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20. GEOLOGY, MINING AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING (ENGLISH, GERMAN) Fig. 1. Quantitative Modelling Fig. 2. 2 D Radial flow reservoir Scope of study and methods. Multiphase flows pertain to the simultaneous flow of oil, water, and gas. These phases coexist and fill the pore volume of the reservoir;


So+Sw+Sg=1, (1) The survey is intended to explain modeling of a multiphase flow petroleum reservoir with interests in PVT and transport properties of oil phase, water phase, and gas phase;

the relative permeabilities to oil phase, water phase, and gas phase;

and oil/water capillary pressure and gas/oil capillary pressure.

In a black-oil system, the oil, water, and gas phases coexist in equilibrium under isothermal conditions(c=o, w, g). To describe this behaviour in a practical sense at reservoir temperature and any reservoir pressure, the oil and water phases can be assumed immiscible, neither the oil component nor the water component dissolves in the gas phase, the gas-component miscibility may be large in the oil phase but negligible in the water phase. In this case (multiphase flow) oil-phase properties are affected by pressure and solution gas/oil ratio only.

For these reservoirs, the properties are estimated from the values at the bubble-point pressure using (2) =B0, =o, (3) Nomenclature B0 = oil formation volume factor, RB/STB [m3/std m3] Bob = oil formation volume factor at bubble-point pressure, RB/STB [m3/std m3] C0=oil phase compressibility, psi- C=rate of fractional viscosity change with pressure change,psi- p= pressure, psia pb=oil bubble-point pressure, psia S=fluid saturation fraction 0=oil-phase viscosity, cp ob=oil-phase viscosity at bubble-point pressure, cp *where c0 and c are treated as constants, in general, depend on the solution gas/oil ratio at the bubble-point pressure.

In multiphase flow, oil, water, and gas may coexist in any reservoir block at any time. The capacity of the rock to transmit any phase through its pores is described by the relative permeability to that phase. The flow rate of the same phase is described by the Darcys Law in multiphase flow.

Conclusions. The accomplished research would formulate how the model equations are combined to produce a reduced set of equations for a multiphase flow reservoir (heterogeneity). It would also imply the choice of primary un knowns and secondary unknowns for the reservoir and would discuss the p0 Sw-Sg formulation, i.e., the formulation that uses p0, Sw and Sg as the primary unknowns for the reservoir and pw, pg and So as the secondary unknowns. To solve these model equations, the accumulation terms have to be expanded in a conservative way and expressed in terms of the changes of the primary unknowns over the same time step, the well production rate terms for each phase defined, and the fictitious well rate terms reflecting the boundary conditions need to be defined (Fig.3).

Fig. 3. Formulation of equations for a multiphase flow reservoir In addition, all nonlinear terms have to be linearized. This would produce linearized flow equations. The result ing set of linearized equations for all blocks can be then solved to obtain the solution for one time step.

References 1. Tarek Ahmed. Reservoir Engineering Handbook. Third edition. 2006.

2. Armin Iske, Trygve Randen. Methods and Modelling in Hydrocarbon Exploration and Production. 2005.

3. Turgay Ertekin,Jamal H.Abou-Kaseem,Gregory R.King. Basic applied Reservoir Simulation. 2001.

NEW DATA ON THE PRESENT-DAY ACTIVE FLUID REGIME OF FRACTURED ZONES OF CRYSTALLINE BASEMENT AND SEDIMENTARY COVER IN THE EASTERN PART OF VOLGA-URAL REGION L.R. Yagudina Scientific advisor professor I.N. Plotnikova Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kazan, Russia The study area is the South Tatarstan Arch located in the central part of Volga-Ural Anteclise (VUA). VUA is a typical structure occurring on the margins of continental platforms affected by pericratonic downwarping. It is characte rised by the stepwise, monoclinal plunging of the basement surface toward the folded Ural [2].

VUA is distinctly bounded by deep faults of the Russian Plate, which is a heterogeneous monoclinal block.

However, different faults, in the Riphean/Devonian magmatic sequences divide this block into smaller structures. VUA includes eight arches and three troughs, as well as some systems of disjunctive and inversive swells.

