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CURRENT PROBLEMS OF PRODUCING HIGH-QUALITY MOTOR FUELS A.A. Serbin Scientific advisor associate professor M.V. Vlasova National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia In recent years issues of quality of motor fuels are actively discussed in Russian and foreign specialized edi tions and journals. This is due to the role motor fuels play in the economic development of any country. There are at least two main reasons of the active interest in the motor fuels of high quality worldwide. They are environmental requirement toughening to motor fuels and a significant increase in the cost of hydrocarbons and the problem of their rational use. In Russia the problem of quality of motor fuels is usually connected with the need to replace the export of crude oil with the export trade of petroleum products. Indeed, in industrialized countries the requirements to fuel quality are higher than in Russia. However, these requirements cant be applied only for export products. In this case, we do discriminate against the Russian domestic market.

There are several reasons of lower quality requirements to Russian fuel. Firstly, the development of the Russian oil refining industry cant ensure the mass production of high quality fuels. Secondly, there is no economic incentive to improve the quality of fuels produced by Russian refineries. Finally, there is the lack of understanding of those state agencies that can reverse the situation by adopting appropriate legislative measures. Most Russian refineries dont pos sess the technology of high-octane gasoline production, which satisfy the requirements for the content of benzene and total amount of aromatic hydrocarbons. The appropriate technologies to reduce benzene in gasoline are known, they do not require large investments (separation of benzene and methylcyclopentane in the hydroisomerization) and can be im plemented in the short term. Its much harder to achieve the desired content in the gasoline aromatics (to 30%).The solu tion of this problem would require the implementation of catalytic cracking, alkylation, isomerization, production of oxy gen-containing compounds such as alcohols and others.

Significant investments are necessary to organize the production of high-quality motor fuels at Russian oil refi neries. Unfortunately, the Russian tax legislation ignores capital intensity and duration of the investment cycle. New projects in oil refining are very risky. Consequently, no major oil refineries have been built in the territory of Russia over the past 30 years, although the need for new modern refineries is obvious. State assistance in the implementation of capi tal-intensive and risky projects may involve the provision of investment incentives, namely, reduction of income tax in the period of development, the abolition of duties on imported equipment, the possibility of accelerated depreciation of fixed assets and others. The production analysis of major oil products in Russia over recent years reveals the following trend: production of motor gasoline is being improved. Thus, production of motor gasoline AI-92 and gasoline of higher quality has been increased twice. Nevertheless, a significant volume of low-quality gasoline production (AI-76 and AI 20. GEOLOGY, MINING AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING (ENGLISH, GERMAN) 80) makes more than 13 million tons per year or 44.7% of the total output of motor gasoline. Because of the low quality export of gasoline in Russia hasnt been increased for the last years.

Engine efficiency and its characteristics i.e. power, specific fuel consumption and emission depends on the de gree of compression of gasoline engines. Effectiveness of high-octane gasoline use grows with the oil price increase, i.e. oil consumption per unit of transport using high-octane gasoline is lower. The increase of the octane number of gaso line will require the expansion of the secondary processes for refining of gasoline fractions (catalytic reforming, isomeri zation) and production of high-octane components (alkylates, alcohols, esters). This will require significant investments and will lead to the cost increase of gasoline. The optimal value of the octane number is determined by the level of oil refining industry development and oil prices. One of the criteria of crude oil effectiveness may be, in our view, oil con sumption and reduction of fuel production cost per unit of transport, for example, to 100 thousand kilometers. The results of calculations show that the volume of vehicles work for 1 ton of crude oil increases by 12.5% when gasoline AI-93 is produced instead of AI-76. The effectiveness of high-octane gasoline improves with oil price increase, and saving rate outgoes oil price increase. For example, when oil price does up twice the economic effect of production and use of petrol AI-93 instead of the AI-76 is increased in 2.9 times. Taken into consideration the fact that in recent years oil prices are rising faster than the cost of equipment, the implementation of the new refining processes will boost their efficien cy. Therefore, in industrialized countries gasoline with an octane rating no lower than 95 points according to the research method is currently used.

Price decrease for motor fuels will increase the competitiveness of the products of almost all economic sectors, especially agriculture, construction, transportation, light industry. A great demand for high-quality motor fuels in the domestic market will stimulate the development of domestic oil refining. Tax reduction per unit of fuel will be compen sated for by consumption growth and increase of tax allocation in other industries. Such use of the stabilization fund wouldnt lead to the increase of inflation in the country (the main argument for preservation of the stabilization fund). In addition to the total tax reduction it is advisable to change the excise duties, namely, to reduce the excise tax on high quality motor fuels. This will stimulate the use of low-consumption engines with high compression ratio and will contri bute to the efficiency of oil refining and transport. These actions are considered to be appropriate at present, because it is planned to set in operation a number of modern automobile factories. Their production will require the use of high-octane gasoline AI-95 and AI-98 and if the domestic refining fails to provide the desired output of gasoline, it will cause the situation when Russia, exporting crude oil, will import high-quality gasoline.

The cost of oil in the domestic market is very important for the effective development of the Russian econo my. The price of oil in Russia is influenced by three main factors:

the cost of oil;

tax policy of the state;

the level of world oil prices.

Cost of oil production in Russia in various deposits ranges from 3 to 10 dollars per barrel. A significant part of the oil price in Russia is the tax on mineral extraction, which depends on the current world oil prices and currency ex change rate.

The rate tax on mineral extraction that is established nowadays is soundly criticized by oil companies, be cause it doesnt account for the difference in terms of oil production. Moreover, when tax on mineral extraction is con nected with the world oil price, the fact that only part of Russian oil is exported isnt taken into consideration. Most oil companies, especially small and medium-size, export more than 30% of crude oil. Thus, the price of oil is artificially exposed to the fluctuation in accordance with changes in world prices, which cause instability in the domestic oil mar ket. For example, since September 2005 the cost of oil production in Russia declined from 8000-8500 USD / ton up to 5300-5500 USD / ton in January 2006. It is interesting to note that retail prices for petroleum products in Russia during this period decreased. It can be explained by lots of reasons, the price of oil makes 80% of the total cost of petroleum products.

It seems reasonable to leave the same principle of calculating of the mining tax for exported oil which exists nowadays but for the oil sold inside the country the tax on mineral extraction must be calculated taking into account the domestic price of crude oil or petroleum products. In Russia transfer price for oil is widely used, it does not reflect the real cost of oil, therefore to calculate the tax on mineral extraction it is preferable to use retail prices for fuel at petrol stations, which reflect an objective reality. Such a scheme will stabilize the domestic prices for petroleum products and create conditions for their decrease.

References Oil, gas and solid fossil fuels refining technology / Edited by S. A. Akhmetov. M: St Petersburg, Nedra, 2009. 1.


2. http//trans-grandasoil.ru/contact.html THE HYDRODYNAMIC CAVITATION PHENOMENON AND ITS APPLICATION TO WELL DRILLING AND OPERATION S.V. Shats Scientific advisors associate professor I.B. Bondarchuk, senior teacher T.V. Bocharova National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia Cavitation is a process of formation of bubbles (cavities) in a fluid flow. Such bubbles are usually filled in with gas, vapor or gas-vapor mixture and they occur due to the decrease in fluid pressure down to pressure of saturated vapors.

The cavitation process starts when very small cavities appear on an immersed body in points of the minimal pressure or in their close proximity. Originating from its nucleus, each cavitation bubble grows up to its final size and then collapses.

