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1. a) history, b) philosophy, ) faculty, d) literature.

2. a) year, b) university, ) college, d) school 3. a) M.A., b)U.K ) B.A., d) Ph.D.

4. a) student, b) tutor, c) adviser, d) professor 5. a) medicine, b) law, c) languages, d) dean's office 8. :

1). degree ) ) ) 2). post-graduate student ) ) ) 3). research ) ) ) 4). education ) ) ) 5). science ) ) ) 6). bachelor ) ) ) 7). thesis ) ) ) 8). Honours degree ) ) ) 9). accommodation ) ) ) 10). applied science ) ) ) III The World We Live in Advantages and Disadvantages of Living in the 20th Century : - (), .

.1. , , . , .

Part I.

Advantages The advantages of living in the twentieth century are clear to anyone who spends time in one of the world's highly developed nations. The disadvantages of modem life, however, are sometimes not so quickly seen. Consider the average man today in con trast with man 200 years ago. Without doubt, man's life has been eased considerably.

Machines now perform for him many of the services that he previously had to do for himself. They cut his grass, wash his car, open and close his doors, walk for him, climb stairs for him, serve him coffee, and both put him to sleep and wake him up to music. In two major areas - transportation and communications - great progress has been made.

Mass publishing practices have spread newspapers, magazines, and paperback books around the globe. Relayed across oceans by Telstar satellites, television informs and entertains people in every hemisphere. M ail moves swiftly and efficiently;

telephone cables connect all continents. More than any other single invention, the gasoline engine has revolutionized modem life. City streets, clogged with automobile traffic tell us that.

More recent discoveries have led to the surge of jet and supersonic plane travel. Even as man darts throughout the world, he is protected from disease as no man before him has been, and he can look forward to living a longer life than his grandfather did. Fur thermore, man now commands a more plentiful supply of the world's goods. He may own not only a car and a home but also a stove, a refrigerator, a washing machine, books, phonograph records and cameras. Even his old age is better provided for through pension and retirement plans offered by the government and by industry. Thus the ad vantages of living in the twentieth century are many.

. 2. .

1). highly developed nation ), 2). modem life ), () 3). an average man ), 4). without doubt ), 5). around the globe ). , 6). every hemisphere ). 7). single invention ), 8). recent discoveries ). 9). look forward ), - 10). in contrast ), . 3. .

1. City street are clogged with automobile traffic.

2. Even as man darts throughout the world, he is protected from disease.

3. Relayed across oceans by Telstar satellites, television informs people.

4. Telephone cables connect all continents.

5. Today man moves more swiftly through the world.

6. Machines now perform for man many of the services.

7. Television informs and entertains people everywhere.

8. Man now commands a more plentiful supply of the world's goods.

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certainly;

perhaps;

because of;

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also;

thus;

although;

furthermore;

obviously, in general;

so that;

undoubtedly;

due to.

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2.... now perform for man many of the services.

3. Machines... the grass,... his car, open and... his doors,... stairs.

4. In two major areas -... and... - great progress has been made.

5. Television... and entertains people.

6. More than any other single invention, the... has revolutionized modem life.

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Part II.

Disadvantages In contrast, one finds that progress can also have its drawbacks. It is true that to day man moves more swiftly through the world. But in doing so, he often loses track of the roots and traditions that give substance and meaning to life. Nor does the fact that he is better informed through television, radio, newspapers, and books necessarily mean that he is wiser than men of earlier generations. Instead, the ease with which the written and spoken words are produced today sometimes seems to lead to superficiality of thought. Although man has been given the gift of leisure and longer life, he has become more restless and is often uncomfortable when he is not working. Flooded with goods and gadgets, he finds/his appetite for material things increased, not satisfied. Man in vented machines to replace his servants. But some current observers feel that man is in danger of becoming the servant of his machines. Mass production lowered the cost of many products, but as prices went down, quality also often decreased. Another dis tressing aspect of modem life is its depersonalization. In many offices automation is be ginning to replace human workerstySome colleges identify students not by their names, but by their IBM numbers. Computers are winning the prestige that philosophers had in an earlier age. The frenzied pace in many cities is another of the less attractive by products of an industrial society. Soon, man may even fall victim to the subtle loss of privacy that threatens him. Even today, he can be closed circuit television screens as he walks in stores and hotelsfyHe may ^^ radar whUe ^riving on the highway or listened to by means of a microph in his iffiung system.