The South Tatarstan Arch is characterized by uplifted crystalline basement and is linked to the North Tatarstan Arch through the Saraily Upfold. The Arch is a large, southeast-northwest tilted block completely surrounded by faults.

Furthermore, at the eastern and southern sides, it is bounded by more than 5-km deep, buried Riphean troughs. Within the Arch, the basement topography varies between 180 and 380 m. The South Tatarstan Arch and the adjacent areas consist of Archaean, Proterozoic, Palaeozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic formations.

The major part of the study area is characterised by Archaean/Proterozoic crystalline basement, which is cov ered by the Phanerozoic sedimentary sequences with a total thickness ranging from 1,500 to 2,000 m.

The structure of the crystalline basement in the Volga-Ural Region is composed of 16 Archaean and 9 Early Proterozoic complexes [3].

Each of the subsequent stages of metamorphism through Early Proterozoic times was defined by fluid dynamic activities in the most permeable part of the Earth's crust. The eastern part of Tatarstan has been repeatedly and heavily affected by metamorphic processes.

It is this region that was a stage for the formation of the Bolshecheremshanskaya series, the subsequent active potassium granitisation and superimposed hydrothermal processes that accompanied the development of the earlier formed systems of tectonic faults. And it is this part of Tatarstan that is characterised by the high compositional hetero geneity of the crystalline basement that is much less distinct in adjacent areas.

During the formation of the sedimentary cover of the Russian Plate from Riphean to late Palaeozoic times, a number of restructurings of various magnitudes took place. A cardinal change of structural geometries occurred in be tween Early Riphean and Late Vendian times. During this period, rifts (platform troughs) with contrastingly different downwarping amplitudes were replaced by more gently sloping platform structures. Consequently, in Riphean times the Platform was extended but these conditions turned into the platform epeirogenesis in a later period.

Differentiated movements of the basement governed the platform sedimentation. Cycles begin with a marine transgression that peaks in the middle of the cycle, the terrain flattens out, and carbonate sequences are accumulated.

Then the platform floats up, and before the cycle recurs.

The magmatic development of the East European Platform was driven by variations in thermal conditions of the upper mantle.

The analysis of the integrated data shows that most of the above described processes took place within the South Tatarstan Arch, including its slopes, which is most likely to have been related to the high permeability of the li thosphere in this zone during its formation. It is in this zone that the crystalline basement is characterised by the maxi mum compositional heterogeneity, which is not so expressed in the adjacent areas. According Kuznetsov [1], the consoli dated crust is 40.0-43.5 km thick in the South Tatarstan Arch, i.e.thicker than in the North Tatarstan Arch, the Melekes Trough, and the Kazan- Kirov Depression (35.0-38.0 km). The inversion layer in this zone is as thick as 16 km. CDP data acquired on the profiles that crosscut the region in various directions have shown significant differences between the structures of the Earths crust in the area under study.

The study of the distribution of reservoir zones in the crystalline basement has shown the following:

As a whole, the rock sequence of well Novoyelkhovo-20009 is characterised by the complex, multiple alternation of virtually unaltered crystalline rocks with well preserved high-temperature parageneses and partially decomposed rocks that were repeatedly affected by deformation, diaphthoresis, mylonitisation, with a generally increasing degree of deformation with depth.

The intervals of prospective reservoirs in the crystalline basement are mainly confined to 1. zones of secondary, superimposed transformations, 2. to those of changing petrographic compositions, and 20. GEOLOGY, MINING AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING (ENGLISH, GERMAN) 3. to petrographic interfaces.

There is no doubt that the well column contains numerous anomalous zones, which have a long history of geological development.

The number of identified reservoir intervals increases with depth, and this indicates that the presence of reservoirs depends directly on the degree of secondary transformations and on tectonostructural processes.

The Bolshecheremshanskaya series was highly affected by superimposed processes (mylonitisation, diaphthoresis, migmatisation, etc.) that resulted in the specific distribution of reservoir zones and temperature and gas anomalies throughout the well column. The presence of quartz in the Bolshecheremshanskaya series caused high fracturing and preserved the spatial structure of pores and caverns in the course of secondary, superimposed processes. For this reason, the Bolshecheremshanskaya series has higher storage potential than the Otradnens kaya series.

