate enamel is needed to be applied for joint protection during the pipeline construction. Besides, they are characterized by such defect as high porosity .
Paint coatings, i.e. silica-organic and organosilicate enamels, have become the most widely applied ones in pe troleum engineering. They are heat resistant (up to 400оС) and durable. Silica-organic enamel is characterized by high specific electrical resistance;
they are delivered ready-for-use. In comparison with quite expensive organosilicate enamel, silica-organic enamel is rather cheap and accessible. Unlike glass-enamel and metal-sprayed coatings, paint coatings can be applied in pipelines of different diameters during pipeline construction in accordance to the established requirements.
Silica-organic enamel is applied when the surface is prepared (by sand blasting and shot blasting units) according to second preparation grade GOST 9.402-80. Organosilicate enamel is applied with air-dry hardener after thorough surface preparation. Required coating thickness must be 150-250 m. As for the drawbacks, silica-organic enamel has low non volatile content (solvent content up to 60%), high toxicity, coloring agent precipitation (agitation is required). There should be no wet on the coating surface during its manufacture. Organosilicate enamel is characterized by long material preparation period before on-site application (5-6 hours) and high solvent toxicity. Moreover, as it was mentioned, paint coatings should be applied in compliance with severe surface preparation requirements [1, 4, 5].
Bitumen roll coatings with bituminous grouts take the leading place in pipeline protection. The coating can be factory-made or applied on-site with application of cold grout as primer. The required coating thickness is 2-6 mm. Bi tumen coating also has no restrictions in pipe diameter and it does not require severe surface preparation procedure. All applied materials are available in quite reasonable price. However, there are some disadvantages, i.e. low adhesion, rapid ageing and deterioration at high temperature, flammability and inconvenience of roll coating application during pipeline repair [1, 5, 6].
Considering all parameters, paint coatings, made from epoxy, modified epoxy and phenol-formaldehyde resins are the most suitable for pipe inner isolation. As for polymer powder, coatings made from epoxy powder materials and applied on phenol primer are widely applied. The thickness of corrosion protection coating must be 300-500 m.
Enamels is chosen in dependence on the aggressivity degree of transported media, salt, acid and caustic pres ence .
One of the application purposes of antifriction coating is inner pipe surface roughness decrease and pipeline ca pacity increase. The antifriction coatings have been applied abroad since the middle of 20th century. Based on gained experience of their application in gas trunk pipelines for non-corrosive gas, it can be stated that the cost savings for trans portation and product pressure during pipeline operation, as a rule, guarantee inner coating pay back during 3-5 years.
Due to high degree of modern oilfield water-cut, the presence of corrosive water, salts, carbon dioxide, H2S, high opera tion temperature contributes to the corrosion of pipeline inner surface. General corrosion rate can reach 0,01-0,4 mm/per year, while local corrosion – up to 1,5-6 mm/per year. An actual life period of gathering pipelines without inner protec Секция 20. GEOLOGY, MINING AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING (ENGLISH, GERMAN) tive coating is 1-3 years. Sometimes through corrosion can occur in several months after pipeline operation. However, gathering pipeline life period can be increased 8-10 times in a case of the application of effective inner corrosion protec tion coatings.
It must be noted that numerous attempts have been done to implement on-site pipeline coating technology, but they were not successful. That’s why, like outer coatings, inner pipe coatings can be effective only when applying in factory conditions. .
References Бурмистров Г.Н. Кровельные материалы. – М.: "Стройиздат", 1984. – 240 с.
Попов В.В. Материалы для теплоизоляционных и гидроизоляционных работ. – М.: "Высшая школа", 1988. – С.
76 – 79.
И.В.Стрижевский, М.А.Сурис. Защита подземных теплопроводов от коррозии – М.:Энергоатомиздат,1983. – С.
112 - 148.
«Правила и нормы по защите трубопроводов тепловых сетей от электрохимической коррозии: РД 34.20.520 4.
96." – М.: СПО ОРГРЭС, 1998.
Типовая инструкция по защите тепловых сетей от наружной коррозии: РД 34.20.518-95." - М.: СПО ОРГРЭС, 5.
СНиП 3.04.03 - 85. Защита строительных конструкций и сооружений от коррозии М.: Минстрой России, 1996.
THE SOLUTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS WHILE DRILLING FOR WELLS R.V. Romanov Scientific advisors senior teacher L.N. Nechaeva, senior teacher T.V. Bocharova National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia The drilling process would hardly be possible if the rock broken is not removed from the bottomhole timely.
Most (about 70%) wells are drilled using a hydraulic system for circulation and bottomhole cleaning. For this purpose many various circulation fluids with a wide variety of additives are used. As usual the drilling is accompanied with appli cation of harmful and hazardous chemical substances, it causes considerable water consumption and gives rise to many technological wastes that constitute a danger for flora and fauna. Thus drilling contaminates mostly underground and surface water and causes terrain disturbance. All these contaminations occur because some technological processes do not meet environmental protection procedures that result in transferring oily substances, chemical agents and other technolo gical waste from drilling slurries and cuttings into the environment.
Among the other chemical and analytical control methods, the methods based on condition assessment of aqua tic species exposed to the polluted environment are used to control the anthropogenic pollution of water. There are two basic types of biologic control methods;
they are a method of bioindication and a method of biotesting. The bioindication is used in environmental studies to determine the anthropogenic load on the biotic community. The method is based on investigation of various characteristics of biological objects and systems being subjected to changes in environmental factors. Biological systems or organisms that are most sensitive to the changing factors investigated serve as the biologi cal indicator. Changes in behavior of the object tested (a test-object) are compared to the reference behavior models. For example, when assessing the surface water condition, the behavior of water fleas (Daphnids), mollusks and some fish is taken as bioindicators.
