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TRANSACTIONS OF THE STATE HERMITAGE XLI XLI THE WORLD OF CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY ...

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they at the same time were widely inuenced by the Greeks which helped the development of The head of the statue is an exact copy of the Late Hellenistic type of hair-style which the new mixed culture. is seen on Roman replicas from archaeological nds of much later period (as the one from the The Hermitage Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities owns a group of helmets Palatine Antiquarium). The only available copy in the 16th century would be the Colonna Venus.

which entered the Museum from different collection. These helmets, which we suggest should The Hermitage statue might have been restored in Rome, and the restorer was aware of the Colonna be numbered among the Samnite ones, are from Central Italy. All of them were hammered from statue, moreover he might be responsible for the restoration of both pieces. The theory can be a bronze sheets. In the 19th century attempts were made to add some new parts to the helmets in advanced that the restoration was done by Jacopo Sansovino in the early 16th century.

order to make them complete.

One of the helmets is of the Negau type (Inv. No. B. 524), ve of the Corinthian type (Inv. No. . 2355, . 536, . 700, B. 492, B. 578), one conical helmet of a pilos type (Inv. Oleg Neverov No. B. 489) and the last one is a Samnite-Attic helmet (Inv. No. B. 524). These types of helmets DACTYLIOTHECA OF I. BETSKOY have Greek roots (except B. 545, which is Italian), and were probably made by the Greek masters on the territory of the Southern Italy in the 6th 4th centuries B.C.

In 1923 a collection of 2 110 glass and sulphuric copies of gems came to the Hermitage from the Academy of Fine Arts. Six years later, when the Section of Glyptics was disbanded, these objects were transferred to the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities where they remain Yuri Kalashnik now. Since then, the copies were randomly glued into book-like folders so that the label on the ROMAN MOUNTED COINS reverse of each object has been hidden.

IN THE HERMITAGE COLLECTION From the accompanying documents and two catalogues of the 18th century compiled in Russian (the Hermitage) and in French (Central Historical Archives) it is clear that the Dactyliotheca in The State Hermitage Museum possesses several coin medallions. The most exquisite of them question was compiled by a well-known nobleman and patron of arts I. Betskoy. The most original comes from ancient Antioch in Asia Minor. This is a mounted aureus of Gordianus III hanging on part of this collection is the didactic fable composed by Ya. Kniazhnin and a series of Russian a thick golden cord. Nine golden and ve silver medallions were found in the course of excavations at portraits from Peter the Greats to Catherine the Greats times. This remarkable piece of cultural the necropolis of Chersonesus Taurica. These nds reect the spreading of some Roman provincial heritage undoubtedly deserves restoration and most thorough research.

fashions in this remote Greek city where the Roman garrison was located at that time.

Anna Petrakova Dr. Alexander Kruglov ATTRIBUTION OF ANCIENT PAINTED POTTERY:

THE GRIMANINANI VENUS HISTORY AND PRESENT TIME The GrimaniNani Venus was one of the most exquisite acquisitions made by Gedeonov in The article deals with theory and methodology of ancient painted pottery attribution.

Venice in 1851. Stepan Gedeonov, later the rst nominated Director of the Imperial Hermitage The rst part of it is on theory and covers the questions of studies in ancient painted pottery Museum, spent many years in residence in Rome working for the Russian Commission on in the 19th 20th century as well as the attribution issues in Europe of the Modern Times.

Archaeological Finds. The second part illustrates the specic features of applying the attribution method on the example In the article, the statue is described in detail, and the state of preservation, restoration and of analyzing several Attic black-gure vases from the State Hermitage Museum collection.

partial de-restoration is analyzed. A great deal of information is coming from this examination and Attribution methods that were employed in Europe for paintings and drawings rst of all, adds to the understanding of the history of the Hermitage Venus. the method of Giovanni Morelli, have been advanced and adapted for studying the ancient painted The authenticity of the head has never been questioned, although it is obviously a work of pottery by one of the founders of their attribution Sir John Beazley. The article covers various modern time. When viewed from the side, the gure reveals a strong backward inclination, a very aspects of attribution applied for Ancient Greek painted pottery as specic ones concerning odd and uncharacteristic look for the composition of antique statues. At present the author nds the role of certain elements in the system analysis of works of art, and also general issues of an explanation in the situation when the joining of the lower and central parts of the gure was attribution as a sphere of activity for specialist in Ancient art. The latter group of questions also not performed accurately during the restoration. includes the necessity of attribution itself, the consistency of the Beazley Method, possibility The engraving of the statue appears in the 1831 edition of the Grimani collection published to apply it towards not only Attic material but to the pottery of other centres as well, issues by the antiquities dealer Sanquirico in Venice;

he used the earlier engraving of the Venus statue of various scientic and technical methods of research prevailing over visual and analytical made for the presentation of the Nani collection in the late 18th century. It is not clear whether analysis.