The formation of reservoirs in the basement is related to macro- or microcracks, which are spatially defined by the faults. Most basement rocks are characterised by a degree of tectonic fracturing higher than the sedimentary rocks as the latter are dominated by lithogenetic cracks. Core data from several thousand wells, which penetrated the basement in the Volga-Ural petroleum province, show that unfractured blocks with a size of more than 1 m are exceptionally rare [3].

The reinterpretation of 130-km-deep seismic data from the regional profile "Granite" crossing the South Tatars tan Arch and its margins and a deep CDP survey profile across the western slope of the South Tatarstan arch and its junc tion with the eastern part of the Melekes trough, conducted by the Geon Centre, has allowed the generation of dynamic seismic sections reflecting a complex and hierarchical structure of the Earth's crust and upper mantle below the Romash kino oil field and its flanks.

According to data acquired by OJSC TatNefteGeofizika, the depth sections below the South Tatarstan Arch and its margins have geophysical anomalies featuring the local zones of various dimensions. The high reflectivities and coef ficients of seismic wave absorption of crustal formations permit their interpretation as fluid-filled and, therefore, thermo dynamically unstable zones. The cascade of geophysical anomalies observed in the area under study reflects the hetero geneity of the geological medium produced by geodynamic and fluid-dynamic processes [4].

It should be noted that this region of Tatarstan is characterised by the maximum density of the seismically ac tive faults (and of earthquake foci) [5].

Analysis of time variations in the amount of gases and hydrochemical components of underground waters of the crystalline basement has revealed their close relation to the seismic activity of the area. This relation is best indicated by total nitrogen, hydrogen, and methane, and to a smaller extent by carbon dioxide and helium. The gas contents of loosely aggregated zones of the crystalline basement, studied periodically over a long time in well Novo-Yelkhovo, show that the total gas saturation and the fractional composition of hydrocarbon gases from some depths and intervals change in time.

Since the tectonics and the block structure of the crystalline basement generate the block structure of the sedi mentary cover, the basement tectonic dislocations extend into the sedimentary cover. Therefore, the geodynamic processes going on in the sedimentary cover are to a large extent governed by the geodynamics of the crystalline base ment.

1. The monitoring of the present-day movement of fluid systems in the weak zones of the basement will permit the more detailed study of the present-day fluid regime in the upper part of the Earth's crust and the sedimentary cover.

2. The present-day outgassing of the Earth's interior is indirectly indicated not only by oil density variations or gas saturation dynamics of weak zones of the crystalline basement but also by repeated levelling data [1] and periodic seismicity of the interior.

3. The deep fluidisation and the present-day geodynamics are interrelated processes. The outgassing dynamics governs the periodicity of volcanic and seismic processes. Undoubtedly, the seismo-geodynamic processes observed in oil and gas-producing areas represent one of the types of the present-day outgassing. It is also clear that the present-day seismicity may be invoked technogenically, due to withdrawal and injection of the fluid from and into the reservoir. However, earthquakes with magnitudes of 4-5 were recorded in Tatarstan even prior to the development of such oil giants as Romashkino or Novoelkhovo. It has been found that earthquakes in Tatarstan's oilfield under development originate at great depth, and the technogenic factors add some strength to them and serve as a trigger.

4. Seismic activity is an indirect indication of recent periodic geodynamic processes caused by the deep fluidisation.

The geodynamic processes observed in the basement of the South Tatarstan Arch indicate that some portions of sedimentary basins of ancient platforms are still developing. Their development proceeds most actively on the margins of the ancient platforms transformed by the collision of lithosphere plates. Thus, the ancient platforms although widely believed to be geodynamically stable-may contain local zones of fluid dynamic activity that is still taking place. One of such zones is expected to exist within the South Tatarstan Arch of the Volga-Ural Anteclise located on the East European Platform [2].