As for biotesting, the method involves the identification of already-occurred or currently-occurring pollution of a water pond using living function characteristics of its inhabitants. Living organisms are capable to sense a much lower contaminant concentration than any analytical detector can. Therefore a living organism can be exposed to effect of toxic substances not detected by any equipment.
And thus there has been appeared a conception of toxicity biotesting, i.e. application of biological objects (liv ing organisms) to determination of the total toxic content in water.
Generally the biotesting is a method assessing the effect of environmental factors including toxicity to a single living organism and its function or to a biosystem. In combination with aquatic organism, the biotesting method can be used to:
— assess the toxicity of polluted natural water;
— monitor the toxicity of drilling fluids and sewage;
— assess on spot the toxicity of run-offs and other water media for hygiene and sanitary purposes;
— carry out chemical tests in a lab.
When drilling the drilling fluid undergoes changes in its physical and chemical composition. Such changes oc cur due to many chemical interactions between the drilling fluid and rocks drilled and the reservoir fluid. Obviously it changes the drilling fluid properties.
Thus one can come to conclusion that it is necessary to conduct the biotesting of the drilling fluid both at the stage of fluid formulation and during its operation cycle.
Possible procedures of toxicity test come in variety that makes it possible to select an optimal one and compare results. As an example of such procedures let us use a common test for mobility of water fleas (Daphnids) and a proce dure for identification of chemical toxic substances in water. A test-object used is a species Paramecium Caudatum.
The method of depression of Daphnids’ mobility allows investigating the influence of sewages and substances dissolved in sewages on life activity of living organisms. The method subject is to determine the concentration of pollu ПРОБЛЕМЫ ГЕОЛОГИИ И ОСВОЕНИЯ НЕДР tants which immobilize more that 50% Daphnids under certain conditions within a 24-hour period. The testing is carried out in two stages. The initial test stage is being conducted for 24 hours (or 48 hours if necessary) and gives an approx imate concentration range which is to be verified during the second stage.
The Drilling Department, Tomsk Polytechnic University, has developed a procedure for identification of toxic substances in aqueous medium using a mainstream device Biotester-2. This procedure can be used to perform envi ronmental protection measures including monitoring of the surface runoff and sewage discharge and assessment of toxici ty of newly-synthesized chemical substances, etc. The chemical substance affects the Paramecium Caudatum cell sus pension and then, using a photometric technique one analyses all changes occurred in the suspension. The chemical sub stance toxicity is assessed by a degree of depression of moving ability of the Paramecium Caudatum cells in comparison with such ability of them in initial (reference) cell suspension.
The toxicity biotesting procedure developed ensures rather high result reproducibility and thus provides a high accuracy and reliability for determining a toxicity coefficient Кt for aqueous media tested. A sequence of Кt series is almost consistent with the sequence of MAC for the substances tested. It proves that it is possible to use this biotesting for on-the-spot rating of MAC for both simple and compound chemical substances in practice. And one of the method advantages, compared to other methods of toxicity assessment, is the time necessary to obtain the final result. As for the Biotesting-2 unit, it takes only 30 min to perform a test that makes the unit irreplaceable for water assessment under filed conditions.
A problem of disposal of saturated drilling fluid still remains unsolved. This problem is at the top of the list of environmental problems appeared during well drilling and construction.
Laboratory testing has proved that wastes of water-based mud are not environmentally hazardous. During such testing the water and sludge samples were taken from mud pits and then analyzed and compared. The analysis did not show any water-soluble heavy metals (Сг, Рв, Zn, Mn) in dirty-mud pits. However the bulk analysis showed slight traces of such heavy metals but usually in association with clays and organic substances and within the range accepted by the environmental protection agency. As the experience has shown the mud pits are usually contaminated by salts from re servoir waters or from salt formations, and also by lead from the pipe dope.
The analyses conducted proved that mud pits containing water-based drilling mud are not environmentally ha zardous but their construction has to be designed properly paying special attention to leak-proofness in order to avoid penetrating the drilling mud into ground.
Oil and gas wastes need to be disposed in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner. Wastes are commonly discharged into the pit next to the drilling rig. When the drilling process is completed, drilling wastes can be dehydrated and buried, solidified or treated with any conventional method directly at the well site or can be transported to be used for some purposes.
Nowadays there have been published many works related to effect of the mud pits’ content on soil, ground wa ter and plant productivity. Milller has analyzed works on such a problem conducted by the American Petroleum Institute over a period of since 1974. The results proved that some common components of the drilling fluid can affect the plant growth and height, but such effect can be kept to a minimum. There are two factors that are especially harmful for the soil and plants. They are a high content of sodium that causes the duricrust and presence of dissolved salts that makes it hard for plants to take water from the soil. In addition, diesel fuel used in drilling as a lubricant is toxic for plants and it reduc es the soil ability for moisture conservancy.
Concentration of diesel fuel equal to 4.5 gram per liter and less, of lignosulphates - 0.165 g/l and less and of po lymers - 67 g/l and less pose little or no effect on plants. In the course of time such a little harmful impact becomes less and less and disappears completely in three years. When drilling fluids get into soil, it becomes richer in Zn, Cu, Pb, Ba and other elements. However these elements are unsuitable for fixation by plants. In near-surface ground water under the mud pit there has been identified a higher concentration of radioactive elements and the radioactivity level decreases with increase in depth. This points to the fact that radioactive elements from drilling muds pose no risk to ground water.
Alkali solutions rich in sodium salts cause the least of problems in sour lands containing a large amount of or ganic substances. The greatest problems occur when alkali solutions get into alkaline soils of water-deficient areas.
To restore the land one can either add soluble salts of calcium and gypsum into the soil or add water and allow time enough to change the soil under the influence of microorganisms.