356 SUMMARIES SUMMARIES Sergey Solovyov the unity of opposites because his features were imitated in the faces of the Giants as well as in the face of Helios Triumphant. Besides, in the art of Pergam of that time the new sculptural type COLONISTS HOUSE IN THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL CONTEXT was invented, assimilating the features of Alexander, Achilles and the Giants.

OF ARCHAIC BEREZAN The article introduces for the rst time the archaeological complex of the so-called half-dugout XLI from the excavations of 19851986 of the Berezan settlement constructed in the colonists Elena Khodza house manner. It was a four-corner dwelling construction of the total area of around 38 sq. m, 1 meter deep. It remained functional within the second quarter of the 6th century B.

C. One of ON THE INTERPRETATION AND ICONOGRAPHY the most peculiar features of the construction was the stone foundations of the walls 0,50 m OF THE GREEK HERMAE wide along the whole perimeter of the ditch and up to the top of its edges, the above-ground The article introduces for the rst time the Boeotian terracotta herma of the mid-fth century part of the walls made of mud-brick. The lower row of the foundation was made of large B.C. from the collection of the State Hermitage Museum, and attempts at understanding the polygonal slabs put edgeways, on top of them four rows of at stones were placed. The entrance religious sense of such an artifact. Absence of literary sources on this subject does not allow to the construction was made in its south wall, four steps of stone plates led from there inside going beyond hypothesis. Two circumstances, however, provide starting and reference points for the house. The structure was single-compartment, its inner space of 28 sq. m was divided into two speculations on the theme. The rst fact is the discovery of the signicant amount of similar halves with different functions: the living space and the kitchen. The latter occupied mainly the terracottas at the excavations of Kaberion near Thebes, the second one is that the statuette was found north-western sector with ovens and replaces of original design. Portable braziers were also used.

among the burial offerings. Both facts allow for the conclusion that the object in question is most Near all those heating and cooking constructions several holes were dug in the ground to set the probably Hermes the Chthonian.

vessels.

Close links between this god and the cult of the Kabeiroi can be traced not only in Thebes The complex of material nds from the half-dugout XLI is quite diverse. A group of Greek but also in many other sanctuaries of the Megaloi Theoi scattered around the Greek world. Vase ceramics prevails, mainly from the workshops of Northern Ionia;

the share of local pottery is painting from the Thebes Kabeirion allow us to say that during religious ceremonies certain hermae about 4,5 % of ceramic fragments. Judging from the design of the dwelling: its relatively large area, personied Hermes for his worshippers.

clear planning, stone-brick supporting walls of complex setting, unusual design of the interior and It is the idea of Hermes as personication of phallic power, which is purely obvious in hermae, its details, and from the character of nds it obviously belonged to the native of some North that lets the corresponding aspect of human life to be included into the sphere, subject to him.

Ionian city, perhaps Clazomenae or Teos which together with Miletos had trading relations with The concept of masculinity so important for Greek society, phallocratic in essence, along with Lower Bug area and which apparently had their own representatives in the Berezan settlement in warriors courage included sexual might, source of fertility. This hypostasis of Hermes could the rst half of the 6th century B.C.

affect not only religious but also public life, though the distinction between them was not always evident.

The propriety of Hermess terracotta hermae in the graves is also explained by the gods role in the funeral cult, particularly as the guardian and protector who escorted souls of the dead to Anna Tromova the underworld.

ALEXANDER THE GREAT AND THE GIANTS OF THE PERGAMON FRIEZE The paper deals with the problem of imitatio Alexandri in the Hellenistic sculpture, namely the inuence of Alexander the Greats iconography on the Gigantomachy of the Great Altar in Dr. Liudmila Davydova Pergamon. Comparing the representations of the Giants with the portraits of Alexander produced at the same time in Asia Minor and analyzing the iconographic tradition of Gigantomachy, the KNOSSOS PALACE ON CRETE IN THE DRAWINGS OF LON BAKST author comes to the conclusion that the reminiscences of Alexanders features in the faces of (On the materials from the State Russian Museum Drawings Department) the Giants is the artistic invention of the Pergamon Altar sculptors.

