, , ,

<<


 >>  ()
Pages:     | 1 | 2 ||

3 1 - ...

-- [ 3 ] --

The development of PTSD among civilian population averages 810 % according to data of World Health Organization.

Recently, interpersonal and sociocognitive factors have been at the centre of attention of psychologicalt scientific studies, such as so cial support, social integration, social acknowledgement, opportunity and conditions of incident discussing. All these factors became the ba sis of social facilitation model developed and presented by Maerker in 2000. Many years of clinical psychological experience confirmed the conclusions of the meta-analysis of 77 studies, showed that social support, which affects interpersonal and intraper sonal thoughts and feelings, aimed at the society, could crucially de termine the development and progress of posttraumatic stress disorder [2], [3].

The complex questionnaire included questions on determination of sociodemographic parameters (age, gender, marital status, length of service, education level), clinical scales: Secondary Trauma Question naire (STQ, Motta & Joseph, 1998;

dt. Maercker, 2000), Social Ac knowledgement Questionnaire (SAQ, Maercker & Mller, 2000), Dis closure of Trauma Questionnaire (DTQ, Maercker & Mller, 2000).

For ordinal and nominal variables (gender, marital status), and for the quantitative variables with the not-normal distribution (age, length of service, education level) Spearmans rank correlation coeffi cient was calculated. For the quantitative variables Brave-Pearsons correlation coefficient was calculated. The data of the scales social acknowledgement, opportunity and conditions of incident discuss ing and secondary trauma have normal distribution according to the KolmogorovSmirnov test.

The results of the correlation analysis suggest the conclusion about statistically significant (r2 =.61, p 0,01) relationship between the factor opportunity and conditions of traumatic incident discuss ing and the level of rescue workers secondary traumatization.

Discussion of a traumatic event with focusing on the emotions connected with the traumatic event, as well as lack of discussion pos sibility of event that happened, increase risk of development of post traumatic stress disorder. Similar data were obtained in other re searches, for example see.

Also, the obtained results of the correlation analysis suggest a conclusion on the correlation (r2 = -.26, p 0,01) between the factor social acknowledgment and a secondary traumatization of rescue workers. In this case this relationship is inverse.

The construct social acknowledgment includes such characte ristics, as the expressed sympathy, and understanding of the situation happened to the victims, and also respect for feelings which the vic tims after traumatic events, and respect for attempts to cope with con sequences of traumatic events.

The correlation coefficient .26 indicates the reliable (p 0,01) relationship between gender and the level of secondary traumatization.

In this case, the sign - does not indicate the inverse relationship of parameters, but points to the female gender as a risk factor. As it is evi dent from the correlation analysis, age, and marital status, length of service, education and the criterion secondary trauma are not related.

In the context of interpersonal-sociocognitive model (social fa cilitation model) the results of research presented above, leads to the conclusion about protective effects of social acknowledgment and so cial support from family, community, organization and direction.

The high correlation between the factor opportunity and condi tions of traumatic incident discussing and the level of secondary traumatization of rescue workers draws attention to disclosure inef ficiencies, especially, if in the course of disclosure the emphasis in discussion of the event happened is placed on negative emotions and discussion of details.

References 1. Maercker, A. Posttraumatische Belastungsstoerung / U. Baumann, M. Perrez // Klinische PsychologyPsychotherapy / U. Baumann, M. Perrez. 3., vollst.

ueberarb. Aufl. Bern: Huber, 2005. 978 S.

2. Brewin, C. R., Andrews, B. & Valentine, J. D. (2000). Meta-analysis of risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68 (5), 748766.

3. Maercker, A. (Hrsg.) (2009) Posttraumatische Belastungsstrung. Heidelberg:

Springer.

159.923:614. THE CORRELATION AND THE REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF CRITERION SECONDARY TRAUMATIZATION

Krutolevich A. N., M.A., scientific worker of the research department of the Gomel Engineering Institute of the Ministry for Emergency Situations of the Republic of Belarus Selitskaya Y. Y., lecturer of the Gomel Engineering Institute of the Ministry for Emergency Situations of the Republic of Belarus Epidemiological studies carried out in groups with high risk of developing post-traumatic disorders showed that the most traumatiz ing events are disasters with high rate of fatalities. Thus, Fullertons longitudinal analysis, carried out in 2004 among 207 rescue workers, a week later after an air crash singled out 26 % of the respondents with symptoms of acute post-traumatic stress disorder. A year later, that pa rameter was only 17 %. Bengels study, conducted in 2003, after a train crash in Eshede (Netherlands), six months after the disaster, showed 6 % of respondents with a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder [1], [2].

