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1. THE KIEVAN RU S............................................................................ 1.1. First steps in nature management..................................................... 1.2. Conclusions.................................................................................... 2. THE MUSCOVITE CZARDOM............................................................. 2.1. Law and nature protection............................................................... 2.2. Trade in natural resources. Crafts..................................................... 2.2.1. Wild-hive beekeeping............................................................ 2.3. Forest resources............................................................................... 2.4. Hunting. Fish resources.................................................................... 2.5. Cities............................................................................................. 2.6. Water resources............................................................................... 2.7. Conclusions and checking questions................................................. 3. THE IMPERIAL RUSSIA...................................................................... 3.1. Woods............................................................................................ 3.1.1. Wood Department (a brief historical note)........................... 3.2. Water resources............................................................................... 3.3. Land tenure. Soils protection........................................................... 3.3.1. The Ministry for State-Owned Property. The Ministry of Agriculture and State-Owned Property....................................................................... 3.4. Hunting.......................................................................................... 3.5. Fishing............................................................................................ 3.6. Mineral resources........................................................................... 3.7. Establishment of the Weather Service.............................................. 3.8. Reforms and nature management..................................................... 3.9. The state in its fight against poaching................................................ 3.10. Nature protection: from the conception to social movement............. 3.11. The beginning of formation of ecological policy in Russia............... 3.12. Development of the concept of reserve science............................... 3.13. Reserves: from idea to practice....................................................... 3.14. Conclusions and questions for mastering........................................ Part 2. THE USSR STATE AGENCIES OF NATURE PROTECTION... 1. AT THE BEGINNING OF THE HISTORY. WHY DID THE FORMA- TION OF THE FEDERAL SYSTEM OF NATURE PROTECTION AGENCIES START?............................................................................ Ill 2. THE FEDERAL NATURE PROTECTION AGENCIES.......................... 2.1. The Peoples Commissariat of Education.......................................... 2.2. Meteorological service.................................................................... 2.3. Dispersion of nature protection functions among the Peoples Commis sariats............................................................................................ 3. BETWEEN THE DEPARTMENTAL AND CENTRALIZED MANAGE MENT PRINCIPLES FOR NATURE PROTECTION............................. 3.1. The beginning of a discussion which does not have any end till now.. 3.2. Formation of non-departmental commissions for nature protection.... 3.3. Committee on reserves at the All-Russia Central Executive Committee 3.4. Primary forms of nature protection................................................... 4. BEFORE THE GENERAL CRISIS OF THE USSR............................. 4.1. State nature protection agencies....................................................... 4.2. The natural resources and monitoring departments............................. 4.2.1. Water resources................................................................. 4.2.1.1. The Basin Board for Regulation of Use and Water Pro tection of the RSFSR Ministry of Land Improvement and Water Management..................................... 4.2.1.2. The Chief Directorate for water protection (Glav vodookhrana) of the USSR Ministry of Land Im provement and Water Management................... 4.3. Forest resources.............................................................................. 4.3.1. The Chief Directorate for nature protection, reserves, forest and hunting industries of the USSR Ministry of Agriculture......... 4.3.2. The USSR State Committee for forestry (USSR Gosleshoz) 4.3.3. The Board for conservation and protection of forests at the USSR State Committee on forestry................................ 4.4. Land tenure..................................................................................... 4.4.1. The State Inspectorate on protection of soils of the USSR Minis try of Agriculture.............................................................. 4.5. Fauna and fish resources.................................................................. 4.5.1. The Basin Board for protection and reproduction of fish stocks and fishing regulation of the Glavrybvod............................ 4.5.2. The Chief Directorate for hunting and reserves at the RSFSR Council of Ministers (RSFSR Glavokhota).......................... 4.5.3. The Chief Directorate for protection and reproduction of fish stocks and regulation of fishery (Glavrybvod) of the USSR Ministry ofFishing........................................................ 4.5.4. The Inspectorate for fish protection of the Glavrybvod of the USSR Ministry of Fishing.................................................. 4.6. Monitoring, control, ecological assessment.................................. 4.6.1. The Chief Directorate for sanitary and epidemiologic manage ment of the USSR Ministry of Health................................... 4.6.2. The State Inspectorate for surveillance of operation of gas cleaning systems and dust collecting plants in the chemical and petrochemical engineering industry....................................... 4.6.3. The State Commission on chemical means of pest control, plants diseases and weeds control of the Chief Directorate for protection of plants of the USSR Ministry of Agriculture....... 4.6.4. The Committee for enforcing safety operation techniques in in dustry and mines inspectorate at the USSR Council of Minis ters (Gosgortekhnadzor of the USSR)................................. 4.6.5. The Committee ofthe All-Union Council of scientific and technical 4.6.6. The Interdepartmental Scientific and Engineering Council on in tegrated problems of environmental protection and rational use of natural resources (MHTC) at the USSR State Committee on science and technology........................................................ 4.6.7. The Scientific Council of the USSR Academy of Sciences on problems of the biosphere.................................................. 4.6.8. The Chief Directorate for fishing economy assessment and stan dards in protection and reproduction of fish stocks................ 4.7. The State Committee for nature protection (the USSR Goskompriroda).. 4.7.1. State committees of the Union republics for nature protection 4.7.2. The Department for nature protection of the USSR State Plan Committee......................................................................... 4.8. The standing commissions of deputies for nature protection of the USSR Supreme Soviet................................................................... 4.9. The USSR Ministry of Defence....................................................... 5. PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS ENGAGED IN NATURE PROTECTION 5.1. The All-Russia Society of nature protection (ARSNP)........................ 5.2. The All-Union society Znanie (The Knowledge) (nature protection functions)...................................................................................... 5.3. The Light-Blue Patrol.................................................................. 5.4. ARSNP Houses of Nature (of the All-Russia Society of nature protec tion)............................................................................................... 5.5. The Green patrol......................................................................... 5.6. Public inspection on nature protection of the ARSNP........................ 5.7. Public Inspectorates on nature protection of the ARSNP.................... 5.8. Standing public committees on rational use and reproduction of natural resources in the river basins (committees for the Desna, Volga, Ural, Don and Seversky Donets, the Upper Ob Rivers)............................. 5.9. Societies of nature protection in the Republics................................... 5.10. The Council for nature protection at the Central Committee of the Comsomol Young Communist Organization..................................... 5.11. The union of the RSFSR societies of hunters and fishers (Rosokhot rybolovsoyuz)............................................................................... 5.12. Students voluntary militia patrol on nature protection...................... 6. CONCLUSIONS AND CHECKING QUESTIONS................................. Part 3. M AKING UP THE STRUCTURE OF STATE AGENCIES FOR NATURE MANAGEMENT AND NATURE PROTECTION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION.......................................................................... 1. NATURE PROTECTION AGAINST THE BACKGROUND OF THE RE FORMS IN THE POST-SOVIET RUSSIA............................................. 1.1. Functions of the legislative power..................................................... 1.2. Federal executive authorities............................................................. 2. THE CENTRAL PUBLIC AUTHORITIES RESPONSIBLE FOR REALI ZATION OF LAWS ON PROTECTION AND USE OF NATURAL OB JECTS.................................................................................................. 3. THE STATE COMMITTEE FOR ECOLOGY (GOSKOMECOLOGIE) OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION: METAMORPHOSES OF THE CEN TRAL AGENCY FOR PROTECTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT......... 3.1. System of reserves........................................................................... 3.2. The All-Russia Research Institute of Nature protection...................... 4. THE MINISTRY OF NATURAL RESOURCES....................................... 4.1. The Federal Agency for mineral resources use 4.2. The Federal Agency for Eorestiy (Rosleskhoz)............................... 4.3. The Federal Agency for water resources............................................ 4.4. The Federal Service for supervision in the sphere of nature manage ment.............................................................................................. 4.5. Ecological assessment after liquidation of the Goskompriroda State Committee for Nature Protection..................................................... 4.6. Local authorities engaged in protection of natural resources............... 4.6.1. Local authorities engaged in protection of natural resources, St.