Hence, one can draw a conclusion that, when used properly and according to environmental procedures, water based muds pose a little or no risk to the environment.
References Балаба В. И., Колесов А. И., Коновалов Е. А. Проблемы экологической безопасности использования веществ и 1.
материалов в бурении: Обз. информ. – М.: ИРЦ Газпром, 2001. – (Охрана человека и окружающей среды в газовой промышленности).
Тригубова Е. А., Бородай А. В. Технологические решения по снижению и нейтрализации вредного воздействия 2.
отходов бурения на окружающую природную среду: Обз. информ. – М.: ИРЦ Газпром, 2002. – (Бурение газовых и газоконденсатных скважин).
Шеметов В. Ю. Требования к экологической чистоте технологии бурения скважин. Экология в газовой 3.
промышленности. Прил. к журн. «Газовая промышленность». – M., 1997.
Методика определения токсичности воды и водных вытяжек из почв, осадков сточных вод, отходов по 4.
смертности и изменению плодовитости дафний. – М.: АК-ВАРОС, 2001.
Руководство по определению методом биотестирования токсичности вод, донных отложений, загрязняющих 5.
веществ и буровых растворов. – М: РЭФИА, НИА-Природа, 2002.
Секция 20. GEOLOGY, MINING AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING (ENGLISH, GERMAN) Патент № 211297 Способ определения токсичности химических веществ в водной среде" ТПУ (Чубик П.С., 6.
Нечаева Л.Н. и Брылин В.И.) FEASIBILITY STUDY OF NEW GAS PIPELINE CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS J.А. Reutov Scientific advisors associate professor A.V. Rudachenko, associate professor T.V. Korotchenko associate professor J.V. Kolbysheva National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia Nowadays, there are 150, 000 kilometers of gas transmission pipelines in Russia with total length of more than 613, 000 km. The diameter of transmission pipelines can be up to 1420 mm, including pipeline branches.
For gas pipeline construction steel pipes are applied which are made from different steel grades in accordance with pipeline application, its parameters (pressure, temperature) and physico-chemical properties of gas being trans ported.
West Siberia produces about 90 % of all Russian gas and it is mostly extracted in cold weather regions. There fore, high quality corrosion-resistant and low-alloyed-low-pearlite steel characterized by the combination of high values of strength properties, impact resistance, cold resistance, and weldability is applied for gas trunk pipeline and supply network construction. Steel pipes for gas pipeline are classified as seamless and welded.
Steel seamless pipe has no seams and they are made from the following steel grades: 10, 20, 35, 45, 10G2S, 09G2S, 20H, 40H, 30HGSА, 15HM, 15H5, 15H5М, 12H8 and etc. Due to seam absence that is considered to the advan tage mechanical stability is provided. Seamless pipes are characterized by improved operation parameters.
Steel seamless pipes are subdivided into cold-worked according to GOST 8734-75 with outer diameter 140 mm and wall thickness 0,4 -12 mm and hot finished according to GOST 8732-78 with outer diameter up to 530 mm. Seamless cold-worked and cold-finished pipes are applied for hydrocarbon gas transportation at pressure up to 10 MPa.
Welded pipes are available in diameter up to 2500 mm. They are cheaper than the seamless ones but they are less reliable, though. Welded pipe is made by bending metal strips (skelp) or plate into the form of a tube by roll forming and welding the seam by various welding processes.
Depending on the forming method, the manufacturing of welded tubes and pipes are classified as longitudinal and spiral (helical) seam. Large diameter welded pipes are made from carbon and low-carbon steel grades of K34-K strength class.
Longitudinal seam pipes are widely applied in gas pipeline construction, with working pressure being not more than 16 MPa. They are manufactured in accordance with GOST 10704—76, with a diameter up to 426 mm. Pipes are made from killed, semi-killed and rimming steel grades in according to GOST 380-94, and from killed, semi-killed and rimming steel grades 08, 10, 15, 20, according to GOST 1050-88, correspondingly.
Large diameter spiral (helical) seam pipes are intended for oil and gas trunk pipeline construction. Spiral (heli cal) seam electric-welded pipes are manufactured from metal strips or plates by spiral moulding and continuous welding of spiral sutures. According to comparative analysis results based on cyclic and statistic tests, it can be stated that statistic crack resistance of a spiral seam pipe is 1.7 times higher than that of the longitudinal seam pipe. Spiral seam pipes are applied in gas pipeline construction with working pressure being 9,8 MPa.
Pipes for water and gas conveyance (GOST 3262-75) with 150 mm of nominal inside diameter are applied for gas transportation at working pressure not more than 25 MPa. In dependence on pipe wall thickness, these pipes can be light, standard and strengthened.
The following disadvantages of steel pipes are distinguished:
- short operation life period (10-15 years);
- considerable weight;
- labor-intensive assemblage;
- high thermal conductivity;
- electro conductivity;
- aggressive medium sensitivity;
- delivered pipe length restrictions (1-kilometer pipeline 110 mm in diameter includes 84 sections);
- restricted flexibility which leads to the application of significant number of formed and joining parts.
Today, steel pipe manufacture is being improved through reduction of harmful impurities in steel content, which lead to numerous corrosion failures. Besides, pipe manufacturers are concentrating their efforts toward production of the pipes with wall thicknesses up to 36-40 mm graded as K65-K70 and working pressure up to 120 atm, increase of H2S-corrosion cracking and stress corrosion cracking resistance. Longitudinal seam pipe welding machines combined the steps of pipe welding and its further continuous forming is currently being developed. Among up-to-date technologies of corrosion resistance increase, special outer polythene coating should be distinguished [2, 3, 5].