The entire process takes place within few milliseconds. Cavitation bubbles appear one after another so fast that look like a cavity [6].

When a cavitation bubble collapses, inside it there occurs high pressure and high temperature. Experiments proved that when collapsing it generates impact waves producing the pressure difference up to 400 MPa and the tempera ture goes up by 500...800 on the material - bubble interface [5].

In liquids the cavitation can be caused by at least the following [5]:

1) By liquid flowing around an immersed body (hydrodynamic cavitation);

2) By vibration of the body immersed into liquid (vibrational cavitation);

3) By electric discharge occurred in liquid (electric cavitation).

Application of cavitation erosion is one of the most prospective ways of enhancing the rock breakage efficiency while drilling and operating a well. The cavitation erosion assists the extensive wear of solid surface due to impact load produced by collapsing the cavitation gas-bubbles [7]. Devices that help to cause and govern the cavitation erosion process are hydro cavitation tools or cavitators.

Hydrodynamic cavitation is the most common phenomenon applied in well drilling practically. Most research ers divide the phenomenon into migrating, attached, vortex and vibrational cavitation according to its physical characte ristics [9].

The migrating cavitation means that air cavities or bubbles produced in a liquid travel into and with the liquid.

Migrating cavitation bubbles can appear in zones of a lower pressure as well as in zones where a turbulent flow predomi nates. The migrating cavities grow in low pressure zones and collapse when they move into the higher pressure zones.

The attached cavitation is separation of a liquid stream from the immersed body surface;

the separation process gives rise to a large pulsating cavity that may have its limits either on the body immersed or out of it. When the cavity limits go far beyond the body flown around, it is called super cavity and the phenomenon is named supercavitation. The cavity size can be enlarged by feeding gas into it. The cavity can be clear and cloudy due to microbubbles filled in with a gas- vapor mixture and migrating along its peripherals.

The vortex cavitation can be seen in zones of separation of a liquid flow from a blunt body;

it occurs on limits of immersed jets, and, sometimes it can be a precondition for an attached cavitation.

The vibrational cavitation most often occurs in a fluid at rest when an artificial or natural vibrator is moved normally to the body on the bounder of which the cavitation occurs [9].

The Venturi tube (see Fig.) is thought to be the easiest way of generating and studying the hydrodynamic cavi tation [2].

Fig. The Venturi tube: I section of tube inlet;

II section of tube diffuser;

III critical section of tube where the cavitation cavity is formed;

IV section of tube confuser where the cavitation cavity collapses;

V section of tube outlet.

The possibility of hydrodynamic cavity occurrence is characterized by its basic parameter which is the func tion of outlet pressure 5 to inlet pressure 1:

= 5/1. (1) The cavitation is possible when = 0,1 0,8.

20. GEOLOGY, MINING AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING (ENGLISH, GERMAN) Practical application of the cavitation phenomenon to deep well drilling is very hard due to the external hydros tatic pressure increase as the well gets deeper. Such pressure increase prevents appearing a pressure relief zone and, thus, occurring a cavitation cavity. Even if the cavitation manages to occur, the cavity formed remains to be attached to the cavitator and consequently the cavity is unable to perform its work including rock breakage on the bottomhole or impact waves generation. Basing on the mentioned above the practical application of hydrodynamic cavitators to well drilling and operation is restricted by the well depth.

Hydrodynamic cavitators allow governing a cavitation erosion process that makes it possible to enhance the bottomhole rock breakage in combination with rock cutting tools. A flow of cavitation bubbles generates mechanical strain pulses on the rock surface which result in fatigue rock fracture [7].

Moreover the hydrodynamic cavitators make unsteady washing of the bottomhole possible. Such tools installed as drill-bit bumpers allow increasing the penetration rate by at least 40% and meterage per run by 30% under all other conditions being equal and in addition to other positive effects. In this case the cavitation phenomenon does not perform the rock breakage itself but produces a local zone of relief of the bottomhole from damping hydrostatic pressure and as sists the bottomhole and drill bit cleaning [6].

One of most possible applications of cavitation is decolmatage of water-supply wells. Such an application is based on that inside the filter and in its proximity there occur instantaneous pressure drops that results in various impact damage and significant-gradient filtration flows of alternating directions. Pressure waves and filtration flows oriented in different directions cumulatively cause damage of the colmatant, a cementing filter and the bottomhole [9].

To enhance the oil recovery it is necessary to restore good permeability conditions in the near-bottomhole zone and to clean it regularly. All these can be done with hydrodynamic cavitators. Cavitators give rise to a cavitation pocket on the bottomhole that assists removing colmatants from the reservoir and lift them up by a drilling mud to the surface.

Cavitation hydraulic fracturing, as opposed to a conventional hydraulic fracture, is at its new capacity. If a con ventional hydraulic fracturing opens mainly preexisting man-made cracks and main cracks of tectonic origin, the cavita tion fracturing produces multiple breakage of the rock matrix due to shock waves and thus generate a wide network of micro- and macrocracks in the bottomhole zone [5].

At present the hydraulic borehole mining of hard minerals is of a great interest. This method is based on rock breakage on the bottomhole by liquids hydraulic energy with further lifting the pulp formed up to the surface. But the method efficiency is still rather low and the reason for that is modern highly sophisticated equipment and technologies.

Economic performance indicators for the hydraulic borehole mining can be increased by application of hydro dynamic cavitation. This activity area is of current interest but still poorly-studied. The Drilling Department of the Na tional Research Tomsk Polytechnic University has been investigating this work scope that has resulted in a pilot lot of hydrodynamic cavitation tools and a test-bench for their testing. All these engineering products are protected by Russian Federation Patents.

References .., .. . 1.

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.. Shatskaya, .B. Abdusalyamov Scientific advisors associate professor A.Yu. Falk, assistant E.V. Kulagina National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia During educational survey in 2010 our group mapped a locality between Lakes Matarak and Shunet. This area is built up by Lower Devonian sediments and related to the Lower Devonian type section of the Sayan-Altai area. A good exposure of the site allowed to solve many questions of geology, but at the same time there are some points at issue, and in particular, a problem of one igneous body genesis. Particular attention was paid to exploration studies of the body in order to find out its mode of occurrence. The results of this work are shown below.

For better understanding of geological structure, a general characteristic of the survey locality is given.

The Minusinsk Intermontane Trough extends in the near-meridional direction and consists of several second order depressions (Nazarovo, Chebaki-Balakhta, Syda-Yerba, and South Minusinsk). The trough is a fragment of the extensive system of intracontinental sedimentary basins filled with Devonian-Carboniferous and less abundant Triassic Jurassic rocks and formed as a result of subsidence of the Earths crust affected by regional extension in the back zone of active continental margin under conditions close to the platform [1].

In the Shunet-Matarak area, the Lower Devonian rocks of the Byskar Group are subdivided (from bottom to top) into the Matarak, Shunet, and Aramchak formations (Table). The lower portion of the Matarak Formation consists of lithic tuff locally underlain by basal conglomerate with pebbles of limestone, granitic and gabbroic rocks. However, in most cases the tuffs directly overlie older limestone and plutonic rocks. The type locality of the upper formation is si tuated between Lake Matarak and Mount Shunet. The upper subformation consists of red sandstone (45 %), gravelstone (13 %), siltstone (6 %), conglomerate (2 %), trachyandesite and trachyrhyodacite tuffs (10 %), and dolerite sills (24 %), The sedimentary rocks contain the Early Devonian plant remains. A series of dolerite sills has been described in the Ma tarak and Shunet formations [4].