The research aimed at the studies of daily routine activity of res cue workers has determined the prevalence of PTSD for 36 % of paramedics up to 59 % for firefighters. At the same time, accord ing to Corneils study, the secondary traumatization was found in 22 % of U.S. municipal fire departments workers and 17 % of Cana dian firefighters. Wagner's study of firefighters in Germany showed that 18 % respondents satisfy the criteria of post-traumatic stress dis order [3], [4].

The data of 168 firefighters and paramedics were analyzed. The study led to the conclusion that the prevalence of secondary traumati zation of rescue workers at the time of the study was 13,1 %, of which 7,7 % in line with mild to moderate form of the disorder, 5,4 % with the strong form.

The results of the correlation analysis of criterion secondary traumatization and factors-predictors are presented in table 1.

Table The correlation analysis of criterion secondary traumatization

Secondary traumatization Factors correlation coefficient significance value r2 p age.09 not significant p 0, gender -. marital status -.08 not significant education.11 not significant length of service.06 not significant p 0, opportunity and conditions of. traumatic incident discussing

p 0, social acknowledgment -. From mathematical analysis it is known that the basis of correla tion coefficient it is impossible to assess the cause-effect relationship of two parameters. Therefore, for more exact studying of factors predictors leverage on development of a secondary traumatization, the regression analysis was carried out. Some factors which to a higher or lesser extent have an influence on secondary traumatization develop ment of rescue workers have been already described in this article.

However, it is impossible to single out the most important or the only factor. Furthermore, these factors often are not independent from each other. It is known that cumulative dependence of secondary traumati zation development on factors-predictors isn't simply the sum of pair dependences. The impossibility simply to add the separate factors is connected with effect of multicollinearity. Thus, each factor-predictor influences the result both directly, and indirectly, through the connec tion with other factors. The method of multiple regressions allows cal culating and present cumulative factors influence. The coefficient of determination allows making the conclusion about how much the change of a dependent sign (a secondary traumatization) is explained by changes of set of factors-predictors. So, the coefficient of R2 re ceived as a result of the regression analysis, is a part of dispersion of the secondary traumatization, explained by the influence of indepen dent parameters. The main indicators of the regression analysis are re flected in table 2.

able The regression analysis of criterion secondary traumatization

Coefficients Factors B T p age.098.118.824. gender -2.652 -.141 -2.015. education.093.031.483. length of service -.014 -.175 -1.202. marital status -.563 -.034 -.513. social acknowledgment -.220 -.149 -2.368. opportunity and conditions of traumatic incident discussing.219.551 8.593. R2 =.414;

p =. In this case R2 =.414 means that 41,4 % of dispersion of a sec ondary traumatization are significantly explained by the influence of three main factors predictors: gender, social acknowledgment and opportunity and conditions of traumatic incident discussing. The regression analysis includes the most significant socio-demographic factors-predictors (age, gender, relationship status, length of service, education level), and the factors included into interpersonal sociocognitive model. Value of F-criterion is 14.611 at df = 8, and the significance value of p is next to zero, i.e. obviously less than 0.05.

Thus, this model is statistically significant.

According to the results of the regression analysis, we can con clude the following: the more the traumatized rescue workers talk about what happened and the less social support and social acknowl edgment they get, the greater is the risk of secondary traumatization.

This risk is increased if the gender of these workers is female.

References 1. Fullerton, C. S., Ursano, R. J., & Wang, L. (2004). Acute stress disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression in disaster or rescue workers.

American Journal of Psychiatry. Aug, 161(8), 13701376.

2. Bengel, J., Barth, J., Frommberger, U., & Helmerichs, J. (2003). Belastungs reaktionen bei Einsatzkrften der Zugkatastrophe von Eschede. Notfall und Rettungsmedizin, 6, 318325.