Since 1950th the majority of countries have started the application of polymer pipes. They are mainly applied in gas and water pipeline construction. After 50-year operation they are still in workable condition and do not require any repair or renewal.
The following advantages of polymer pipe application in gas pipeline construction are distinguished:
operation life period is longer than that of the metal pipes (guarantee period – 50 years);
- no cathodic protection and maintenance are required;
ПРОБЛЕМЫ ГЕОЛОГИИ И ОСВОЕНИЯ НЕДР - water and aggressive medium resistant;
- 2-4 times lighter than steel pipe;
- 12 meter sections do not require lifting mechanisms during assemblage;
- polymer pipes, with diameter being up to 110 mm, are manufactured in bunches ranging from 100 to meters;
- butt welding is significantly cheaper, easier and less time-consuming;
- butt welds do not require any extra coatings - high flexibility, as well as smoothness of inner surface.
Polymer pipes can be classified as SDR 11, SDR 17.6and etc., where SDR – ratio of nominal outer pipe diame ter and nominal pipe thickness. The following types of pipes are distinguished: SDR 41 – light with working pressure up to 0,2,5 MPa, SDR 26 - semi light – up to 0,4 MPa, SDR 17.6 – medium- up to до 0,6 MPa, SDR 11 – heavy – up to 1, MPa. Outer diameter of polymer pipes is up to 400 mm.
The following formula for maximum working pressure determination in polymer gas pipeline was introduced in European Standard ЕН 1555, International Standardization Organization ISO 4437, Russian Standard GOST R 50838:
MOP = 2MRS/(C(SDR-1)), МPа, where, MRS - minimum required strength, С – assurance coefficient С = 2,5.
For joining part manufacture the following thermoplastic materials are applied: HD polyethylene, cross-linked polyethylene, polypropylene, aluminum-reinforced polypropylene, polybutene, polyvinyl chloride resin and etc. Ther moplastic materials are easily remanufactured into the final products: pipes – through extrusion technique, joining parts – press molding.
Polyethylene pipes are considered to be one of the most widely spread polymer pipes applied in gas pipeline construction.
Linear homopolymer, which high-molecular chain consists of ethylene molecules, was the first HD polyethy lene applied in pressure pipe manufacture.
The alternative to the conventional polyethylene can be cross-linked polyethylene (PE-X or XLPE), characte rized by high strength properties allowing its application in pipe manufacture for petroleum industry.
Second generation polyethylene was obtained through adding comonomers (butene and hexene) in the synthesis process to form side branches on the polyethylene macromolecules. Due to this, it was possible to increase polymer cracking resistance, as well as MRS value up to 8,0 МPа. However, short-term strength, elasticity coefficient and rapid cracking resistance decreased.
The combination of high short-term strength and high cracking resistance has been achieved through formation of so-called bimodal polyethylene, i.e. polyethylene of the third generation. Due to directed technological process, ma cromolecule groups are distinguished: short-chain and long-chain. Low molecular polymer part forms crystalline fields which contribute to the increase of density, short-term and long-term strengths (MRS 10,0 МPа), as well as elasticity coefficient. This class includes such types as polyethylene 63, polyethylene 80 and polyethylene 100 [4, 6].
The following disadvantages of polyethylene pipes are distinguished:
- insufficient impact resistance;
- insufficient solar radiation resistance;
- possible strength loss in the course of time and load change.
In order to increase flow capacity of gas polyethylene pipelines and further increase of working pressure up to 2,5 МPа, new so-called combined pipes made from polyethylene and other materials have been developed. It is a biplas tic pipe, i.e. polyethylene pipe, reinforced by glass-fiber plastic casing and metal-base pipe, i.e. polyethylene pipe, with the wall, reinforced by welded wire frame.
The most perspective pipes are considered to be combined glass-fiber plastic pipe (biplastic pipes) - polyethy lene pipes, reinforced by outer glass-fiber casing, with diameter being up to 293 mm and working pressure being up to 4,0 MPa [1, 8].
Soluforce RTP (reinforced thermoplastic pipe) – is a possible alternative for high-pressure applications in gas transportation. The Soluforce RTP is a three layer pipe construction, consisting of a HDPE (high-density polyethylene) liner pipe;
a reinforcement layer, typically made from reinforced fibre, a class of heat-resistant and strong synthetic fibre;
and a HDPE protective outer layer for UV, damage and abrasion protection. The reinforced fibre which increases pipe strength can be of any design. Soluforce pipes are manufactured with a nominal diameter 100 mm or 150 mm.
Plastic pipes intended for high-pressure gas pipelines are constantly being improved toward manufacturing of composite-base pipes, which combine high polymer chemical stability and reinforcing elements (layers of fibre, wire reinforcement, and casing).
References Аношкин А.Н. Оценка прочности композитных бипластмассовых труб при их эксплуатации в условиях низких 1.
температур / А. Н. Аношкин, А. Б. Поспелов // Нефтяное хозяйство. – 2008. – № 9. – С. 56 – 58.
Зайцев К.И. О проблеме сооружения пластмассовых трубопроводов нефтяной и газовой промышленности / 2.
К.И. Зайцев // Строительство трубопроводов. – 1995. – № 5. – С. 14 – 18.
Зимовец В.Г. Совершенствование производства стальных труб / В.Г. Зимовец, В.Ю. Кузнецов – М.: МИСиС, 3.
1996. – 480 С.
Секция 20. GEOLOGY, MINING AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING (ENGLISH, GERMAN) Никифоров В.Н. Обоснование возможности применения пластмассовых труб при строительстве 4.
газораспределительных сетей / В.Н. Никифоров // Известия ВУЗов. Нефть и газ. – 1997. – № 4. – С. 47 – 50.