Petersburg........................................................................... 4.7. Monitoring of the environmental control and nature management within the framework of the Ministry for Natural Resources............. 5. THE FEDERAL HYDROMETEREOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING SERVICE (ROSGIDROMET)............................................ 5.1. Polar divisions of the Rosgidromet................................................... 5.2. The Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute...................................... 5.3. Polar stations................................................................................... 5.4. The Northern Shipping Lane........................................................... 6. THE FEDERAL SERVICE FOR ECOLOGICAL, TECHNOLOGICAL AND NUCLEAR SUPERVISION........................................................... 7. THE MINISTRY OF DEFENCE............................................................. 8. THE GOSSANEPIDNADZOR STATE SANITARY AND EPIDEMI OLOGICAL INSPECTORATE.............................................................. 9. THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION MINISTRY FOR AFFAIRS OF CIVIL DEFENCE, EXTREME SITUATIONS AND LIQUIDATION OF AF TEREFFECTS OF NATURAL DISASTERS (THE MINISTRY FOR EMERGENCY MEASURES)............................................................ 10. ECOLOGICAL TRAINING AND EDUCATION................................... 11. THE GOSSTANDART STATE STANDARD COMMITTEE............... 12. THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE......... 13. DEPARTMENTS WHICH ARE SOURCES OF ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION................................................................................. 14. STRUCTURE OF THE STATE ECOLOGICAL MONITORING (THE UNIFIED SYSTEM FOR STATE ECOLOGICAL MONITORING, USSEM)................................................................................................ 15. FRONTIER NATURE MANAGEMENT.............................................. 16. WHAT IS THE STATE-OF-THE-ART MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR NATURE PROTECTION...................................................................... 17. CONCLUSIONS................................................................................... THE CONCLUSION................................................................................... APPENDIX: THE PROGRAMME OF THE SPECIAL COURSE.................... .. 020309 30.12.96.

26.06.07. 60x90 '. Times New Roman.

. . . . . 19. 250 . 53/07.

, 195196, -, ., 98.

, 195112, -, ., 80/2.



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