Table Lower Devonian rocks of the Chebaki-Balakhta Basin [1] Formation Thickness, m Lithology Aramchak 160 Brown tuffaceous gravelstone, tuffstone, sandstone and siltstone lenses Shunet 150-250 Greenish gray limestone and siltstone Matarak Upper subformation. Red sandstone and siltstone with ash tuff interlayers, boulder conglomerate with volcanomictic cement, and diamictice breccia 250- Lower subformation. Lapilli tuff, welded tuff tranchyandesite, basal conglo merate with calcareous cement In the Lower Devonian Byskar Group of the North Minusinsk Trough sheetlike bodies of basic composition are widespread. Four bodies exposed in the lower part of the Mount Shunet cross-section confirm that fact.

The origin of these 3 bodies (1, 2 and 4 in section from bottom to top) doesn't cause doubts, that these are sills, but the form of the 3rd body is a matter of debate. Some geologists believe that it is a lava sheet [3], others give evidence of sills formation [1,2].

To define the sheetlike igneous body origin reliably, it is necessary to emphasize the basic criteria that allow to distinguish lava flows/sheets and sills:

1. Presence of cross-cutting contacts, contact metamorphism of both underlying and overlying country rocks, and sedimentary rock xenoliths even in thin sills.

2. Lava-breccias, "rough" crust and blocky surface of effusive rocks.

3. Vesicular and amygdaloidal structures are not evidences of lava flow or sheet. Amygdales occur in sills, dikes and exocontact zones of shallow intrusions as result of degassing.

4. Holocrystalline and equigranular textures, as well as homogeneity are characteristics of sills. Lava textures change considerable;

flowing and brecciation take place.

The 3rd igneous body conformable to the sedimentary sequence dips to the northeast at an angle 15-25. It ex tends for 400 m and is 50 m thick. The lower part of the body (~40 m) consists of basalts with small phenocrysts, which have black color in fresh fracture. On weathered surface rocks have rusty-brown color due to presence of limonite, which develops at oxidation of pyroxene. The upper part of the body (~10 m) is intensively slagged. These rocks have vesicular and, at some places, amygdaloidal structure.

The upper contact of the rock body with sedimentary rocks is exposed in the vertical outcrop. It is about 30 m at length and maximum 2 m in height. The body has a complex uneven surface. The contact zone with overlying red colored sandstones and siltstones 0,5 m thick is complicated by mutual penetrating of both rocks, with fragments from to 20 cm in size. Overlying red-colored rocks have well-defined bedding which underlines their deformation as a result of intrusion.

Fig. 1. The upper contact of the rock body with sedimentary rocks The figure 1 shows the roof pendant of country sedimentary rocks forming syncline 33,5 m in width. Dip angles of bedding are too steep to form drape fold. Thus, that speaks well for formation of this structure as the result of country rock deformation by magma.

20. GEOLOGY, MINING AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING (ENGLISH, GERMAN) In many rock debris embedded in basalts, sedimentary rocks save their primary bedding, but often loose their reddish color and become dark grey. This can be explained by contact changes (hornfels formation) under action of high temperature melt.

Sedimentary rocks in the contact zone contain numerous basic melt injections and "drops", which can be distin guished by a reddish-brown color and a vesicular structure (Fig.2). Side contacts of some "drops" cut sedimentary layers and bedding dips at an angle of 45-60, while the top bedding covers such "drop". This phenomenon can be explained by that: small portions of basic melt, forced up by gases, intruded into country sedimentary rocks, but hardly by its intrusion into loose sediments. Thus, within this sedimentary rocks and their fragments can have vesicular, amygdaloidal structure similar to that of basalts. These amygdales are filled with calcite.

Fig. 2. "Drops" of basic rocks in sedimentary layers For a long time the basic distinction criterion of sills and lava flows was the structure of their upper contact with country rocks, determined by the nature and formation processes of these bodies.

Sills have upper contact with an obvious zone of contact metamorphism in overlying rocks, often of small thickness. Lava flows have rough, complex contact with a clumpy and slag top boundary with roughness which is inhe rited by bedding of overlying rocks.

In this case we observe features which are particular for lava flows (uneven surface of the body;

intensive slag ging of basalts at the upper contact;

sometimes bedding follows roughness of an igneous body roof), as well as for sills (bedding of sedimentary rocks in some cases is cut by the magmatic contact;

red-colored fragments of rocks contained in basalts are metamorphosed, and many of them have parallel bedding).

The latter features point out that the studied rock body, similar to other basic sheetlike bodies on southwestern slope of Mount Shunet, is sill.

References 1. Fedoseev G.S. Early Devonian rift-related magmatism / Magmatism and Metallogeny of the Altai and Adjacent Large Igneous Provinces with an Inroductory Essay on the Altaids. IAGOD Guidebook Series. Vol. 16. CERCAMS/NHM, London, 2007. pp. 166 171.

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: - , 2009. . 57 65.

ECOLOGICAL RISKS REGULATION IN THE SYSTEM OF HSE - MANAGEMENT AS THE FACTOR OF EFFECTIVE SOCIAL AND ECOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT IN PETROLEUM INDUSTRY J.S. Shevnina, J.A. Bolsunovskaya Scientific advisors senior teacher V.B. Romanyuk, associate professor L.V. Nadeina National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia Oil and gas development activities are expected to grow to meet the need of rapidly industrializing countries, and can be carried out safely with minimum adverse environmental impact, only through a strong company commitment to environmental protection. The host government also needs to have a solid understanding of exploration and production operations and how they may affect the environment. The activities on both sides should ideally be complementary to achieve the most cost-effective and environmentally sound approach. It is now generally acknowledged that this ap proach:

Systematically integrates environmental issues into business decisions through use of formal management systems;

Integrates health, safety and environmental management into a single program;

Considers all environmental components (air, water. soil, etc.) in decision making at strategic and operational levels;

Prevents waste at its source through pollution prevention techniques and making maximum re-use of waste components, rather than installing expensive treatment for discharges;

Evaluates alternatives on a cost/benefit/risk basis that includes environmental values;

Aims at minimizing resource inputs and Innovates and strives for continual improvement [1].

In connection with this approach on March 24, 2004 WWF together with the nongovernmental nature protec tion organizations of Russia coordinated and signed the project of Ecological Requirements to the Russian oil and gas companies.

Among the basic sections of Requirements there is an official ecological policy of the company, and also:

- Observance of legislation;

- Valuable territories and water areas;

- Environmental impact assessment;

- Approachability of the social-ecological information;

- Compensation for damage;

- Prevention and elimination of oil spill [2].

The official ecological policy of the oil-and-gas company makes provision for the appropriate system of eco logical management. It is necessary to note, that in Russia now there is no such system in their pure form. However there are all preconditions for such activity development in the Russian oil-and-gas companies. Some Russian companies started introducing the environmental management systems. According to 2009 the petroleum industry is one of leaders on this system introduction (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1. Distribution of the organizations having EMS on Russian economy industries Exploration and production operations involve a variety of relationships, from company and contractor partner ships, and joint ventures, to dealing with other stakeholders such as government and the public. Therefore, the Interna tional Standards Organization specifically developed for the petroleum industry the program, presented in the Oil Indus try International Exploration and Production Forum, which describes the basic elements of Health, Safety and Environ mental Management Systems.