He might even be sharing his telephone conversation with an unknown auditor. Cer tainly many problems face men living jjgflttje most technologically advanced era in his tory. As old enemies have been new enemies come into view, just like the old ones. Yet if modem man remains the master of his own fate, he can still fashion a satisfying life in this fast-moving century., . 2. : con t a t progress, traditions, substance, f c, information, t levision, radio.

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How Was the Earth Created H w th Earth created P p h b naskin th t q e nfro earliest ow as e ? eo le ave ee g a u stio m tim They u toexp it b m g u sto a o t m ic a dg d Even n w es. sed lain y akin p ries b u ag n o s. o th final an erh n tb nfo n.

e sw as o ee u d Scientists b elieveth Earthtob a o t4,700m years o.

e e bu illion ld A ccording too e of th th ries th su p n e eo e n assedth u hag t clo d d st a d ro g ian u of u n g s in sp a dp a ace n ickedu fro th clo dth m p m e u e aterial th Earth a do e p e w e n th r lan ts ere later fo edo rm f.

As toits co stru n m st scien a re th t th re is a co in th m d - a n ctio o tists g e a e re e id le so ball ofnickel a diro, a o t 4,200m th lid n n bu iles ick.

O tsid th co is th m tle. It co sists of layers of several m u e e re e an n aterials, so e m solida dso em lte. It is a o t 1 m th n m on b u,800 iles ick.

O tsid th m tleis th cru w live o. W co ldlearn a g a d a o t th u e e an e st e neu re t eal b u e e rthif it w p ssib tod d e d w b wth cru a as o le ig e p o n elo e st.

M havedrilledn en early five m d w in th e rth cru tog t oil. But th iles o n to e a 's st, e is is n tfar e o g, b seo lan th cru is fro 1 to3 m th o n u h ecau n d e st m 8 0 iles ick.

If scien co ld g t tokn wm re a o t th e rth co stru n it w u h tists u e o o b u e a 's n ctio, o ld elp th mtolearntoco tro th w er, toch g clim a dtoa rt n ral ca stro h s e n l e eath an e ates n ve atu ta p e like e q ak s a dh rrican arth u e n u es.

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1 Scientists b. elieveth Earthtob a o t4,700m years o.

e e bu illion ld 2 M st scien a re th t th co inth m d is ag o sb.o tists g e a e re e id le ase u all.

3 The m tle o th Earth co sists of layers o several m. an f e n f aterials, so e so, m lid so em lte.

m on 4 O tsid th m tleis th cru w live o.

. u e e an e st e n 5 Thecru of th Earthis fro 5to1 m th. st e m 0 iles ick.

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.1. 1 -1 , 0 5 , , "Man and his Environment". .

Man and His Environment The p b of m a dhis in ro lem an n teractio w th en n en h n wb m n ith e viro m t as o eco e o eof th difficult p b s fo m saences n tbecausFifiTfash'ionableb t b se n e ro lem r an^ o u ecau of its g a significance fo th w le of m kin, re t r e ho an d see a p se t th sig s of eco t re n e n logical im alan w m cau acrisis if$uem b ce, hich ay se lasures a n t ta e.

re o k n The air w b a e th e rthw live o a dits rivers a dse s areb m gp l e re th, e a e nn na eco in o lu w ever m re d n e u m ted ith o a g ro s aterials ^ bv-nroducts of mn activities. M d a 's an e p n s fo his life o w a th b sp ere p v e w te o en fo d e But th bio ed r n h t e io h ro id sf^ a r, xyg, o, tc. e sp ere is stro g a h n ly ffected b all so of h m activities. For exam le, m cre tes y rts u an p an a n co p u d n su stan p re chem ele e ts w ich are u kn w tob =) r-e ew m o n s, ew b ces, u ical mn h n o n io sp ere. They d n t b n toth n ral cycle of mtte They w h o o elo g e atu a r. eaken th cap e acity of n ral p cesses fo self-reg latio. T o g n t ch g gbiologically, w ch g th atu ro r u n h u h o an in e an e e en n en in w w live. The g a R viro m t hich e re t ussian scien yifldipir V tist ernadsky w th as e first in th realize th necessity fo q ite a n to th b sp ere a e e ru ew e io h s early, a th ^imc^^^^ Al?

se The in creasin n ise level is a sp go ecial p b mn w ays. W n e silence a ro le o ad e ed s m ch as w n e fresh air a du p llu w r. N ise d e n t o ly d physical d u e ed n n o ted ate o o s o n o am a et6 th h b tcanw enhis en ya db d w h n g e earer u eak erg n reak o n is erves.