References 1. Kuznetsov G.E. Structure and geodynamics of the Earth's interior in the Republic of Tatarstan (in Russian) // Monitoring of the Geological Environment: Endogenous and Exogenous Processes. Kazan,-2000. pp. 35 50.

2. Plotnikova I.N. New data on the present-day active fluid regime of fractured zones of crystalline basement and sedimentary cover in the eastern part of Volga-Ural region // Int J Earth Sciences (Geol Rundsh). 2008. 97. pp. 1131 1142.


4. Postnikov A.V. Crystalline basement of the Eastern Portion of the East European Platform and it influence on the structure and oil fields location of the sedimentary cover (in Russian) / PhD thesis, Russian Academy of Oil and Gas.

Moscow, 2002. pp. 1 54.

5. Sharov V.I., Grechishnikov G.A., Ryzhkova I.A. Seismic research geodynamic system and fluid regime of the earth crust of South-Tatar dome in connection with its unique oil bearing. In: Hydrocarbon Potential of the Basement of Young and Ancient Platforms and Replenishment of Oil and Gas Fields (in Russian). Kazan University Press, 2006.

pp. 312 315.

6. Stepanov V.P. Fracturing Tectonic of the crystalline basement of the Eastern Portion of the Volga-Kama anteclise and it Influence on the structure of the sedimentary cover (by geological and geophysical data) (in Russian) / PhD thesis. Kazan.: Kazan State University, 2002. pp. 1 53.

REVIEW OF HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF EXPLOSIVE BUSINESS V.S. Zabuga Scientific advisors professor V.G. Lukyanov, associate professor A.N. Oleynik National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia Modern blasting mechanisms as well as technics in general, absorbed experience of several centuries, creative researches, results of hard work and talent of craftsmen, inventors, technicians, engineers, scientists whose efforts are constantly synthesized, refined and enriched the heritage succession of industrial, technical and scientific expertise many millions of people.

1.1. The history of the development and use of high explosives The first high explosive (HE) invented by the man was black powder. The time of its discovery and the names of inventors have remained unknown. In ancient times, powder was known in China and India, where it was borrowed by Arabians. According to Berthelot, in Europe the black powder has started to use in the tenth century during the holidays so-called "evening fire". The powder has been known as propellants since the XIII century.

In XV century gunpowder began to be used in mine-explosive craft for the destruction of an enemy fortifica tions: the Standoff of Budapest (Hungary) in 1489 and Kazan (Russia) in 1552. Firstly, in the world for economic pur poses gunpowder was used in 1548 when clearing the Neman River channel.

The history of HE in mining began in Slovakia in Bansk tiavnica mine at penetration galleries in 1627, and by the end of the XVII century blasting work in the mining industry was used in almost all European countries. But since the efficiency of blasting work was low, people worked on the development of more powerful explosives. In the years of rapid development of chemistry in the end of XVIII and early XIX centuries it were obtained the first new, more effective HE: nitrobenzene in 1834, nitronaftalin in 1836, gun-cotton in 1846.

The History of HE discovery is the heroic pages in the annals of chemistry. Often when a chemist got a new chemical he didnt suspect that it is able to explode, and costly (loss of fingers, eyes, and sometimes lives) paid for his discovery.

The big event in the development of HE was getting the nitroglycerine by Prof. A. Sobrero (Turin, Italy) by treating glycerin with nitric acid in the presence of sulfuric acid in 1846. It was, essentially, the end of the gunpowders era and the beginning of an era of powerful explosives. Pure nitroglycerin is a colorless oily liquid, poisonous, highly sensitive to mechanical forces (impact, friction) and to the fire. Flash point is 180 C, burning it quickly moves into an explosion, the sensitivity to the impact is 4 cm.

At that time nitroglycerin could make small batches. Attempts to produce it in large quantities ended in explo sions. Due to high sensitivity to shock and friction and due to the inconvenience of working with liquid explosives pure nitroglycerine had limited application and after a short time it stopped using.

In 1853, the Russian academician Zinin and colonel of artillery Petrushevsky developed a technology for manu facturing nitroglycerin in large quantities. They conducted experiments on the impregnation of various non-explosive substances and nitroglycerin for easy application. In the same year they suggested several new types of HE, which were similar to the composition of the future dynamite (during 1860-1863 years. researchers have produced 160 pounds of such HE).