According to this program, Health, Safety and Environmental Management System consists of the following elements (Fig. 2) [2].

20. GEOLOGY, MINING AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING (ENGLISH, GERMAN) Fig. 2. The Model Health, Safety and Environmental Management System All these elements are important for any management system. However, now in the oil industry risk management is played the leading role, in particular ecological. Such direction became popular in the West (since 1992.). In our country risk-management only develops. Many oil-and-gas companies consider ecological risks alongside with economic, not allocating them in a separate category.

Ecological risk (International standard ISO 14001) is probability of negative changes occurrence in a surround ing environment or the remote adverse consequences of these changes arising owing to negative influence on the envi ronment.

There are various risks classifications, but it is typical of the oil-and-gas companies following coinsurances:

- the risks caused by possible changes of the environment in which the company functions;

- the risks caused by uncertainty of the environment factors action on the company.

Ecological risks of the first kind are caused by spasmodic changes of the environment. They can be estimated with greater or smaller accuracy. Ecological risks of the second kind are caused by uncertainty. It is difficult and abso lutely impossible to estimate them. Accordingly for the company they represent the greatest and often invisible danger.

Such uncertainty turns around large costs [3].

Advantage of risk regulation in HSE - management that owing to the duly analysis it allows to increase risk probability or costs from it.

The analysis means risk estimation, namely: background, definition of danger degree in a concrete situation.

The basic method on elimination of ecological risks is insurance.

For insurance realization in sphere of natural resource use the main moment is that as a result of negative influ ence there is a change of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the surrounding environment components and the natural resources, in this connection leading to occurrence of the state and the losses of companies.

Thus, ecological risks insurance is considered as use of the insurance mechanism for protection against ecologi cal risks in sphere of natural resource use, the managing subjects resulting activity, being by potential sources of harm to an environment and the ecological risks shown as a result of managing subjects activity, directly using natural resources.

It is necessary to note, that ecological risks insurance is widespread in our country, however, in Russia there is no re quired legislative base to make this process become as much as possible effective.

HSE-management allows to systematize the approach to statement and achievement of ecological challenges and aims at revealing and minimization of ecological risks, that finally leads to minimization of the company losses, in crease of ecological efficiency which promotes fast achievement of the strategic purposes and the company challenges.

Thus, introduction HSE-management in the Russian oil-and-gas companies will allow on-line and effectively to operate ecological risks.

The world practice and the Russian experience saved up for last 5-7 years show that application of approaches to ecological risks management let the organizations combine the purposes achievement of the basic industrial and nature protection activity, providing economically effective decrease and prevention of environmental impact.

References 1. Environmental management in oil and gas exploration and production [Electronic resource]. URL:

http://www.unipie.org 2. Ecological Requirements to the Russian oil and gas companies [Electronic resource]. URL: http://www.wwf.ru 3. Ecological risks. [Electronic resource]. URL: http://infomanagement.ru PAINT COATINGS IN TANK CORROSION PROTECTION E.S. Shmyrin, P.A. Pribytkov Scientific advisors associate professor N.V. Chukhareva, associate professor T.V. Korotchenko National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia Steel oil storage tanks are affected by various aggressive working fluids (brine water, oil, dusty atmosphere, and temperature drop) during the whole operational process. Under such conditions, high metal corrosion rate often leads to penetrating tank destruction. Therefore, steel oil storage tanks are classified as one of the most ecologically fragile and technologically vulnerable elements of petroleum industry. Because of accident hazard and breakdown unpredictability, it is necessary to work out effective engineering solutions for the application of paint coating (PC), which is considered to be one of the main corrosion protection methods.

Corrosion protection of oil storage tanks, both new ones and those which are in repair, is regulated by several federal and administrative nominative documents. However, today, they can be hardly considered in the choice of the most effective paint coating. It can be explained by the fact that most paint coatings mentioned in the nominative docu ments either are no longer manufactured or do not meet one of the main requirements imposed to tank coatings: operating life must be not less than 10 years.

Paint coating product line extension, including new domestic and foreign coatings, which is being noticed in the last decade, also makes the choice of an appropriate protective coating even more difficult, both from the point of its reliability and reasonableness of costs. At the same time, it is known that the expenditures connected with paint coating might be up to 40-45 % from initial cost of a tank. However, indirect and direct costs connected with corrosion elimina tion together with ecological fees may exceed this sum. All this dramatizes the importance of an adequate choice of pro tective paint coating.

A number of Russian leading petroleum companies solve the problem of balance between protection quality and expenses following the experience of foreign colleagues.

According to the norms of international standards, particularly American API 652, and with regard to long corrosion protection experience in petroleum industry, the experts of such companies as OJSC VNIIST and Fine Metal Powders Research, Development and Manufacturing enterprise have been developed specifications for inner and external protective coatings of oil tanks. The coatings must:

be resistant to stored fluids, climatic factors, and ultraviolet rays (external coating) have good adhesion to metal sustain deformation stress occurring during tank fill-up and emptying One of the rare paint coating types, which meets all above-mentioned specifications, is polyurethane paint coat ing. It is characterized by high weather resistance, chemical stability in various fluids, resistance to abrasive wear, good adhesion and perfect external view. It combines strength properties with high elasticity. Due to these characteristics, this type of coating is rather attractive especially in a case of durable metal structure protection.

The peculiarity of FMP protection system, which provides its durability, is a combination of layers characte rized by different protective effect:

- zinc additive base coating- ZINOTAN, which provides active cathodic protection of steel due to high content of zinc powder (Fig.1 );

- top coats (body and intermediate coating) with corrosion protection coloring agents which provide the system with barrier and set decorative properties. Barrier property enhancement is achieved through application of lamellar pig ments.

In spite of the fact that certain elements of a tank are affected by fluids characterized by different corrosion rate and, therefore, various paint coatings are recommended to apply, in this case, however, a general paint coating system is suggested. It can be explained by the fact that the coating scheme differentiation might make the work of a painting crew more complicated and thats why it is not widely applied. Therefore, in our opinion, to provide equal corrosion resistance of different tank elements it is efficient to adhere to the principle of coating life equality, i.e. universal application of a paint coating which provides maximum protection in the most severe conditions.

Proposed paint coating systems have undergone full-scale specification compliance tests in OJSC VNIIST. Ac cording to the test conditions, all samples with inner coating were soaked for 1000 hrinthreepercentNaClsolutionat20, and 60 , oil at 60 ;

samples with outer coating were soaked for 240 hr in three percent NaCl solution and oil at , as well as for 1000 hr in continuous moisture condensation conditions at 40 and they were also exposed to cyclic UV radiation and moisture condensation. In the course of the tests, protective and physical mechanical properties of the coatings were estimated. In addition, thermal aging resistance was also tested at 60 andfor1000 hr, outer coating wear resistance, inner coating moisture absorption.

Both coated steel samples and unsupported films have been tested. Based on the obtained results, it has been stated:

- coating external appearance (GOST 9.407) does not change during the test in all media;

- coating adhesion, defined by X-shaped cutting (ASTM D 3359) and cross-cut test (ISO 2409, for outer coat ing) is characterized by the highest points 5A and 0 correspondingly and it is constant in all conducted tests;

- adhesive strength defined by breaking method (ISO 4624) varies within permissible limits after the tests in all media, with breaking nature being constant;

- unsupported film characteristics are stable and correspond to the specifications.