3. Corneil, W., Beaton, R., Murphy, S., Johnson, C., & Pike, K. (1999). Expo sure to traumatic incidents and prevalence of posttraumatic stress symptoma tology in urban firefighters in two countries. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 4 (2), 131141.

4. Wagner, D., Heinrichs, M., & Ehlert, U. (1998). Prevalence of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in German professional firefighters. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155 (12), 17271732.

159.923:614. THE SECONDARY TRAUMATIZATION OF RESCUE WORKERS Krutolevich A. N., M.A., Scientific Research department Gomel Engineering Institute of the Ministry for Emergency Situations of the Republic of Belarus Selitskaya Ye. Yu., Department of Modern Languages, Gomel Engineering Institute of the Ministry for Emergency Situations of the Republic of Belarus Starting from the 90ies of the 20th century, scientists in the field of clinical psychology have approached more closely to phenomenon studying a secondary traumatization. The keynote of PTSD diffe rentiation into primary and secondary was the awareness that the traumatic event can be endured by the person both directly, and indi rectly [1].

First this differentiation was suggested by Charles Figley in 1995. The meaning of secondary traumatization is that not only the victim of traumatic events but else the helping person can be mentally traumatized. In psychological literature it is also possible to meet the similar definitions: vicarious traumatization, compassion fatigue

[2], [3].

It is supposed, that the cause of the secondary traumatization de velopment lies in compassion and emotional closeness with the victim of traumatic events. The feeling of emotional closeness with the vic tim arises out of identification with it, and is especially strong when the victim has similarities to us or our relatives [2].

In connection with the increased interest to this phenomenon, the last editions of the disease manuals, DSM-IV and ICD-10, contain changes in the definition of in the definition of posttraumatic stress disorder. So, posttraumatic disorder can develop, not only the survi vors of a traumatic event, but also in those that are indirectly asso ciated with the traumatic event:

(1) the person experienced, witnessed, or was confronted with an event or events that involved actual or threatened death or serious injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of self or others (2) the per son's response involved intense fear, helplessness, or horror [4].

The main symptomatic reactions are intrusions (persistent expe rience of a traumatic event in the form of persuasive memories, flash blacks), avoidance (avoiding of stimuli associated with the trauma, emotional exhaustion and feeling of indifference to other people, ac tivity reduction to the previously important for the person types of ac tivity) and a hyperactivity which is expressed through increased irrita bility, difficulties in concentration of attention, sleep disorder and hyper vigilance [1].

The data of 168 firefighters and paramedics were analyzed. The study led to the conclusion that the prevalence of secondary traumati zation of rescue workers at the time of the study was 13,1 %, of which 7,7 % in line with mild to moderate form of the disorder, 5,4 % with the strong form.

In spite of the fact that rescue workers develop psychological immunization, and the worked-out coping-strategies allow to cope with a daily stress, the professional activity in the sphere of rescue services around the world leads to the increased risk of development of posttraumatic stress disorders.

References 1. Maercker, A. Posttraumatische Belastungsstoerung / U. Baumann, M. Perrez // Klinische PsychologyPsychotherapy / U. Baumann, M. Perrez. 3., vollst.

ueberarb. Aufl. Bern : Huber, 2005. 978 S.

2. Figley, C. R. Compassion fatigue: Coping with secondary traumatic stress disorder in those who treat the traumatized. Bristol : Brunner/Masel, 1995.

3. Pearlman, L. A., Saakvitne, K. W. (1995). Trauma and the therapist: counter transference and vicarious traumatization in psychotherapy with incest survi vors. London : W. W. Norton.

4. APA (American Psychiatric Association) (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manuals of mental disorders. (4. Aufl.). Washington DC: American Psychia tric Association.

811.111: SECURITY PASS SYSTEM Maksimenko V. V., Gomel Engineering Institute Kondratenko Yu. V., M.S., Gomel Engineering Institute Security pass system is a complex of organizational and legal re strictions and regulations that establish the order of crossing check points in separate establishments (buildings) by employees, visitors, transport and material resources. Security pass system is one of the key moments in the security arrangements at the enterprise. From this perspective, security pass system is a set of organizational measures (administrative and restrictive), technical decisions and actions of the security services.