In 1863 Alfred Bernhard Nobel (Sweden) has received, and in 1866 established the production of plastic HE on the basis of nitroglycerin with the addition of 25% of the mineral - diatomaceous earth (kieselguhr) and called it dyna mite, which translated from Swedish means "strong." It was a coup in the blasting work.

In 1867 the Swedish chemist I. Olsen, and I. Norbitom obtained and patented HE based on ammonium nitrate, subsequently called ammonites. However, A. Nobel bought the patent and more than 20 years delayed their introduction into the industry.

In 1886, professor of St. Petersburg Mining Institute, N.N. Cheltsov invented the niter-ammonia HE "Stormbreaker."

In 1885 began using picric acid was used as HE, since 1887 - tetryl, since 1891 - TNT (developed by Professor Vilbrandtom in 1863). RDX and PETN were synthesized in the end of XIX century.

In 1892 Mendeleev has developed smokeless powder and a secure technology for its manufacture. This powder was received by Admiral Makarov on arms navy.

In the mid-50s of XX century the group of ammonium nitrate explosives was developed: high-power rock am monite with the addition of RDX, granulites and grammonite based on ammonium nitrate, roughly dispersed slurry HE.

Work was conducted on the basis of academic studies of N.V. Melnikova and prof. G.P. Demidyuk etc.

20. GEOLOGY, MINING AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING (ENGLISH, GERMAN) By the second half of the twentieth century most countries had moved from the use of dynamite, which compo sition contains very sensitive and dangerous in the production nitroesters, to the use of ammonites and ammonales, con taining as fuel relatively safer TNT, RDX, aluminum, and such explosive, which components to their mix do not explode In the second half of the twentieth century high-protective HE started developing.

1.2. The history of explosives development technics and primer HE Initially powder tracks were applied for demolition of powder charges. First in the world explosions of gun powder electrically in laboratory was complete by outstanding Russian physicist Vladimir Petrov in 1803.

In 1812 Professor P. Schilling (Russia) has developed and first used an electric igniter with coal detonator, which in 1839 replaced the igniter with an electrical glowing bridge. BS Jacobi (Russia) brought electric ignition of pro pellant charges way to practical use. He also in 1842 developed the first electric exploder.

In 1831 an engineer Bickford proposed fuze, initiating the so-called method of initiating the firing of explosive charges.

N.N. Zinin, and V.F. Petrushevsky (Russia) found that some varieties of dynamites do not explode from the flame. Therefore, to gain exposure to the explosives they first used a small charge of black gunpowder as the initiator, which exploded all sorts of dynamite. Charge-detonator was perfected by Captain D.M. Andrievsky (Russia). In 1865, for the completeness of detonation HE he used a special primer, which was a paper sleeve in the form of a truncated cone with an electric igniter fixed in it filled with gunpowder. At the butt an indentation filled with iron filings was made. It was not just the first in world practice an electric detonator, it was the first, albeit unconsciously, for practical use the effect of cumulation.

In 1868 A. Nobel (Sweden) designed a blasting cap in the form of a copper sleeve with a filling of mercury fulminate (instead of powder), discovered in 1799 by chemist E. Howard (in 1815 it was used in the weapon capsule). In the same year A. Nobel obtained a patent for "fuse Nobel." It was a revolution in mining.

In 1879 French scientist Massey suggested the explosive detonating cord as a means of primer HE.

Regarding the development of electric blasting it should be noted that in the second half of the twentieth cen tury electric primer conventional and high initiating ability unsafety and safety, with an instantaneous response time, short-response and delayed-action with a relatively small time spread at operation and high reliability (KA Berlin, GI Pokrovskii, NL Rosinskiy, etc.) has been developed.

In the field of rock explosion along with expanding the range of HE and primers, their quality of research con ducted in the direction of improving the production technology of blasting operations to ensure complete safety and high technical-economic indicators (N.V. Melnikov, M.A Lavrentiev, etc.) was improved. In developing model schemes of blasting work mechanization a significant contribution was made by member of Academy of Sciences of the USSR E.I.