20. GEOLOGY, MINING AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING (ENGLISH, GERMAN) Besides, outer paint coatings have demonstrated high abrasion resistance (ASTM D 4060) and decorative prop erties under longstanding UV radiation. Inner paint coating is characterized by low water absorption not more than 1, % (GOST 21513) and high impact strength 15 J (ISO 6272).

Thus, full-scale specification tests have shown that combined paint coating (VMP) meets all oil tank coating specifications. Based on the test results, this combined paint coating is recommended by VNIIST to be applied in the petroleum industry, with predicted operating life being 10 years, and included in the regulative documents of JCS Trans neft.

In addition to high protective properties, VMP materials have a number of technological pluses which contri bute to their attractiveness. As they are classified as polyurethane which is hardened due to air moisture, they have all polyurethane technological properties, which make them stand out in comparison with traditional film-based coatings (epoxy or silicone resins and etc.).

It can be explained by the following facts. Firstly, polyurethane materials (VMP) are delivered ready to use:

they are one-packed that excludes the necessity of proportion allegation and restriction of paint coating operation life.

Secondly, they are characterized by high coating quality in a wide climatic range, including unfavorable conditions in Russia: at relative humidity degree - up to 98% and subzero temperature - up to 15 . Application of free-defect coatings is very essential for corrosion resistance to hydrogen sulfide-containing media, i.e. oil from the majority of oil fields of the Ural, Volga region, and West Siberia.

Thus, VMP coatings are characterized as a new long-life oil tank corrosion protection system, which has been approved by the leading Russian institute VNIIST striving at extension of cooperation with oil producing companies.

Reference John L. Kennedy. Oil and gas pipeline fundamentals. Tulsa: PermWell Publishing Company, 1993. 354 p.


GEOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SALT DEPOSITION AS FACTOR OF WATER QUALITY B.R. Soktoev, T.A. Mongolina Scientific advisors professor L.P. Rikhvanov, associate professor N.V. Baranovskaya associate professor I.A. Matveenko National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia In complex eco-geochemical research the deposited environments are soil, blood, hair, surface and sub-surface water, snow cover, vegetation and others. A prospective environment is considered to be water scale or salt deposits.

Scale is salt deposits in different heating appliances (kettles, pots, etc.) formed as a result of boiling and cooling from several months to years. The first experiments in applying salt deposits of drinking water as an quality indicator for ecological territorial conditions was rather successful [7, 8]. Such an environment (salt deposits) proved to be informative enough in determining the element composition of drinking water.

At present sampling is made in all regions of Tomsk oblast. To obtain the comparative characteristic of regional peculiarities in salt deposition the studies in Chelyabinsk, Irkutsk oblasts have been performed. The general number of salt deposition samples is 416. There are no standards in scale sampling, therefore, in the course of investigation we used patent 2298212 The way of determining uranium contaminated areas in the environment [3]. The main method of determining elemental composition is instrumental neutron-activation analysis (INAA) in nuclear-geochemical laboratory (NGL) of Tomsk polytechnic university, the content of 27 elements was determined.

The research at DRON-3M device has shown that the scale has 90 % composition of calcite with admixture of iron carbonates, magnesium, silicon, and it is identical in composition to carbonate depositions from the thermal spring of Pamukkale (Turkey), one of the geological wonders of the world. The water from the thermal springs is erupted onto the volcanic plateau bubbling from the ground and the water stream of 35 degrees C temperature including calcium carbonate flows down the slopes, cooling and transforming into dazzling white travertine deposition. Water composition in Pamuk kale: Calcium- 349,1 mg/kg;

Magnesium - 135,2 mg/kg;

Soda - 189,2 mg/kg;

Chlorine - 42,8 mg/kg;

Sulfate - 921, mg/kg;

Hydrocarbonate- 999,6 mg/kg;

Nitrite (less than) - 0,003 mg/kg;

Nitrate- 0,06 mg/kg;


The analysis of the data pointed out the wide interval in spread of values of element composition. Such wide variation can be explained by different chemical composition of aquifers from which the water supply is performed as well as by the factors influencing the formation of water chemical composition. The problem of chemical composition formation of ground water is one of the most complex in hydrogeology since its composition is regulated by a great deal of factors and processes, among them there are climate, relief, rock type, presence of organic compounds and their de rivatives (precipitation, evaporation, temperature, permeability, water cycle etc.), dissolution, bleaching, exchange reac tions, evaporation concentration, sorption, mixing, hydrolysis etc [2, 6].

To reveal the peculiarities in scale chemical composition the natural lime formations travertines have been analyzed (Fig. 1). In travertines of Pamukkale the concentration of nearly all elements is lower than that of travertines from Tomsk except for Sr. In composition of Tomsk travertines particular emphasis is placed upon the high concentration of Br (21 mg/kg). The scale composition differs from the natural formations in high concentration of Sc, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Sb, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Ta, Au, Th.

Note: Logarithmic scale Fig. 1. Comparative analysis of scale chemical composition and natural lime formations The result of research in drinking water scale from different aquifers shows that the depth of occurrence has a significant impact on its composition [1, 8]. For comparative analysis we have made two sampling: salt deposition from the dishware of inhabitants with individual water supply of aquifer occurrence depth not more than 40 m and drinking water scale of depth aquifers. A wider range of elements is accumulated in dring water scale of surface aquifers (Fig. 2), including groups of rare-earth (La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu) and natural radioactive elements (Th, U). The given feature of chemical element accumulation in ground waters was noted by V.A. Zuyev and S.L. Shvartsev [4].

Note: Logarithmic scale Fig. 2. Comparative characteristic of element composition in drinking water scale of depth and surface aquifers Ground water of surface springs are slightly protected from anthropogenic pollutants, that, in combination with natural factors, forms their composition, mosaic and unstable in space and time, which is often extrinsic to natural waters and does not meet standard requirements in many respects. A significant role in water supply of such aquifers is played by infiltration of rain and snow water. Besides, there is a wide range of elements in atmospheric precipitation which, passing through the soil, are enriched with the elements from soil solutions. Soil solutions are accumulators of various microelements carrying out by infiltrating water.

In the case of surface aquifers the accumulation site of rare-earth elements are clearly fixed in those inhabited areas where samples were taken from inhabitants using individual water supply (well, hole) for drinking water. Thus, in Moryakovskiy zaton village the highest concentrations of rare-earth elements are pointed out in the surface aquifers (La 102 mg/kg, 95 mg/kg, Sm 19 mg/kg, Eu 4,5 mg/kg, Tb 2,6 mg/kg, Yb 5 mg/kg, Lu- 0,85 mg/kg), but in the depth the concentration of those elements is lower the limit of determination. This fact allows for speaking about possible anthropogenic source of these elements.

In the depth aquifers rare-earth elements are accumulated mostly and more intensively in the south and south east part of Tomsk oblast. On those aquifers of the given regions the coal, bauxite and zircon-ilmenite deposits are lo cated. Besides, on the boundaries with Kemerovo oblast and Krasnoyarsk Territory the areas are rich in mineral resources that can influence the water composition, which is reflected in salt deposition composition from the dishware.

20. GEOLOGY, MINING AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING (ENGLISH, GERMAN) mg/kg 0, 0, Na Ca Sc Cr Fe Co Zn As Br Rb Sr Ag Sb Cs Ba La Ce Sm Eu Tb Yb Lu Hf Ta Au Th U TO TSIC ChO IO UNE Note: Logarithmic scale, Tomsk oblast, SIC Tomsk-Seversk Industrial Complex, ChO Chelyabinsk oblast, I Irkutsk oblast, UNE underground nuclear explosion, average composition (mg/kg) is calculated taking into account the hurricane samples.