Матросов Ю.И. Сталь для магистральных трубопроводов / Ю.И. Матросов, Д.А. Литвиненко, А. М.
Голованенко. – М.: Металлургия, 1989. – 288 с.
Пепеляев В.С. Полиэтиленовые армированные синтетическими нитями трубы для газопроводов до 1,2 МПа / 6.
В.С. Пепеляев, А.И. Тараканов // «Полимергаз», 2009. – № 4. – С. 40 – 41.
Полянский Р.П. Трубы для нефтяной и газовой промышленности за рубежом / Р.П. Полянский, В.И. Пастернак.
– М.: Недра, 1989. – 123 с.
ТУ 2296-250-24046478-95. Трубы стеклопластиковые и соединительные детали. – Пермь, «ЗАО Прогресс», 8.
STATOIL’S THROUGH-TUBING DRILLING OPERATIONS IN THE NORTH SEA Y.I. Richkov Scientific advisor assistant Y.A. Cherevko National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia Drilling sidetracks from older wells through the existing production tubing has provided operators with sub stantial cost savings. By applying the TTD (Through Tubing Drilling) technique a sidetrack can be drilled from deep within the well, below the production packer, in order to access additional hydrocarbon reserves. This is done by instal ling a ramp, a whipstock, at the selected depth and milling a window in the liner, sometimes through both liner and casing. This is done with mills specially designed for milling through steel. The installation of the whipstock and the consecutive window milling is typically done in one run.
As a result, the transport stage of drilling above that level will already have been completed, hence time is saved. For some oil-fields this means that troublesome overburden is avoided: Since the reservoirs become more and more depleted, while the overburden remains more or less virgin, drilling though both can be challenging and time consuming at times. By applying TTD on platform wells, the savings per well is at least USD 2 – 3 million, mainly since replacement of the existing tubing is avoided. The savings will, however, often be significantly higher. This is so because the alternative to TTD commonly turns out to be replacement and pulling of the production casing also, followed by, instead of a 1-section, an expensive 2-section sidetrack. On subsea templates TTD creates an even higher upside, in the range of USD 15 - 20 million saved per operation. This is mainly due to the combination of higher rig rates when operat ing subsea and increased number of days saved. The last effect is a result of subsea operations in general being more time consuming, hence reducing number of trips in the well will have a big impact, cost-wise. The method can also improve recovery because reduced operational costs permit the exploration and production of small or uncertain reservoirs. Statoil has to date performed TTD operations in 20 wells and all have technically been successes. The two operations performed on subsea templates were the world’s first to be performed from floating mobile drilling units.
Through-tubing drilling and completion have so far primarily been applied in existing wells which have ceased to produce. In such cases the existing wellbore has been abandoned, and the sidetrack has been drilled to another part of the reservoir where hydrocarbon pockets still remain to be tapped. Thanks to synergies and learning-curve effects, Statoil envisions a relatively big potential for TTRD performed in campaigns. Work is going on in order to map the number of possible targets for TTRD in the North Sea. The current limited availability of a drilling rig makes the planning of subsea TTRD operations uncertain. In order to succeed with efficient campaigns on the subsea wells a dedicated vessel for TTRD would probably be highly beneficial. Statoil has recently established a group that is currently investigating the feasibility and the cost/benefit of acquiring such a vessel.
Fig. Statoil’s through-tubing drilling operations In order to fully utilize such a vessel, and in general be able to perform TTRD efficiently, some key technolo gies are of particular interest:
1) The capability of drilling sidetracks from producing wells without losing existing reserves from the parent track.
Statoil has accordingly pursued efforts to develop fit-for-purpose multilateral (ML) systems for TTRD opera tions and has developed a level 4 system together with Weatherford in 2004 and is now together with Smith Red Baron ПРОБЛЕМЫ ГЕОЛОГИИ И ОСВОЕНИЯ НЕДР and Schlumberger developing other ML systems (level 3 and 5). The reason for developing several systems is that the requirements for ML integrity and physical access (for intervention) changes significantly from well to well, and there is a significantly added price-tag connected with added functionality.
Today the situation is such that single-standing TTRD operations are performed when a well stops producing.
With ML systems a TTRD sidetrack can be made in producing wells, hence the main benefits of this technology are that higher number of TTRD well candidates will emerge, and that it will allow for the operations to be performed in cam paigns. The synergy and learning curve effects of campaigns will reduce operational cost significantly.
2) Equipment capable of high doglegs.
Since the through-tubing sidetracks are deep there is typically a need for high doglegs after making the window.
The current RSS (Rotary Steerable Systems) have quite limited dogleg capacity, hence Statoil is now funding and work ing with Schlumberger to develop a high-dogleg RSS, capable of ca 15 deg/30 m dogleg. One main decisive factor to invest in this development was that mud motors, which can normally provide high doglegs, were found to be damaging to the crown plug seal area when performing subsea TTRD.
3) TTD in depleted reservoirs.
It is in the nature of TTD that the reservoirs drilled are often depleted, and more and more so as the fields age.
This means that TTD operations will more frequently have to deal with a narrow window between pore pressure and fracture gradient. Several technologies are now being looked into in order to address this challenge, among them:
• Liner drilling and expandable technology: In a TTRD operation an intermediate liner cannot simply be in stalled if difficult formations are encountered: Since the dimension of such a liner is small, the subsequent hole size will naturally be even smaller, and often too small. With liner drilling and expandable tubulars the loss of hole size is reduced, hence enabling 2 (or perhaps more) hole sections in TTRD-operations.
• Managed pressure drilling to enable rotary drilling with small margin between fracturing and pore-pressure • Coiled tubing drilling: If installed on a dedicated vessel, coiled tubing drilling might be an interesting alterna tive since both MPD and under balanced drilling (UBD) in principle are easily done with coiled tubing. On a dedicated vessel/rig with permanently installed coiled tubing, the rig-up time, which is very long on a platform, might be signifi cantly reduced.