The author supposes that this physiognomic likeness is the intentional citation. The meaning In the year 1907 the Russian artists Lon Bakst and Valentin Serov travelled around Greece.

of this motive could be interpreted in the context of the stoic ideas that inuenced the program This journey was truly fruitful for Bakst: it brought to life the famous painting Terror Antiquus of the Gigantomachy of Pergamon. Particularly, the inuence of the philosophy of Kratet (1908, State Russian Museum), decorative panels, sketches of costumes and settings for four who worked in Pergam in the middle of the second century B.C. is well known. In the paper, performances of 19111912 (ballets Narcissus, Daphnis and Chloe, a tragedy by Werharn Helen the author compares the symbolic interpretation of the myth about the battle between the Gods and of Sparta and other pieces) works in which the artist rendered his impressions of Greece.

the Giants by stoic philosophers and the stoic view on Alexander the Great. Both conceptions are It also resulted in a small book of memoirs Serov and I in Greece. Travel notes, written in Paris based on the idea of harmony and the blame of folly (afrosune, or mania tes afrones). in 1922 and published in Berlin a year later. In Russia the memoirs of Bakst were published in The image of Alexander in art, as well as rhetoric sentences about his fate, convert into the 1971, in the rst volume of the monograph compiled by I. Zilberstein and V. Samkov Valentin series of topos or clichs. In the Gigantomachy of Pergamon Alexander was assimilated into Serov in memories, diaries and correspondence of his contemporaries.

358 SUMMARIES In 1963 Baksts son donated to the State Russian Museum, among other materials, two albums of sketches drawn by the artist during his journey to Greece and the isle of Crete. These drawings, although mentioned in the publications on life and works of Bakst, have not attracted the attention of Classical specialists before. Some of the drawings can be regarded as the earliest known colour sketches of fresco fragments discovered in the Knossos Palace by Sir Arthur Evans (18511941) and with appropriate comments are for the rst time published in the present article.

, Nina Kunina (-) COREFORMED VESSELS (6TH CENTURY B.C. EARLY 1ST CENTURY A.D.) () FROM THE PANTICAPAION NECROPOLIS

IN THE HERMITAGE COLLECTION (19251937) () The article presents sixty-four glass vessels of the earlier types that originate from the (i) necropolis of Pantikapaion, and are now part of the State Hermitage Museum collection. These (-) perfume bottles date back to the period from the late 6th century B.C. to the early 1st century A.D.

(, -) The technique they are made in is the core-forming one, the earliest among glass-making () technologies.

The catalogue of pieces discussed in the article is introduced by a brief account of the history - (-) of studies in core-formed vessels undertaken by scholars from different countries. The great signicance of works by Alexandra I. Voshchinina, a pioneer in studies on core-formed glass (-) vessels from the Hermitage collection, is emphasized. Technological process of glass-making, of . . . such bottles in particular, is also explained. () In the catalogue, the vessels are divided into four groups in accordance with their shape. These () are as follows I: alabastra (34 pieces), II: amphoriskoi (19 pieces), III: aryballoi (7 pieces), and IV: oinochoai (4 pieces). As for the dating of the vessels, it is based on archaeological context, (-) and on the date recognized for similar pieces from elsewhere. In her conclusions, the author of (-) the article entirely agrees with the opinion of D.B. Harden and D.Fr. Grose, especially regarding the problem of glass-manufacturing centers dominance that was different within various chronological () periods. Eastern Mediterranean region, with particular role of Rhodes, was dominating in the 6th (-) early 4th century B.C.;

Eastern Mediterranean and Italy dominated in the mid-fourth 3rd century B.C.;

and from the 3rd century B.C. till mid-rst century A.D. it was the Eastern Mediterranean : 3 . ., with distinction of Syrian-Palestinian region that stood at the head of others.

() (-) (-) (, ) () (-) AWE Ancient West and East (Leiden) ( 2007 .)) BAR British Archaeological Reports (Oxford) BCH Bulletin de Correspondance Hellnique (Athenes) ( 2007 .) BSA Annuals of the British School at Athens CAH Cambridge Ancient History - CGAE Catalogue gnral des antiquits gyptiennes du Muse du Caire. Vienne, Coptica Hermitagiana: : 100- , () . ., () Clara Rodos Jacopi J. Clara Rodos. (Esplorazione archeologica di Camiro I. Studi e materiali publicati a cura dellInstituto Storico-archeologico di Rodi) IV. Rodi, (-) CS Coptic Studies: Acts of the Third International Congress of Coptic Studies.