Fig. 3. Regional peculiarities of drinking water scale composition To reveal the regional peculiarities in salt deposition (scale) of drinking water the comparative analysis of drinking water scale composition was performed in Tomsk, Chelyabinsk and Irkutsk oblasts (Fig. 3). In Chelyabinsk oblast three settlements located in vicinity to the large nuclear-fuel plant Mayak (Muslumovo, Khudayberdinsk, Ar gayash) were investigated. In Irkutsk oblast more than 64 samples were studied including the settlements located within the area of the underground nuclear explosion Rift-3. The calculation of average concentrations in the regions has shown that Chelyabinsk and Irkutsk oblasts are distinguished by higher concentrations of U and Br in comparison with Tomsk. Besides, the elevated concentrations of rare-earth elements in comparison with other studied oblasts are to be referred to the geochemical peculiarities of drinking water scale composition in Chelyabinsk oblast. In Tomsk oblast the elevated concentrations of iron and cobalt were observed, which account for general geochemical feature of the region conditioned by elevated concentrations of the given elements in water due to occurrence of ores of Western-Siberian iron-ore basin [5].

As it was shown by our research, element composition of scale clearly accounts for technogeneous constituent of the impact. To present this fact strictly the average element composition was calculated for selected settlements located under the constant influence of Tomsk-Seversk industrial complex: Georgievka, Naumovka, Chernaya Rechka (Yuksa), Samus, Orlovka, Kizhirovo, Moryakovka, Kozyulino. The results have shown that in these settlements the concentrations of such elements as Br, Cs, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Hf are higher as compared to the values of Tomsk oblast in gen eral. With the same purpose the settlements located in the zone of nuclear explosion in Irkutsk oblast were studied sepa rately: Khandagay, Obusa, Borokhol. Calculation of average value has shown that the concentrations of Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Br, Rb, Sb, Ba, Ce, Sm, Yb, Hf, Th in those settlements is higher than in Irkutsk oblast in general.

Thus, it is possible to state that the element composition of salt deposits can be applied not only as a quality in dex for drinking water, but also, for existing eco-geochemical environment of a territory, considering data of other natural environments.

References .. 1.

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, 1982.

2298212 .


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.. . .: , 1998. 366 .


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// . - 2004. - 1. - . 67 - 69.

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COLLAPSIBLE PIPELINE SYSTEMS K.S. Svekla, D.A. Chernobay Scientific advisors associate professor V.G. Krets, associate professor N.S. Kovalenko National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia Crude oil transportation from the remote oil fields, i.e. Siberia, the Extreme North and the Far East, has recently become a very topical problem. Year by year the territory of oil extraction moves away northward from the regions with a well-developed infrastructure and transportation system. At the same time a considerable capital investment is neces sary for the construction and maintenance support of transportation facilities in the new places of oil recovery. In most cases it is difficult to estimate the amount of oil reserves in the new discovered oil deposits exactly and to provide a commercial development of the deposits in the hard-to-reach areas because oil transportation is not available. Due to this situation nowadays almost about 30% of all oil wells hold in inventory is not exploited.

Thus, oil transportation by motor transport under such conditions is not effective. Oil production becomes un profitable as the cost price of oil substantially grows. As a rule, the construction of stationary pipelines on the experimen tal stage of field development is connected with the economic risk and considerable capital investments that is not always functional and economically sound. Taking everything into account, the best way of oil transportation is to use collapsi ble pipeline systems [6].

Main collapsible pipelines MCP-150, characterized by 150 mm nominal diameter and 6 MPa operating pres sure, are manufactured according to the technical specifications 4193-001-48522239-04 and are used for transportation of oil and oil products, industrial and drinking water, as well as other liquids from the area of their production, processing and storage to the places of their consumption and distribution.

Main collapsible pipelines MCP-150 can be applied at temperatures from 60 below zero to 80 above zero.

That is why this type of pipelines may be used in any climate and natural conditions. The use of pipe joint known as bell-type joint allows cutting down the pipeline construction expenses as no welding is required. The use of a bell type joint also gives the opportunity to pipeline through such obstacles as water bodies, ravines and rocks, as well as to dismount the pipeline and move it to another place at any time [5].

Fig. Bell-type joint Silicon manganese steel (16% carbon, 1% manganese, 1% silicon), having inner and outer zinc coatings, can be used in a wide range of the operating media and has a much longer service life period. Main collapsible pipelines with a nominal diameter of 150 mm and operating pressure of 6,3 MPa allow transporting up to 1 million tons of oil and oil products per year. Moreover, the cost of such kind of pipes is considerably lower in comparison with the modern ana logous pipes which, in their turn do not meet specification requirements.

Collapsible pipeline systems were designed for the military to supply the army and navy with fuel during the military operations. After a long period of development and improvement collapsible pipeline systems have become the most perfect ones not only in Russia but abroad as well. Collapsible pipelines are the combination of advanced scientific ideas and highly developed technologies. As for their specification Russian collapsible pipeline systems with a bell type joint are unique especially in terms of the availability of machine-operated mounting and great amounts of oil trans ported. The operating pressure of the bell-type joint is up to 6 MPa. Assembling and disassembling of the bell-type joint requires some special tools.

Being highly effective for the small and medium size oil fields development, the following characteristics of the metallic collapsible pipelines should be paid attention to:

high-speed construction of line pipe section combined with the relatively little man-hours;

possibility of constructing and using in any climate and natural conditions, following any natural ground contours, with minimal environmental survey and engineering reducing a damage effect of a pipeline construction on the surrounding environment to minimum;

highly developed and low cost technologies of pipeline construction combined with an easy maintenance personnel training;

pipeline operating regardless of any external power supply;

high reliability and environmental safety;

stringing construction providing the opportunity to run a pipeline or pipeline system of any length or geometry;

low cost price of transportation, etc.

20. GEOLOGY, MINING AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING (ENGLISH, GERMAN) The total length of collapsible pipelines on the territory of the Russian Federation is more than 1000 km. Col lapsible pipeline systems prove themselves to be a safe and cost-effective solution in such companies as TNK-BP, Irkutsk Oil Company, Dulisma Oil Company, Lenaneftegaz Company, Mezhregiontruboprovodstroi Company, Northern Lights Oil Company, and others. Many of these companies prefer main collapsible pipelines with high flow capacity.

They also export this type of pipelines.

Collapsible pipelines were first used for oil pumping in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) in 1996. Owing a number of major oil fields and having no possibilities to transport oil from hard-to-reach regions, the Republic of Sakha had to import up to 160 000 tons of diesel fuel for energy and heat supply every year. At the same time local resources were minimally exploited. Thus, oil produced at the Talakanskoye gas-and-oil field situated in the taiga could be trans ported by a truck tank only using the winter road during a particular period from November till March. Throughout this season not more than 9000 tons of oil was transported by motor transport from the Talakanskoye field.

In order to improve the situation the government of Yakutia decided to buy a collapsible pipeline system MCP 150 for oil transportation from the Talakanskoye field to the settlement Vitim on the left bank of the Lena River from the RF Ministry of Defense. During the whole period of operating this oil pipeline there were no accidents or fails of the pipeline equipment or machinery. Gained in the harshest environments in the Siberian Taiga, the experience of operating collapsible pipeline systems for oil transportation was highly demanded. Constructed afterwards oil pipelines are meant for a year-round operation. At present the collapsible pipeline engineering and construction for oil transportation is car ried out by the Federal State Unitary Enterprise 25th State Research and Development Institute of the Ministry of De fence of the Russian Federation together with the LLC NEFTEGAZ ENGINEERING [5].