/ Tran o is ^ of en n en p llu n Every car co su es sp rt |. viro m tal o tio. nm mkny to s of air. Its exhau ases co tain carb n d xid w n sTg n o io e hich m difficult th akes e em issionofth e rth h a in sp M cities n wa to n isy tolive in e a 's e t to ace. any o re o o.

P llu ts are n t o ly h rm l toh o tan o n a fu ealth b t tob ild g a w O cities a u u in s s ell. ur re d gphysically. In m st city cen so eof th o e a dfin b ild g arefallin yin o tres m e ld st n est u in s g in p ieces. O th o e h n, th fo n atio s are b g s^kenfr/ |ill th heavy traffic n e n ad e ud n ein e a d o th o e h n, th bricks a b ge te aw b tfE fe iromth traffic. It is a n, n e th r a d e re ein a n ay y m l e slo p cessb tit is g in o eventh u hyo ca 'tse it.

w ro u ogn og u n e O e m re asp of th p b is w p llu n Sea- a d river-g in sh s no ect e ro lem ater o tio. n o g ip o np llu sea a driver w w vario s oil p d cts. A af fff*e fmt?"n less jfte o te n ater ith u ro u t M s1 a o th n five m a illion to s of oil are d arg in se s a do s each year a do e to n isch ed to a n cean nnn of oil can sp a o a o t tw sq arekilo etres ofth w su re d ver b u elve u m e ater rface a afinefilm s w p ts air-w o en exch g O e litre of oil m es o e m hich reven ater xyg an e. n ak n illion litres of fresh w u fit fo d kin. W m st sto th co tam a nofo r w ater n r rin g e u p e n in tio u ater-w w ich ays h co es fro som y so rces: chem w fro facto th rm w fro p w m m an u ical aste m ries, e al aste m o er statio s, d m w fro cities a dto n a dsoo.

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go 4 Sig of eco ical im alan. ns log b ce.

5 En n ental p tectio is ach g tom d rnscien. viro m ro n allen e o e ce.

6 W p llu n. ater o tio.

7 T sp rt a den n en p b s.

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Yes N N evid ce o o en 1 O elitreofoil m es o em.n ak n illionlitres of freshw u fit fo d kin.

ater n r rin g 2 Thep b ofen n en p llu nh s. ro lem viro m tal o tio a b nalread so.

ee y lved 3 P llu ts cand y b ild g. o tan estro u in s.

4 T sp rt is am r so rceofw p llu n. ran o ajo u ater o tio.

5 Ships o np llu seaa driver w w o. fte o te n ater ith il p d cts.

ro u 6 V.Vem. adsky w th first scientist w oreal as e h izedth necessityofen n en p tectio.

e viro m tal ro n 7 H m activities stro g affect th b sp ere.

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. eco g lo y ecolo ical g eco g lo ist h ro g yd lo y en n en viro m talist m ro g eteo lo ical eco o ist nm science physics chemical . 7 . :

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1 Ecological im alan m cau ( / ) acrisis if d em res. b ce ay se u easu a n t ta e.

re o k n 2 M ro g m re( / ) air te p ra rew th rm mte. eteo lo ists easu m e tu ith e o e rs.

3 W ch g ( / th en n en inw w live.

. e an e ) e viro m t hich e 4. C atech g s ( / ) areim o n fo everyo e.

lim an e p rta t r n 5 V.V. ernad realizedth necessity fo an a p a toth b sp ereas early a sky e r ew p ro ch e io h s ( ) th m fo / e id rties.

6 Oil cansp a o 1 km ofth w su. re d ver 2 2 e ater rfacea ( / afinefilm s ).

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. rts u an n ly e io h 4 M creates n co p u d a dsu stan. an ew m o n s n b ces.

5 They w enth cap ofn ral p cesses fo self-reg latio.

. eak e acity atu ro r un | 6 Every car co su es m yto s of air.

. n m an n 7 Theh traffic is sh gth fo n atio s.

. eavy akin e u d n 8 Ship o np llu seaa driver w r.

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h u h o an in e an e hich e 7.... is th p cess ofm go r en n en d e ro akin u viro m t irty.