(-) Warsaw, 2025 August, 1984. Varsovie, (-) CVA Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum - DAI Deutches Archaeologishches Institut (Berlin) () FR Furtwangler A, Reichold K. (Hauser F., Bushor E., Watzinger K., Zahn R.) () Griechishe Vasenmalerei. Munchen, 1904 JRGZM Jahrbuch des Romisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums (Mainz) JDI Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archaeologischen Instituts (Berlin) - JGS Journal of Glass Studies (New York) JHS Journal of Hellenic Studies (London) - IOSPE III Inscriptiones orae septentrionalis Ponti Euxini graecae et latinae. Vol. IIV.

Petropoli, 1890 JRA Journal of Roman Archaeology (Michigan) JRMES Journal of Roman Military Equipment Studies IstMitt Istanbuler Mitteilungen KST Kazi Sonucari Toplantisi (Ankara) AA Archologisches Anzeiger (Berlin) LIMC Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae. Zurich;


Munchen;

AAA Athens Annales of Archeology Dusseldorf, 1981 ABC Antiquites du Bosphore Cimmerien. Par S. Reinach. Paris, MA Monumenti Antichni cura della Reale Accademia dei Lincei (Rome) ABV Beazly J. D. Attic Black-gure Vase-painters. Oxford, MASCA Museum Applied Science Center for Archaeology AdK Preuische Akademie der Knste (Berlin) Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology (University of Pennsylvania) AE Arcaeologike Ephemeris (Athenes) MMS Metropolitan Museum Studies (New York) AJ Archaeological Journal PARA Beazly J. D. Paralipomena: Additions to Attic Black-gure AJA The American Journal of Archaeology (Princeton) and Red-gure Vase-painters. London, AM Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archaeologishen Instituts. Athenische Abteilung RA Revue archologique (Paris) AP Anthologia Palatina RM Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archaeologishen Instituts. Roemishe Abteilung ARFH Boardman J. Attic Red-gure Vase-Painting SfK Studien zur frhchristlichen Kunst ARV Beazly J. D. Attic Red-gure Vase-Painters. Oxford, 1942 SIMA Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology ARV2 Beazly J. D. Attic Red-gure Vase-Painters. Oxford, 1963. 2nd ed. SSS Sownik Staroytnostej Sowiaskich: T. 17. Wrocaw;

Warszawa;

Krakw, 1961 AS Anatolian Studies (Ankara) WZUR Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Universitat Rostock AW Antike Welt. Zeitschrift fur Archaeologie und Kulturgeschichte CONTENTS . . Dr. Sophia Boriskovskaya ................................ 5 Boeotian vases in the Hermitage............................... .......... 25 Published works of Sophia Boriskovskaya.......................... . . Dmitry Alexinskiy Iron helmet from a warriors Tomb near Karantinnoe Shosse .......................................... 31 in the vicinity of Kerch................................... . . Elena Arsentieva Lekanis with the Round Dance and some problems ................................... 71 of Ancient Greek dance studies............................... . . Maria Akhmadeeva : The use of mathematical methods in Classical archaeology:

.................................... 82 results and prospective.................................... . . Dr. Anastassia Bukina A hero in the iconography of the Greek Orientalizing Art:

: . . ....................... the Nelidoff s gold band................................... Alexander Butyagin . . Complex of ceramic weights from the manor in the Myrmekion acropolis....... .......... Nadezhda Gulyaeva . . Sabello-Samnite bronze helmets of 8th 4th centuries B.C................ - VIIIIV . .............. Yuri Kalashnik . . Roman Mounted Coins in the Hermitage Collection.................... ................ Dr. Alexander Kruglov . . The GrimaniNani Venus.................................. ................................... Oleg Neverov . . Dactyliotheca of I. Betskoy.................................. . . ................................ Anna Petrakova . . Attribution of Ancient painted pottery: history and present time............. : ........ Sergey Solovyov . . Colonists house in the archaeological context of archaic Berezan........... ........ Anna Trofimova . . ................... 237 Alexander the Great and the Giants of the Pergamon frieze............... 364 CONTENTS . . Elena Khodza On the interpretation and iconography of the Greek hermae.............

................... 251 . . Dr. Liudmila Davydova . . Knossos Palace on Crete in the drawings of Lon Bakst ( )........................... 263 (On the materials from the State Russian Museum Drawings Department)......... . . Nina Kunina , Coreformed vessels (6th century B.C. (VI . . I . .) early 1st century A.D.) from the Panticapaion necropolis .................................... 304 in the Hermitage Collection................................. Summaries........................................... ............................ Abbreviations......................................... .................................... XLI (19372001) . . , . . . . , . . . . . . , . . , . . , . . . . , . . . . . . 22.07.08. 70100 1/ .-. . 28,5. . 500 . . 190000, .-, ., 190000, .-, .,

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