A conventional main field pipeline is constructed from metal pipes and has a number of essential drawbacks.

Having small pipe length and a lot of coupling joints, relocation, mounting and dismounting of the pipeline takes a lot of time and efforts. In addition, oil transportation is characterized by high friction pressure losses and risk of oil leaking. A main pipeline construction requires a specially developed route. All above mentioned drawbacks have a negative effect on efficiency and safety of the metallic main pipeline.

To avoid all these problems it is better to apply flexible pipelines of new generation based on layflat hose tech nology. Flexible pipelines with a layflat hose technology offer greater pipeline capacity and essential performance advan tages over conventional rigid pipelines:

low operating costs, easier to store and transport, short time for reeling and unreeling of a flexible pipeline, elimination of pipeline route development, low friction pressure losses;

fast deployment and retrieval saves labour costs. Flexible layflat hose used instead of a rigid pipe is deployed by a motor reel. 200 m long hose allows a 30 times cutting of the number of joints and couplings;

lighter and more compact for economical storage, easy to use and transport (e.g. 1 km of a layflat hose on a compact 2x2 m reel is equal to 160 conventional rigid steel pipes);

safe and environmentally friendly, flexible, tough and durable with exceptional resistance to damage and outflow, with a hose retrieval cleaning system.

Wide application of the main collapsible pipelines and their significant role in water, oil and oil product trans portation set up special requirements to their reliability, efficiency and other operational properties. A long-term expe rience of collapsible pipelines application combined with the use of composite materials for pipelines manufacturing allows significant improving of these characteristics and properties.

References . .: , 2004. 9.


2. eCraft Industry portal 09/02/2011 Application of collapsible pipeline systems. Retrieved from http://www.ecraft.ru/articles/169/ viewed 10/02/2011.

3. MILROY company official site 05/02/2011 Collapsible pipelines from composite material. Retrieved from http://www.milroy.biz/ viewed 10/02/2011.

LLC NEFTEGAZ ENGINEERING official site 04/02/2011 Collapsible pipelines. Retrieved from http://www.


ngiproject.com/ viewed 10/02/2011.

Collapsible pipelines 02/01/2011 Pipelines . Retrieved from http://www.pmtp150.ru/ viewed 10/02/2011.


6. RPI 10/02/2011 Collapsible pipelines. Retrieved from http://www.rpi-inc.com/ viewed 10/02/2011.

PROSPECTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF COAL INDUSTRY IN RUSSIA AS A PART OF ENERGY STRATEGY S.V. Syrodoy Scientific advisor associate professor N.Y. Gutareva National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia In Russia, since 2006 there is a shortage of energy consumption and capacity of its production, the illustration of this situation is given in Figure 1, where 1 is the required power, 2 serving power, 3 power with an expired ser vice life [1].

The necessary adjustments are being made to prevent the entire time growing energy deficit in the federal pro gram "Energy Strategy of Russia until 2020". One of the main consequences of these adjustments is that the Russian energy sector is necessary to switch to coal. One of the main reasons for the predominance of "polluting" coal over a "clean" gas is the optimum ratio of fuel prices. Gas is significantly more expensive than coal. Today, in the world's elec tricity production the main contribution is made by means of coal (40%), significantly less gas (19%), in Russia, the situ ation is diametrically opposed to it [1].

mln kVt Fig. 1. Shortage of energy consumption and production capacity Traditionally, the Russian domestic gas prices are below the price of coal, which deprives the incentives for coal and energy. Because of this, in Russia, by contrast, the largest contribution to energy production makes in gas (52%) and only (16%) in coal. However, in the Russian Federation, the situation is changing in the direction of the general world trends. Changing patterns of consumption of primary energy resources (PER) in the Russian Federation for the year period up to 2030 according to the latest documents is illustrated in Figure 2.

mln kVt years Fig. 2. Patterns of primary energy resources consumption in Russia Outpacing growth in energy consumption requires rapid and large-scale entry of new generating capacity, the structure which meets the requirements of economic efficiency and ensuring energy security. Estimates of the cost of fuel are the main criterion in selecting the type of generation. In the result of the "target vision..." a new understanding of the Russian coal industry has been developed. Resulting in a reduction in consumption of gas and fuel oil due to the accele rated development of coal power (something called the second wave of coal) and then by priority nuclear power and hydropower. Traditionally, because of the large component of the gas in the energy and chemical industry in Russia, its role will remain high. It is expected that by 2030 the share of gas will drop to 44%, while the share of coal will rise to 19%. This process should be accompanied by price controls on fuel.

Most of the Russian coal-fired plants are physically and morally obsolete equipment that is not relevant to modern technological standards. Their efficiency is about 34-36%, plus they have a high percentage of harmful emis sions. Need to improve the efficiency of the station and the tightening of environmental regulations requires the devel opment of new coal generation based on advanced coal combustion, and improved technologies for extracting and trans porting coal. Without the introduction of these technologies to build a new coal-fired generation makes no sense [1].

It should be emphasized that for a number of new technologies lag in the Russian Federation has become criti cal. For example, at the expense of low-temperature combustion technology of energy production provides an additional reduction of harmful emissions and does not require expensive and cumbersome purification systems. In Russia, a similar development due to chronic underfunding in the best case is at the stage of prototypes. Therefore, at present in the Rus sian Federation we went on the road (not the most optimal) purchase of overseas production technology of such equip ment. Analysis of technical and economic performance leads to the conclusion that the modernization of existing thermal power plants and other facilities of the coal industry is preferable to new construction on the capital costs and construc tion period. Depending on the type of fuel costs for modernization may be an amount less than 1,5-2 times. Traditionally, 20. GEOLOGY, MINING AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING (ENGLISH, GERMAN) the reputation of coal power is suffering because of problems with the environment. There are significant environmental constraints. The first ash, but it can be recycled in road construction and building materials, and it is done in such a way in developed countries. The second is nitric oxide, which emits more than burning gas. There is the multi-billion dollar program to clean coal technology in the U.S. that is in the final stage [2].

Russia also has works that should be implemented. It is important to create an interdisciplinary technical system - energoagropromkompleks, which includes advanced technologies of production, coal combustion and flue gas cleaning, waste management and closure of the effluent, and more.

It is virtually non-waste integrated system with the highest environmental and economic indicators. Clean coal technology [2] can solve also the problem of greenhouse gases, primarily carbon dioxide. The development of these tech nologies in this aspect is conducted on three fronts. The first track supercritical combustion of coal. They have already been well known. Second, developing in the west, the direction of technology is an integrated cycle integrated gasifica tion of coal. The third direction study the possibility of carbon capture and underground storage of carbon dioxide in geological cavities. Today, there is only one project in America "futuregen", but the technology is still far to its logical conclusion [3]. In summary, we can come to conclusion that the development and application of technologies for produc tion, transportation and burning of coal is the most economically viable and promising. It is expected that soon the gov ernment energy policy will be aimed at the development of the coal industry.

References Solamatov. V. Status and prospects for coal and nuclear power in Russia // Thermophysics and Aeromechanics. 1.

Novosibirsk, 2009. T.16. 4.