4) On subsea templates: Operability throughout the year.
Due to the small-size equipment in TTRD, both rig/vessel and compensating systems will likely have to be purpose-made. In the 2nd subsea TTRD operation a prototype inline compensator directly connected to the top-drive was tried out. This equipment enabled fine-tuning of set-down/pick-up weights even with very light string weight, and turned out to increase the weather window of subsea TTRD significantly.
5) On seabed templates: High pressure riser Subsea TTRD today is performed through the marine drilling riser.
This is a low-pressure riser which necessitates the installation of a separate high pressure riser if live-well work is to be performed. Statoil, together with FMC, is now developing and building a high pressure riser with a fit-for purpose BOP system. This system is designed for easy installation and use on different rigs, and will due to the reduced size, be suitable for use on a tentatively smaller vessel. Since the same riser can be used for live-well intervention and TTRD, the time to change from one operation to another may be reduced. The high pressure riser will also be an enabler for subsea MPD and UBD.
THE ANALYSIS OF ACCIDENTS AT PIPELINE TRANSPORT FACILITIES IN RUSSIA R.V. Savitskiy, O.L. Blokhina Scientific advisors associate professor N.V. Chukhareva, associate professor L.M. Bolsunovskaya National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia Security analysis of pipeline transportation ensures constructive optimal solutions by efficient option of line, volumes and dates of diagnostics of their operation condition in the process of construction and operation. In addition, it enables to prepare guidelines for personnel regarding to their activities in potential off-optimum situations. This analysis gives an opportunity to loss reduction of transported product, decrease of accident numbers reduction of harmful dis charge into environment.  Emergency risk analysis is a key element of safety management and it represents basis for making decision on emergency response and remedial action in dangerous objects of pipeline transportation system.
For accident risk estimation on pipelines, the analysis of accident causes and faults appears as a starting point.
Given paper shows accident data on the pipeline transportation objects of Russian Federation in 2004-2008.  Таble Dynamics of accidents in 2004-2008 on the pipeline transportation objects of Russia Year Accidents( total) Fatal outcome accidents 2004 48 2005 45 2006 40 2007 30 2008 26 Секция 20. GEOLOGY, MINING AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING (ENGLISH, GERMAN) According to statistics, the most significant causes of accidents are:
low-grade running of field joints, pipeline mechanical damage;
pipeline through holes, stop valve, plungers and manometric devices damage;
metal trouble, low-grade welded joints, stop valve trouble and pipeline joint pieces;
other causes, involving operating faults.
Apart from loss of pipeline pressure, breaks of pipelines are probable due to pumping breakdown of operations and repair staff, pumping stop by sharp disappearance of voltage in power supply.
Last time there are more accidents in pipelines due to external mechanical action on the linear part of pipeline, involving force impact with mechanical facilities, unauthorized and premeditated action for the purpose of oil stealage.
Investigation analysis of accidents within last year’s reveals principle causes of their emergences (Fig. 1).
Fig. 1. Accident distribution on pipeline transportation To define an expected accident frequency on pipeline it’s important to take into account technical, natural, anth ropogenic and some other factors typical for given pipeline.
Thereby there are 8 groups of factors, influencing on accidents. There are:
quality of works;
external anthropogenous influences;
quality of building-installation works;
defects of pipes and welded seams;
There are different factors of influence in each group. The most important factors are depth of pipeline, level of anthropogenic activity, protection rate of ground equipment, production technique, steel grade, degree of work complexi ty, natural factors, etc.
To calculate an expected accident frequency on specific pipeline, it’s important to define meaning of integral impact factor (Квл) that shows how local accident intensity on the area (л) differs from average frequency () for specif ic pipeline:
Квл = л (1) As an average frequency it goes an average meaning of accident number for the last ten years, reduced to one kilometer of pipeline. According to table 2 the meaning is 0,06 х 10-3 (1/ (km/year).
In order to analyses margin of pipeline safety we ought to mention about such important definition as «risk of emergency situations». Assessment of accident probability is based on statistical data of oil pipeline breakdown-rate.
Authors of the article suggest using «The Еvent Тree» for description of consequences and identification of emergency scenarios in linear pipeline portion. .
This «Event Tree» shows such emergency scenarios as:
1. split-second ignition after oil spill;
2. deferred ignition after oil spill;
3. accident without ignition.
Mostly above-described reasons lead to loss of sealing of pipe and occur emergency oil leak.
Above reasons result in loss of pipeline pressure and oil leak.The most probable is oil leak and following oil spreading (without inflaming). The number of accidents, relating to loss of pipeline pressure by the third version is 95%.
The development of accident situation by given version is dangerous not only for environment but for the popu lation as well, because oil vapors and other emissions are poisonous and can lead to diseases and even lethal outcomes.
Probability of accidents without inflaming by the third version on the specific pipeline is:
ПРОБЛЕМЫ ГЕОЛОГИИ И ОСВОЕНИЯ НЕДР Fig. 2. The Event Tree лwithout ignition = 0,95 Квл (2) As a version of accident situations with maximum consequences is oil spreading with inflaming. By given acci dent situations the threat for population increases due to high toxicity of oil combustion products in the atmosphere as well as thermal fire impact. Frequency of accident situations by the first version is:
лignition = 0,05 Квл (3) Viewed algorithms of detection of expected frequency of emergency occurrence need to estimate environmen tal, technologic and individual impact assessment, volume of oil spill, rate of entitlement payments for oil contamination of environment. Furthermore, it’s the basic requirement of correct choice of the technology of post-accident clean-up of emergency of main pipelines.