8 Exhaust g ofcars contain...

. ases {^carbon d xid io e, b g lin en in ) aso e g e, e -d d a g s, e m in ^ isa v ffla e ) ach es, J^jjhilosephersr'''g) p llu n h n iro mn jju ilr" o tio, _)e v n e t;

F o 2. :

1 hig d p co n. hly evelo ed u try ) 2 w o td u t. ith u o b ) 3 b ro u. y-p d cts ) 4. toco ein view m to ) 5 m st scien.o tists ) 6. e rth co stru n a 's n ctio ) 7. ea q a e a dhu rth u k s n rrican es ) 8 en n en. viro m t ) 9 tob m p llu. eco e o ted ) 1.ex au g se 0 h st a s ) 3. , .

1 ) n sp er b rad.a ew ap ) io ) m azin d p llu n ) televisio ag e ) o tio n 2 fash n.) io b au m b ) e g e d p e ) to o ile n in ) lan e) b a ot 3.a) e rth a b m tle ) an c) air d cru ) st e co ) re 4.a) river bo ) cean c) sky d sea ) e) lake 5.a drill ) b oil ) ) p llu o te dd ) ie eb n ) elo g 6.a) m re o b clear ) c) earlier dw ) iser e) m read ced o van .

4.

1 This question... yesterd. ay.

a h s b e d ssed ) a e n iscu b w d ssed ) as iscu c) is d ssed iscu 2 Thesetexts... th m n.

. is o th a w tran d ) ere slate b h b ntran d ) as ee slate c) h b e tran d ave e n slate 3 This book... last year.

.

a w p b ed ) as u lish b h b p b ed c) is p b ed ) as een u lish u lish 4 This yearth highw. e ay...

a h sb nresto d b w resto d ) a ee re ) as re c) resto d re 5.1... a o tit o yesterd b u nly ay.

a a to ) m ld b h b e to ) ave e n ld c) w to as ld 6 Theletter... yesterd. ay.

a w b se t ) ill e n b w se t ) as n c) h sb se t a een n 7 Thestu en w all th n. d ts... ith e ecessaryb o a dm s.

o ks n ap a h b su p ) ave een p lied b h su p ) ave p lied c) h tosu p ave p ly 5. . 1 A ost all p llu np b s areco n. lm o tio ro lem n ectedtoeacho e th r.

) ) ) 2 N iseis masu dind els.

.o e re ecib ) ) ) 3 Theriver is_n wb gclean a dfishcanb ca g t a ain. o ein ed n e uh g.

) ) ) 4. To ay a ylarg dn e-scalem ilitary conflict w b acco p iedb ag b id ill e m an y lo al-w e im act o th b sp ere.

p n e io h ) ) ) 5 M n rin th d arg of to a dh fu su stan in th en n en. o ito g e isch e xic n arm l b ces to e viro m t is b gin sified ein ten.

) ) ) 6 Last year a o t 6 p cen of th co m e in th co n w u inth p d c. b u 0 er t e al in d e u try as sed e ro u tio ofelectrical en y, a do p cen w u forh a g n erg n nly er t as sed e tin.

) ) ) 7 The p b of ratio al u of n ral reso rces is closely co n. ro lem n se atu u n ected w en n ith viro mn l p te n e ta ro ctio.

6.

) ' ) ) 1 W sawab g ( ) recen.e rid e tly, ab ) uild b b ild g ) u in ) built 2 They d ssedn mth d ( ) inb ild g. iscu ew e o s u in, aa u g bu g ) re sin ) sin c) u d se 3 The an er ( ) fro h su risedu. sw m er rp s.

a received b w received c) h received ) ) as as IV The Earth and its Atmosphere 4A : Participle I, Participle II : ( ).

.1. , . .