The organization of access control has a certain complexity. The fact is that the mechanism of implementation of access control is based on the use of "prohibitions" and "limitations" in relation to enti ties that cross the borders of protected sites, to ensure the interests of the company. This mechanism should be faultless from the point of compliance with legislature.

Security pass system is inextricably linked to the process of en terprise security. Any security system designed to protect the facility from the risks associated with human actions, man-made or natural forces must include the identification system on the principle of "local/alien" or by the level of access for protection of the facility from the intrusion as well as the person from the hazardous factors, if they are present at the facility.

Establishing and providing the procedure for moving of staff and visitors around the facility, the system of access control not only solves the issues of security of the company, but also those of rational organization of labour.

Organizational and administrative arrangements and engineering solutions in the security pass system cannot exist in isolation from other elements of security of the facility and have to fit it well. That is why the access control system is a mandatory structure of integrated security systems.

In the concept of building integrated security systems of the company there must be defined goals and tasks of the security system, the principles of organization and functioning of the legal framework, the types of security threats and the resources to be protected, as well as the main directions of work on the implementation of a range of se curity measures, including security pass system.

Taking into consideration the role and place of access control in security system, it is necessary to adopt an integrated approach for the development of measures restricting access. Solving the problem of opposing a particular threat all elements of the system are considered together: the actions of security units, technical solutions, organiza tional and administrative measures. An integrated approach at the stage of developing security safe system will allow to avoid unneces sary expenditure of time and resources in creating an integrated enter prise security.

Naturally, creation of an integrated security system is costly.

However, if one carefully evaluates all the negative factors that affect the activity of the enterprise, these costs do not seem to be so big for they provide sustainable economic development of the company and minimize potential losses.

Besides, the process of creating integrated security system may be extended in time regarding the material features of the enterprise and conditions of its functioning at the market.

References 1. ABC Corporation SAP R/3 Security Administration Standard Operating Pro cedures, p. 63.

2. Quality Plan for Sample Project, p. 5.

3. CCDS Security guide for mission planners (DRAFT), p. 46.

811.111: LEGAL ASPECTS OF FIRE INSPECTIONS IN THE USA Sitnitsa V., post graduate student, Gomel Engineering Institute of the Ministry for Emergency Situations of the Republic of Belarus Fire inspection in the United States has a long history. Fire Pre vention is undoubtedly the most effective method of firefighting, be cause at best fire does not occur at all. Extensive experience and ef forts to improve the fire inspection in the U.S. are very important.

They can be used successfully in the experience of firefighting by the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Belarus.

Model fire codes are intended to apply to all buildings, struc tures, and premises:

Uniform Fire Code This Code shall apply to both new and existing conditions, ( UFC 1.3.1)... permanent and temporary buildings, processes, equipment, systems, and other fire and related life safety situations (2006 UFC 1.1.1).

International Fire Code Conditions and operations arising after the adoption of this code, and Existing conditions and operations (2006 IFC 102.2).

Neither the International Fire Code nor the Uniform Fire Code specifically mandate the inspection of specific occupancies. They au thorize the fire official to inspect buildings and premises in order to enforce the provisions of the code. Neither code contains a duty to in spect clause stating that all or particular classes of occupancies must be inspected. Two of the legacy fire codes contained language that seemed to imply that there was a duty to inspect:


The code official shall inspect all structures and premises, except single- family dwellings and dwelling units in two-family and multifa mily dwellings for the purposes of ascertaining and causing to be cor rected any conditions liable to cause fire, contribute to the spread of fire, interfere with fire-fighting operations, endanger life or any violations of the provisions or intent of this code or any other ordinance affecting fire safety (F-108.1,1999 BOCA National Fire Prevention Code).

The fire prevention bureau shall inspect, as often as necessary, buildings and premises, including such other hazards or appliances designated by the chief for the purpose of ascertaining and causing to be corrected any conditions which would reasonably tend to cause fire or contribute to its spread, or any violation of the purpose or provi sions of this code and any other law or standard affecting fire safety (103.3.1.1, 2000 Uniform Fire Code).