Clean Coal. Technology Demonstration Program. US Department of Energy. Update, 1994. 169 p.


Hanjalic K., Lekic A., Krol R. Sustainable Energy Technologies: Options and Prospects. Springer, 2008. 336 p.


PURIFICATION METHODS AT RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION I.. Timina Scientific advisors associate professor M.P.Chubik, associate professor I.A. Matveenko National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia In the context of intensive development of nuclear engineering, the study of methods for the sorption of ra dioactive elements is a very hot topic. Operation of nuclear power station is inevitably connected with the formation of significant quantities of radioactive waste. Radioactive wastes are the product of electricity production at nuclear power plants. The main problem now is the question of their processing and storage. One of these problems is recycling of liq uid radioactive waste. Now there are a lot of liquid radioactive waste recycling methods, but the question of their imple mentation and application of new sorbate materials remains an open question.

Nowadays we know a lot of mineral, synthetic and organic sorbates, each group has both positive and negative qualities. A big advantage of organic sorbates, mainly of biological origin, is a broad spectrum of activity and low ash content. A special place among the sorbates of biological origin is occupied by chitin. This is the only polysaccharide in a molecule which has nitrogen from the acetyl amide group. Because of this, chitin and some of its derivatives have strong sorption ability. The main sorption mechanism of chitin is chelating, so it absorbs almost all heavy metals, including actinides, and almost indifferent to light metals, for example, biogenic elements such as potassium, sodium, calcium and others that provide them with a broad scope application. Chitin is found in the outer walls of fungi, the outer cover of insects and crustaceans. It is not dissolved in the gastrointestinal tract, absorbs radioactive elements and removes them from the body.

Now nanomaterials and nanotechnology are used for sorption. The study of nanomaterials and nanotechnology in the nuclear industry began in the middle of last century, almost simultaneously with the first nuclear weapons test in 1949. In 1965, the USSR team of staff Sredmash members (present Rosatom) was awarded with the Lenin Prize for the execution of work, during which the ultra-fine powders were obtained, that could be used in industrial technologies of uranium isotope separation (work was begun in 1948). In the 70 80s the employees of organizations Sredmash were awarded with the state prizes and got honorary titles for the development of superconductor technologies (the work was started by academician AA Bochvar in 1962). The scientists at that time did not use the prefix nano, although the de veloped materials were based on a qualitative change in the properties of the transition to the nanometer size.

The problem of processing, decontamination and disposal of liquid radioactive waste is of extreme importance.

Searching for new, more effective sorbates, whose production would not be limited to raw materials (quantity and seaso nality) and which would not have disadvantages of inorganic sorbates, is an urgent task for all the nuclear powers. It was the aim of synthesizing some new bio-and fitosorbates, which are much better than other biological and fitosorbates and most inorganic sorbates.

Sewage treatment of the radioactive elements and heavy metals is now also relevant. For example, activated charcoal is used. Filtering water through a layer of granulated charcoal or introduction into water of powdered activated carbon are the most versatile methods of removing water from the dissolved organic substances of natural and man-made origin. For a constant sorption of water treatment granular activated carbons are used, which can be regenerated and this reduces the cost of water purification, despite their large capital expenditures. Filtration through granular activated car bons gives water a better and more consistent quality.

Besides, non-carbon sorbates of natural and artificial origin (clay rocks, zeolites and other materials) have found wider application in water purification. These sorbates can be used due to high capacity, selective cation-exchange properties of some of them, a relatively low cost and availability (sometimes as a local material). Argillaceous rocks are the most common inorganic sorbates for sewage treatment. They have a developed structure with micropores of different sizes depending on the type of mineral. Most of them have a layered structure of rigid or expanding character. The me chanism of contaminant sorption on clayey materials is quite complicated and includes Van-der-Waals interaction be tween hydrocarbon chains and developed surface of silicate microcrystals and the Coulomb interaction of charged and polarized molecules of the sorbate with positively charged parts containing H+ ions and Al3+.

These circumstances in high degree have contributed to the rapid development of synthesis of organic cation and anion exchangers based on synthetic organic compounds, widely used in water desalination technology in the hy drometallurgy of precious and base metals in wastewater treatment technology and other industries.

QUANTITATIVE MODELING AND MATHEMATICAL METHODS IN RESERVOIR SIMULATION Vijai Kumar B, Anurag Sundriyal, Kamal Chandra Dani Scientific advisor professor. D.K Gupta University of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun, India Our mother earth has received and stored a large part of the energy during the last several hundred million years in the form of fossil fuels including oil and gas. These days, oil and gas account for around 64 % of the total world ener gy consumption. Despite the efforts in developing new renewable energy sources, oil and gas will continue to play a ma jor role in meeting the worlds ever increasing energy demand for the next few decades. Moreover, oil and gas are ex pected to remain the most cost effective and the most convenient sources of energy that we have at our disposal. About 70 % of todays oil and gas production rate comes from hydrocarbon fields that are more than 30 years old. But several of these fields are exhibiting a significant production decline. In order to meet the worlds future demand for oil and gas, further technological advances are essentially needed, where new developments should aim at efficiency and accuracy in sub-surface mapping, monitoring of reservoir depletion, and numerical simulation of reservoir production scenarios. This requires research across multiple disciplines, including mathematics, geology, petroleum engineering, and computer science, which in all are used in reservoir simulation processes.

Hydrocarbons are found in rocks at depths of up to five or more kilometres below the surface of the earth.

Temperatures can be higher than 130 and pressures can reach the order of 1000 atmospheres. The rocks may be more C than 100 million years old. Finding and recovering hydrocarbons uses knowledge from most of geosciences, physics and engineering. The focus of this paper is upon the contribution of mathematics and other quantitative techniques in build ing, analysing and applying models of fluid flow in the subsurface Most reservoir flow analysis introduce the basic equations, such as Darcys law, single-phase radial flow solu tions, simple well test models, and the usual descriptions of relative permeability and capillary pressure and explain ele mentary concepts in finite difference methods and modelling before referring to commercial simulators and industry case studies. However, this paper would explain the physical and mathematical insight needed to create the next generation of models or to evaluate the limitations behind existing simulation tools. Many analysis techniques and computational ap proaches employed, in fact, are incorrect, despite their common use in reservoir evaluation. This work explains new de velopments and recent advances in the relevant research areas, where special emphasis is placed on quantitative and ma thematical methods in reservoir modeling (Fig. 1).

Quantitative modelling and mathematical methods enables efficient representation of models throughout the li fecycle of a petroleum system. The geological understandings are mathematically modelled that enables the interpreter to work with the geological objects, rather than spending time creating them in the first place. Furthermore, this framework enables the use of fully automatic schemes and provides real-time user interaction with large volumes.

Problem statement. In petroleum reservoirs, oil, water, and gas may coexist and flow simultaneously. In mul tiphase reservoirs, the phase saturations add up to one, capillary pressures between phases exist, and phase relative per meability and phase potential gradient among other things affect flow properties. Although volumetric and viscosity properties of water and gas phases are not different from those in single-phase flow, oil phase properties are affected by both solution GOR(gas oil ratio) and whether the pressure is below or above the oil bubble-point pressure. The simulation of multiphase flow involves writing the flow equation for each component in the system and solving all equations for the unknowns in the system. In black-oil simulation, the components are the oil, water, and gas all at standard conditions and the flow model consists of one equation for each of the three components, the saturation constraint, and the oil/water and gas/oil capillary pressures (Fig. 2).

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