References 1. Kygrisheva L.I., Stahov S.A. Factors of maintenance of reliability and safety of pipelines // Collection of proceedings SevCavGTU. – 2008. – № 4.
2. Stadnikova M.A., Glebova E.V. The analysis of emergencies and their consequences on the main oil pipelines // Ecology and the industry of Russia. – 2009. – August.
ANALYSE DER EFFIZIENZVERFAHREN DER BESEITIGUNG VON ORGANISCHEN ABLAGERUNGEN IN DEN ERDLFRDERUNGSRHREN IM LVORKOMMEN MAISKOJE DES TOMSKER GEBIETS P.A. Sasonow Wissenschaftliche Betreuerinnen Assistentin E.G. Karpowa, Dozentin L.S. Ratner Nationale Polytechnische Forschungsuniversitt, Tomsk, Russland Im Laufe der Erdlfrderung entstehen Komplikationen, die mit der Ausfllung der asphaltharzparaffinartigen Stoffe in Frderbohrungen und Bodenkommunikationen verbunden sind. Das fhrt zur Senkung der lergiebigkeit der Frderbohrungen und der Durchlafhigkeit der Pipelines. Es entstehen auch andere unerwnschte Folgen. In diesem Artikel wird das gegebene Problem am Beispiel des Erdlvorkommens Maiskoje behandelt.
Im Erdlvorkommen Maiskoje wird das Hauptvolumen der Erdlfrderung durch Zentrifugalpumpenanlagen durchgefhrt, und unter Bedingungen der hohen Geschwindigkeit der Paraffinausfllung geht die Abnahme der Erdlge winnung vor sich, was durch Verringerung des Durchgangsschnitts hervorgerufen wird. Aus diesem Grund fllt die Tiefpumpenanlage aus, deren Reparatur groe Investitionen braucht. Darum ist es notwendig, den Manahmenkomplex zu treffen, um dieses Problem zu lsen. Dieses Problem ist auch fr Gestngepumpen aktuell.
Unter asphaltharzparaffinartigen Ablagerungen, die aus Erdl in Bohrlchern whrend der lfrderung ausfal len, versteht man ein kompliziertes Kohlenwassergemisch, das aus Paraffinen (20-70%), asphaltharzfrmigen Substanzen (20-40%), Kieselgelharz, len, Wasser und mechanischen Beimengungen besteht. Paraffine sind die Kohlenwasserstoffe der Methan-Reihe von C16H34 bis C64H130.
Die physikalische Eigenschaften des Paraffins sind folgende: die Dichte im festen Zustand betrgt 865- kg/m3, und im Schmelzzustand – von 777 bis 790 kg/m3, die Schmelztemperatur liegt im Bereich von 42-550°C. Der Paraffin, der aus Erdl ausscheidet, ist durch schwere Kohlenwasser und Harze verschmutzt, die die Farbe von gelb bis schwarz variieren. Nicht alle Erdle, die den Paraffin enthalten, erschweren die Frderung. Alles hngt von der Tempera tur, dem Druck und dem Erdlzustand in der Schicht ab.  Die Erdlparaffine unter Schichtbedingungen kommen in gelstem Zustand vor. Die Erdle von einem und demselben Ort enthalten je weniger Paraffin, desto mehr Harzsubstanzen sie haben. Der Paraffingehalt der Erdle in einem Erdlvorkommen wchst mit der Anlagerungstiefe. Die Schmelztemperatur der festen Paraffinkohlenwasserstoffe Секция 20. GEOLOGY, MINING AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING (ENGLISH, GERMAN) hngt von der Molekularmasse ab. Die Paraffinlslichkeit in organischen Flssigkeiten senkt bei der Vergrerung der Molekularmasse und wchst bei der Temperaturerhhung.
In chemischer Hinsicht unterscheiden sich die Paraffine durch Bestndigkeit gegenber verschiedenen chemi schen Reagenten. Die Schwefelsure wirkt auf den Paraffin weder bei niedriger noch bei hoher Temperatur. bliche Stickstoff- und Salzsure und Laugen sind in bezug auf Paraffin inert. Der Paraffin wird in der Luft leicht oxidiert.
Bitumonse Stoffe beinhalten Stickstoff, Schwefel und Sauerstoff. Die genannten Stoffe verfgen ber eine hohe Molekularmasse, sie sind nicht flchtig und haben eine hohe Inhomogenitt. Nach der Klassifikation von einigen Gelehrten gehren Asphaltene zur Gruppe der Harzverbindungen.
Der Inhalt der Harzstoffe und der Paraffine ist durch Rckverhltnis verbunden. Das Erdl enthlt eine gerin ge Menge der Asphaltene (2-5%). Die Dichte schwankt im Bereich von 1000 kg/m3, sie lsen sich gut in Benzol, und sind unlslich im Alkohol und Benzin.
Die Ausfllung der Asphaltharz- und Paraffinablagerungen ist der Hauptgrund der Verschlechterung der Dur chlacharakteristik in der Abbauzone der lfrdernden Bohrlcher. Es gibt zwei Bildungs- und Entwicklungsstufen der Asphaltharzparaffinablagerungen. Die erste Stufe ist die Entstehung der Kristallisationszentren und Kristallwachstum unmittelbar auf der mit Erdl kontaktierenden Oberflche. In der zweiten Stufe vollzieht sich die Ausfllung der greren Kristalle auf die mit Paraffinen bedeckte Oberflche.