These code sections clarified the intention of code writers that fire codes were applicable to all structures. They were not found by courts to impose liability for failure to inspect any or all buildings.

Under common law, local governments have not been held liable for injuries resulting from enforcement or failure to enforce statutes or ordinancesA common misconception is that single-family dwellings and the dwelling units in multiple-family dwellings are exempt from the provisions of the code. This misconception is a serious misinter pretation of the code or of the Fourth Amendment that could lead to dire safety consequences for the public as well as potential liability for the fire official.

The model codes do not exclude dwellings or dwelling units from their scopes. Dwelling units are only exempted from routine in spection. However, US Supreme Court decisions have clearly unders cored the limits on police power imposed by the Fourth Amendment.

The nonconsensual warrantless entry of a dwelling is an especially se rious breach, unless the entry is in response to an emergency.

The right of the businessman to deny government officials access to those areas of his premises that are not open to the public is protected by the Fourth Amendment. Unless permission to enter and conduct an inspection is obtained, a warrant must be secured by the inspector.

Right of Entry Each of the model codes contains a right of entry clause that permits the fire official to enter all structures and premises at reasona ble times to conduct inspections. The inspector's right of entry is li mited however:

The fire prevention code cannot authorize an unconstitutional inspection. The inspector must identify himself, present credentials, and seek permission to conduct the inspection. Permission to inspect must be obtained or an inspection warrant must be secured prior to conducting the inspection, unless the inspector has reason to believe that a life- threatening condition exists.

Inspections must be aimed at securing or determining com pliance with the code, not with gathering information for other pur poses such as the enforcement of other laws or ordinances. Permission to conduct inspections must be requested during reasonable hours, normally the hours that the business is open or staff is present.

Inspection of those areas visible from the public way does not require permission from the owner.

Inspection priorities and frequency Although the model codes mandate the inspection of most struc tures and premises, they do not establish inspection priorities or fre quency. These issues must be determined by the local jurisdiction based on need and available resources.

Two models used in determining inspection priorities are the permit model and the inspection model. Regardless of the system used, it should target potential life safety and property hazards first. It should be fair in that all occupancies within a given classification or type, are inspected with the same frequency. Administrative proce dures that outline the process should be a written part of the bureau's standard operating procedure.


The Permit Model Perhaps the simplest model to get started and the easiest to de fend as technically valid is the permit model, using the permit re quirements and thresholds directly out of the fire prevention code. The list of required permits includes occupancies with a high potential for life loss and those involving hazardous processes or the storage and handling of hazardous materials. Like all provisions of the model codes, they are the result of our nation's fire experience and the collec tive wisdom of the membership of the model code group.

Permits are required to maintain nightclubs. Buildings housing processes that employ flammable liquids and gases and storage occu pancies that handle aerosols and other hazardous substances have all been the site of fires that resulted in the loss of life, extensive property damage, and often the catastrophic disruption of the entire communi ty. They all require permits to operate. Those occupancies that have traditionally enjoyed a low incidence of fire, such as business and pro fessional offices, banks, and small mercantile occupancies do not re quire permits to operate.

The permit process prioritizes inspections for the code official and enables the fire official to identify those occupancies in which fire opera tions personnel are most likely to encounter hazardous conditions or life hazards. This information should be shared with operations staff. Occu pancies requiring permits are those that, in the opinion of the model code groups, have the most potential for fire and life loss.

The application for permit is on the business owner. It is his or her obligation to apply for a permit prior to commencing operations. It is not the responsibility of the fire official to find the business owner.

Failure of the business owner to permit inspection at a reasonable hour is grounds for permit revocation.

The permit itself can be a valuable tool for gaining access to structures and premises. Permit fees can be used to help recover the cost of providing inspection services.

In the inspection model, the fire prevention bureau determines which types of occupancies will be inspected, identifies them, and conducts the inspections. Written procedures are needed to guard against claims of harassment and selective enforcement by some busi ness owners. If a determination is made to inspect public assemblies during the month of June, then all public assemblies should be in spected throughout the jurisdiction.

Deviation from the schedule is only justified by legitimate cir cumstances. The failure of several range hood suppression systems in restaurants might warrant special inspections of restaurants outside of, and in addition to, the normal schedule. These can easily be justified based on the actual fire experience of the jurisdiction.