Destruction of rocks by blasting in open pit and underground mining is the main process. The effectiveness of rocks destruction during blasting determines considerably the performance of follow-up process - loading, transportation, etc. In connection with the expansion of production in the coal industry the technique and technology of drilling and blasting operations was improved. More sophisticated and efficient drilling rigs and machinery, means of mechanization of loading explosives, safe explosives, methods to control the explosion were introduced.

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Uranium-bearing waters of average flow basin of the Angara river Barkhatov A.F. Mechanism and reasons of stress-corrosion cracks development on crude trunk lines Beschasova P.A., Kurochkin M.S. The role of foreign companies in the petroleum engineering development in Russia .. Bogdanova O.S., Gulyaeva M.D. Fire water pump peculiarities .. Davydova A.E. The prospects of insulative and anticorrosion coatings with nanostructured fillers for pipelines protection Epikhin A.V., Kovalev A.V. Influence of technological and geological factors on electric current impulses during drilling . Eremyan G.A. The improvement of methods for sedimentary rock particle size analysis .. Fedin D.V., Zaykovskiy V.V. Gathering pipeline operational reliability increase .. Filatova A.V. The use of air-mechanical foams by foamgenerators for dust suppression in the process of blasthole drilling in the mining exploration production Gagarin A.A. Rotor machine diagnostics ... Gerasimovich G.K., Oshlakova A.S. Production log test analysis in Zapadno-Ostaninskoe oil field (Western Siberia) .. Grikow S.V. Wasserversorgung von Oag "Sibir" Islyamov I.Sh. Hydrodynamics and heat transfer in cylindrical channel entry .. Kauzman T.A. Die Neue Tendenzen zur Technologie der Anreicherung von Karbonat-und Mangan-Erzen Khasenova D.F. Portable support surfaces in oil and gas pipeline repair-and-renewal operations under swamp conditions Kissajewa J.S. Korrosionsschutz der Erdlleitungen .. Kononov Y.M., Ivanov E.N. Influence of geology and technical well condition on reservoir pressure mainten ance system in the Igolskoe field Kozyreva T.V., Dmitrieva O.S. Environmental impact assessment of operating natural gas field (Orenburg con densed gas deposit) . Kudryashova L.. Past and future of Kuzbass oil........................................................................................ Kupriyanov E.A. Geochemistry of Beitiantang districts groundwater . Kustova E.A., Sinyavina T.V. Die Benutzung von Komplexen Titantetrachlorid mit Vinylmonomeren in der Synthrse von Modifizierten Petroleumharz .. Mikheenko D.A. Marine seismic surveys in the Arctic . Naymushina O.S. Groundwater of the bottom current of the river Tom as a source for drinking water supply Nelaev A.M. Gas flooding in Russia. Reasons and capabilities .. Novoseltseva E.A. Current state and main tendencies in the petrochemical industry Pokrovskiy V.D. Water supply of big European cities Pracoyo F.S. Limestone facies carbonate analysis of Baturaja formation, Negeri Agung Gedung Lepihan area, South Sumatera .. Rakitin .I., Goncharik S.S. Oil and gas pipeline coating analysis Romanov R.V. The solution to environmental problems while drilling for wells . Reutov J.. Feasibility study of new gas pipeline construction materials ... Richkov Y.I. Statoils through-tubing drilling operations in the North sea . Savitskiy R.V., Blokhina O.L. The analysis of accidents at pipeline transport facilities in Russia ... 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Purification methods at radioactive contamination . Vijai Kumar B, Anurag Sundriyal, Kamal Chandra Dani Quantitative modeling and mathematical methods in reservoir simulation Yagudina L.R. New data on the present-day active fluid regime of fractured zones of crystalline basement and sedimentary cover in the eastern part of Volga-Ural region.. Zabuga V.S. Review of history and development of explosive business .. XV .. , 634050, . , . , ./ (3822) 563535, email: publish@tpu.ru 00.00.2011. 6084/8. .

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