Die Bildung der Asphaltharzparaffinablagerungen beeinfluen folgende Faktoren:
die Druckabnahme in der Bohrlochsohle und die damit verbundene Strung des hydrodynamischen Gleichgewichts des Gasflssigkeitssystems;
die Temperaturabnahme in der Schicht und im Bohrlochstamm;
die Vernderung der Strmungsgeschwindigkeit des gasflssigen Gemisches und seiner einzelnen Komponenten;
die Zusammensetzung der Kohlenwassestoffe in jeder Phase des Gemisches;
das Volumenverhltnis der Phasen;
der Zustand der Rohroberflche.
Die Ablagerungsintensitt der Asphaltharzparaffinablagerungen hngt von dem bergewicht eines oder mehre ren Faktoren, die sich nach der Zeit und Tiefe verndern knnen. Darum ist die Menge und der Charakter der Ablagerun gen nicht konstant.
Abb. Ausfllung der Asphaltharzparaffinablagerungen in den Pumpenkompressorrhren Der Inhalt der Asphaltharzparaffinablagerungen im Erdl der Lagersttte Maiskoje ist ziemlich hoch und schwankt von 14,07% bis 21,08%. Es gibt zwei prinzipielle Verfahren zur Beseitigung dieser unerwnschten Erschei nung:
1. die Vorbeugung der Paraffinablagerungen;
2. verschiedene Beseitigunsmethoden des abgelagerten Paraffins.
Das erste Verfahren ist bevorzugt und basiert auf der Schaffung der Bedingungen im Laufe des Frderbetrie bes, die die Paraffinablagerung verhindern und ihre Abtragung von der Innenoberflche der Pumpenkompressorrhren erleichtern.
Die gegebene Einstellung schliet folgende Methoden ein:
die Senkung der Unebenheiten der Innenoberflche der Pumpenkompressorrhren durch Sinterung von Glas, Emaille, Speziallack oder die Herstellung aus Kompositionsstoffen;
Vibrationsmethoden (sie erlauben es, Ultraschallschwingungen im Bereich der Paraffinbildung zu schaffen, die die Paraffinkristalle bewirken und ihre Mikrobwegung stimulieren, was die Paraffinablagerung an den Rohrwnden verhindert);
chemische Methoden (basiert auf der Beimischung in die Frderproduktion der chemischen Verbindungen, die die Ablagerungen vermindern oder sogar verhindern;
die Ausnutzung der physikalischen Felder (die aussichtsreiche physikalische Methode).
Die zweite Einstellung ist meist verbreitet und wird in einige Verfahren gegliedert:
1. Mechanische Verfahren 2. Wrmeverfahren 3. Chemische Verfahren ПРОБЛЕМЫ ГЕОЛОГИИ И ОСВОЕНИЯ НЕДР Das verbreiteste mechanische Verfahren ist die Verwendung eines Molches. Bei der Eruptionsfrderung be wegt sich der Molch mit Hilfe des Flaschenzuges und des Molchdrahtes.
Die verbreitesten termischen Methoden der Beseitigung der Asphaltharzparaffinablagerungen im Frderbetrieb sind die Dampfaufheizung und die Bohrlochsplung mit heiem Erdl. Im letzten Fall ist es empfehlenswert, ins Erdl auch gelste Inhibitoren der Paraffinablagerungen beizumischen. Bekanntlich ist das Einpumpen des Wrmetrgers in den Ringraum keine effektive Methode der Ablagerungsbeseitigung, da es bedeutende Wrmeverluste an den umgeben den Raum mglich sind. Was die Ablagerungsbeseitigung in den Pumpenkompressorrhren anbetrifft, so ist es effektiver, elektrische Kabel und Tauchelektroerhitzer auszunutzen, die immer im Bohrloch da sind und whrend der Reinigungspe riode eingeschaltet werden.
Es sei auch auf die hohe Effizienz der chemischen Lsungsmittel bei der Bearbeitung der Frdersonden hinge wiesen. Es ist damit verbunden, dass bei der Wirkung des Lsungsmittels nicht nur die Beseitigung der Asphaltharzparaf finablagerungen in den Pumpenkompressorrhren, sondern auch in der Bohrlochsohle der Schicht vor sich geht. Als L sungsmittel fr Asphaltharzparaffinablagerungen seien die Mittel des Typs Nefras, Gemische von aromatischen Nefras, oder jene mit Hexan- oder Toluolfraktionen empfohlen. Als Paraffinablagerungsinhibitoren mit dismulgierenden Eigen schaften werden solche verwendet, wie: Inhibitoren des Typs SNPH, X-TOL, HT-48, Inpar, Sonpar, zusammengesetzte Reagenten IP-1, IP-2, IP-3, stabiles Gaskondensat. Ein sehr effektiver Inhibitor ist TH-1907.
Die Inhibitionserfahrung der Asphaltharzparaffinablagerungen in den einheimischen Erdlfeldern zeugt davon, dass die Technologie der ununterbrochenen Inhibitorzufhrung mit Hilfe der Dosierpumpe durch den Ringraum ins Erdl am effektivsten ist.  Heute sind die im Erdlvorkommen fr die Entparaffinierung eingesetzten Methoden zur Beseitigung der Pa raffinablagerungen insgesamt effizient, aber sie lsen die Aufgabe ihrer Vorbeugung nicht. Das heit, im Bohrloch entstehen nach bestimmter Zeit die Asphaltharzparaffinablagerungen wieder.
Literatur Ljuschin S.W., Repin N.N. ber den Einflu der Strmungsgeschwindigkeit auf die Intensitt der 1.
Paraffinablagerungen in den Rhren. – M.: Nedra, 1965. – 340 S.
Persijanzew M.N. Die Erdlfrdeung unter erschwerten Bedinungen. – M.: GmbH „Nedra-Buisinnes-Zentrum, 2000. – 2.
Tronow W.P. Bildungsmechanismus von Harzparaffinablagerungen und ihre Beseitigung. – M.: Nedra, 1970. – 192 S.