The Earth's Shape and Size To early m, w his lim p w rs of p tio, th Earth w re a e a an ith ited o e ercep n e as g rd d s b g flat: in o e w rd it h a p e su ein th r o s, ad lan rface. This id of a disk-like Earth w ea as co m n toall th p p of th an t w rld u til th G p ilo p ers b g nto mo e eo les e cien o n e reek h so h e a teacho erw But th id of a sp erical Earth w rejectedb m st sch lars d rin th ise. e ea h as yo o ug m ieval tim a d id of a flat Earth p ed es n ea ersisted u til th six th cen iy w en Co n e teen tu h p icu heliocentric th ry a d D G a's circu n atio of th g b cau ern s's eo n a am m avig n e lo e sed mntoth kafresha o t th fo ofth Earth.

e in b u e rm e N to, arg in th t th Earth w aro gb d a da su w u b su ject ew n u g a e as tatin o y n s ch o ld e b to cen g fo a d th re te d to b lg o t in th se p fu e rem ved trifu al rces n erefo n ue u o arts rth st o fro th axis of ro n i.e. in its e u rial reg n d u th t th Earth w me tatio, q ato io s, ed ced a e as ro g ly o g ap ;

in o e w rd it d p rte fro p u h ran e-sh ed th r o s, e a d m erfect sp hericity th u h ro g slig p lar flatten g Later masu mn co firm N to s su g n th t th ht o in. e re e ts n ed ew n g estio a e Earth w co p as m ressed u o its o axis a d b lg slightly a th e u to Such a p n p lar n u ed t e q a r.

fo w its tw d rm ith o eviatio s fro th p n m e erfectly sp herical fo is te e a o latesp e rm rmd n b h ro o a ellipsoidofrevo tio.

id r n lu n In 1 0, Sir Jam Jean calcu 93 es s lated th t th Earth w m re n ae as o early p a a ee r-sh p d th n o g ap, a d th latest masu en co a ran e-sh ed n e e rem ts nfirm th t Jean w co a s as rrect. To su o n th difficulties of d rm u t e escrib gprecisely th slightly irreg sp erical fo o in is ular h rm f th Earthth te g idw in ted e e rm eo as ven.

The size of th Earth. G d is th science w stu ies, d te in s a d e eo esy e hich d e rm e n m res th exact sh e a d d en n of th Earth. The latest g d su to easu e ap n im sio s e eo etic rvey g th rw satelliteo servatio s g th Earth d en n a follow e e ith b n ives e 's im sio s s s:

Eq uatorial d eter iam 1.7 4km 2 4 (7,926.42m iles) Polar d eter iam 1.7 3km 2 0 (7,899.83 m iles) Eq rial circum uato ference 40.059km (24,902.44m iles) M io circum erid nal ference 39.995km (24,860.53 m iles) This d p rtu fro th p e a re m e erfect sp erical fo is o very slig t a d it m st n t b h rm nly hn u oe o ver-em h p asised in eed view fro sp say th m o, th Earth w u a p a a a :d, ed m ace, e on e o ld p e r s tru sp e.

e h re The lan -m a do s. Thed u noflan a dse o th e rth sur d asses n cean istrib tio d n a ver e a 's faceis n t o lyu eq al b t hig irreg lar. O 29 p cen of th su is o p o n n u u hly u nly er t e rface ccu ied bylan, th re reth rem in 7 p ce t is co d e fo e ain g 1 er n veredb w r.

y ate . 2 :

. 1 , - . ?

2 . . ?

3 . ?

. 3 , . :

1 :

. , - .

2 . " ".

3 : . .

4 .

. . 4 . :

Id a o tth sh eofth Earth ea b u e ap e Pd erio /scientist . 5 . :

R ht W n ig ro g 1 Thed p rtu fro th p. e a re m e erfect sp erical fo is rath h rm er ap reciab p le.

2 G d is th sciencew ichstu ies, d. eo esy e h d eterm es a d in n m res th exact sh ea dd en n ofth Earth.

easu e ap n im sio s e 3 Thed u noflan a dseao th e rth sur. istrib tio dn ver e a 's faceis rath reg lar.

er u 4. The seaareas fo o ew rldo a.

rm n o ce n 5 2 p cen ofth Earth's su is o p b w r.

. 9 er t e rface ccu ied y ate . 6 - . , . .

. 7. :

6 calculate - . 1 eo les.p p - - - - - 7a u. rg e - 2 th u h. ro g - - - - - 3 m rem t . easu en 8 co firm .n - - - - 4. surface - 9 su o n - . rm u t - - - - 5 fo. rce - 1.th re- 0 erefo - - - - . 8 , . , - .

1 ino e w rd - o erw. th r o s th ise 6. tob su ject to- toin ce eb fluen 2 ro g ly- exactly. uh 7 n - alm st. early o 3 p e(e.g su. lan. rface) - flat 8 fo - p w. rce o er 4. tocalculate- toco n ut 9 latest- earliest.