Advantages of the inspection model process include:

It enables the bureau to pick and choose those occupancy clas sifications to be inspected.

It is less labor intensive than the permit process, requiring few er administrative functions.

There is more flexibility in the quality of personnel assigned to perform inspections.

When using the permit system, inspectors must have the ability to determine compliance with the entire code. Under the inspection model, only one type of occupancy is inspected at a time, theoretically limiting the amount of the code to be applied.

References 1. D. Diamantas. Fire Prevention. Inspection and Enforcement. 3rd edition, 2007. 275 p.

811.111: FIRE SAFETY AT SULFUR PROCESSING FACILITIES Shershnev S., post graduate student, Gomel Engineering Institute of the Ministry for Emergency Situations of the Republic of Belarus, Gomel The evidence of the importance of fire safety of technological process at sulfur processing plants are numerous fires occurring at the enterprises for sulfur processing not only in the Republic of Belarus but also in Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, the Republic of South Africa, the USA, etc. It is interesting to consider the experience and the points of view of the American specialists to this problem.

According to NFPA standards of fire safety a facility should be provided with the systems of fire prevention and fire protection, in cluding organizational and technical activities as well as fire safety systems, aimed at the prevention of the impact of fire hazards on people, including the secondary effects.

Potential fire sources in sulfur processing include anything that gets hot (including moving parts of machinery), gives off sparks or has naked flames whether in the normal operating condition or if a fault should develop. Some typical sources include: smokers mate rials, candles and other naked flames, matches and lighters, heaters, boiler systems and other heating equipment, electrical appliances and installations, moving parts of machinery, where friction can cause the buildup of heat, arson, maintenance works including hot works (weld ing and cutting, which requires the use of naked flames).

The principle of fire prevention is central to fire safety, that is why much attention is paid to fire inspections. An inspector must be familiar with the design and operation of fire detection and alarm sys tems and the building code requirements for the installation, testing, and monitoring of such systems. During plans review activities, an in spector may be required to review, evaluate, and approve the fire de tection and alarm systems for new buildings, structures, or facilities.

Automatic fire-suppression systems together with alarm systems are part of the fire-protection systems found in commercial and indus trial properties. These systems are usually very complicated, and high ly technical, and include modern microelectronic equipment that high ly trained individuals must install and maintain.

Detecting a sulfur fire is not simple. Very difficult to see with the human eye or a camera, burning sulfur generates a low intensity, blue flame that is a source of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Sulfur pro duces a low temperature fire. Therefore, the standard UV flame detec tor, which uses a nickel based sensing element, will not work. To detect sulfur flames effectively, a UV detector using a molybdenum (moly) sensing element is recommended. Due to the moly sensors in creased spectral range, it is susceptible to false alarming in certain ar tificial lighting. Ultraviolet flame detector with an optional moly UV tube module that provides a detection range for a 0.3 meters by 0. meters sulfur fire of 15.24 meters on-axis and 7.62 meters off-axis (when the very high sensitivity option is chosen). The problem of de tecting burning sulfur is compounded when it is stored in large piles that have irregularities that may cause the flames to be hidden from the detector. Therefore, careful detector placement is essential when designing the flame detection system.

The early detection of a fire at a sulfur processing facility and the signaling of an appropriate alarm remain two of the most signifi cant factors in preventing large losses due to fire. History has proven that delay in detection and alarm transmission can lead to injuries, fa talities, and property losses. Properly installed and maintained fire de tection and alarm systems are reliable methods of reducing the risk of a large-loss incident and increasing the survivability of peoples and emergency responders.

References 1. Arthur E. Cote, Casey C. Grant, Gohn R. Hall, Robert E. Solomon, Pomella A. Powell FIRE PROTECTION HANDBOOK.

2. Martha H. Curtis, Stewen F. Sawyer NFPA Fire Code Handbook FIFTH EDITION.

3. Special requirements for sulfur flame detection www.detronics.com.



Pages:     | 1 | 2 ||
 
 >>  ()





 
<<     |    
2013 www.libed.ru - -

, .
, , , , 1-2 .