5 reg n- are. io a 1. toco tin e- toin rru t 0 nu te p . 9 :

. 1... is th science w stu ies, d. e hich d eterm es a dm res th exact sh e a d in n easu e ap n d en n ofth Earth.

im sio s e 2 The... oflan a dseao th e rth su. dn ver e a 's rfaceis highlyirreg lar.

u 3 2 p t of th su. 9 ercen e rface is o p by..., th rem in 7 p t is cov ccu ied e ain g 1 ercen e dby...

re 4. The sea-areais..., a dPacific O alo etak u m resp th all th...

n cean n es p o ace an e a a p t to e e re s u g th r.

5 Fromsp th Earthw u ap e as atrue...

. ace e o ld p ar 6 Toearlym th Earthw reg e a b g...

. an e as ard d s ein 7 Later masu en co firm N to 's su g nth t th Earth was... u o. e rem ts n ed ew n g estio a e pn its p lar axis a db lg a the...

o n u ed t . 1. .

0 . 1. Participle I Participle 1 :

tolim tob tohave, tob in toteach toreject, top it, e, eg,, ersist, toco firm tota e n, k, tog tosu o n top t, toreco n ive, rm u t, u g ize.

. 1. 2 . .

1.1 co rrectedth m e istake(fo n /fo n e ) b m te ch r.

u d u dd y y a e 2 They (sh w /sh w ) u an m vielast w. o ed o n s ew o eek.

3 Them vie (sh w d o n w very (b rin /b re ).

. o o e /sh w ) as o god 4. H keep th letter (w te ritte ) b his g e se ro /w n y irlfrien.

d 5 They (im ro /im ro th mth d th mth d (im ro. p ved p ve) e e o : e e o p ve/im ro ) w p ved as veryhelp l inth w rk.

fu eir o 6 H (to k k ) all th le rs (received. e o /ta e e tte /receivin ) th td g a ay.

7 N train (arrived.o /arrivin ) a th sta n d rin th n h b se of th sn w g t e tio u g e ig t ecau eo sto.

rm 8 The th a (b ilt/b ild in th 18* cen ry is th m st b tifu b ild g in. e tre u u s) e tu e o eau l u in th city.

e . 1. Participle II 3 : to record, to contain, to flatten, to cause, to divide, to radiate, to launch, to deduce.

1 Ice a e ( b d. g s ) y ifferen m an s arestill ap zzletoscien t ech ism u tists.

2 The last p d of g. erio laciatio ( in th g lo ical h ry n ) e eo g isto e d da o t tw ty-fiveth u n years a o n e b u en o sa d g.

3 The a eof th Su canb e ate fro th rate o th en y ( ). g en e stim d m e f e erg b it.

y 4. Theto l a o n ofsalt ( ) inth seacanb masu d ta m u t e e e re.

5 In recen cen ries it w learn th t th e rthis a im erfect sp ere, slig. t tu as ed a e a np h htly ( a th p les a d( ) t e o n ) a th Eq ato t e u r.

6 The o its of th first artificial satellites, ( in 1 5 a d 1 5,. rb e ) 97 n sh w th tth flatten gis less th nh b e th u h o ed a e in a ad e n o g t.

7. N erically th flatten g is d ed a th d um e in efin s e ifferen b een th eq ato ce etw e u rial d eter a dth p lar d e r, ( b th e u rial d mte iam n e o iamte ) y e q ato ia e r.

8 The e rth sh e ( b N to th retically in his Principia in. a 's ap, ) y ew n eo 1 8, w ag a helpa th ttim.

6 7 as re t ta e 4 : Participle I, ;

Gerund .1. , , , , .

. 2 , . . .

1 ?

. 2 ?

. 3. , , ?

4. ?

T h e A tm o sp h e re The a o h reis ath filmof g s w su u d th Earth a dw is p tm sp e in a hich rro n s e n hich re ven dfro escap gin sp b th force of g te m in to ace y e ravity. It h s n d iteu p r su a o efin p e rface b m g rarer w in eco in ith creasin h h For m st p g eig t. o ractical p rp se th u p r lim can u o s e p e it b recko ed as lying a a o t 1 km(10 m e n t bu 6 iles);

"w a e is m stly co fin to th e th r" o n ed is low layer. A er bove th ap ro ately 1 -k (10-m lim th a o h re exists in is p xim 6m ile) it, e tm sp e a increasingly a n a dfo u toa least 300 k (200 m b t th extrem o te n tte u te rm p t m iles) u e eur frin eis co ven n su p se tob a ah h of a o t 1 0 km(600m g n tio ally p o d e t eig t b u 0 0 iles).

The en p of air co sists of a m re of g chiefly n g n (78p ce t velo e n ixtu ases, itro e - er n b vo m o en (2 p cen a d sm q an y lu e), xyg 1 er t), n all u tities of a o, carb n d xid n o rg n o io e, e n a do e rare g to e e w a variable a o n of w v o r. The a o h re n th r ases, g th r ith m u t ater ap u tm sp e also co tain p llu ts, m d st a dsm ke, th u hlocally th rem b to co n s o tan ainly u n o og e ay e xic n stitu n em db p w statio s a d in u e ts itte y o er n n d strial p ts. The very sm p p rtio of lan all ro o n carb n d xid a d w vap u in th air is of first im o ce in d o io e n ater o r e p rtan eterm in th in g e ch aracter of th Earth clim In eed it is th variab q a tity ofm istu inth air e 's ates. d, e le u n o re e w hich, w ena du o b th su 's en y (h p d ce w a e h cte p n y e n erg eat), ro u s e th r.

. 3 . .

1 Theu p rlim ofth atm sp e.

. p e it e o h re 2 Thelayers ofth a o h re. e tm sp e.

3 Theh h of th a o h re. eig t e tm sp e.

4. C m o nofth a o h re o p sitio e tm sp e.

5 C o d xid a dits influenceo th Earth's clim. arb n io e n ne ate.

6 Thew erofth Earth.

. eath e . 4. :

1 rceofg.fo ravity 1 . 2 u p r lim. p e it 2 . 3 a least.t 3 . 4 practical p rp ses. uo 4. 5 m reofg. ixtu ases 5 . 6 w vap r. ater o 6 . 7 variableq a tity. un 7 . 8 en p ofair. velo e 8 . . 5 "The At. mosphere".

. 6 . .


1 Thea o h reis athin... of g s.

. tm sp e a 2.... p v n a o h refro escap gin sp ce re e ts tm sp e m in to a.

3 A o 1 -k lim th a o h exists inincreasingly... fo.

. b ve 6 m it e tm sp ere rm 4. The en p of air co sists ofa... ofg se velo e n a s.

5 The a o h realsoco tain p llu ts, m. tm sp e n s o tan ainly... and...

. SpS&sft !.

p ts lan toxic co stitu n in u n e ts d strial p rp ses sm uo all q an u tities p ractical p p rtio s o te ro o n u r frin e g variab le a on mu t lo er w layer thin film . 8 .

. . 9 . , :

1 Evap tran iratio is sh ly red cedin th city b se of th red ced p n. o sp n arp u e ecau e u la t co ver.

2 Thep e o e o d. h n mn n escrib w o servedb rerainfall.

ed as b efo 3 The in m g rad n w s th su. co in iatio arm e rface of th Earth a dh a p e n e t asses from th w edsu toth low layers ofth a o h re e arm rface e er e tm sp e.

4. O ceth lo er layers of air arew ed co vectio takes o n ew arm, n n ver.

5 A h g q a tityofm istu is evap ratin co tin o slyin th air.

. u e un o re o g n u u to e 6 Thep. revailin w d h a easterly slan b w ginfro th n rth a a d g in s ave n t, lo in m e o -e st n so th a u -e st.

7 The w d b w g b to ard th e u to are m vin fro a reg n o. in s lo in ack w s e q a r og m io f slow eastw m ve e t in th reg noffastest eastw m v mn er ard o mn to e io ard o e e t.

. 1. 0 :

1 , . ;

2 , ;

. 3. , ;

4. ;

, 5. , ;

6 ;

. , 7 ;

. , 8 , . ;

9 . , ;

1. .

0 , . 1. 1 , (Participle I, Gerund).

1 The resu of vertical o co vectio cu ts is th t th air in m vin u w rd. lt rn n rren ae o g pa exp d a dco ls, cau gp itatio.

an s n o sin recip n 2 Experience can b g e o ly b o servin w er co d n a d b p . e ain d n y b g eath n itio s n y re p ga dstu yin w erm s.

arin n d g eath ap 3 A stu y of successive w er m s, tracin th m vem t of th w er, is. d eath ap g e o en e eath essen toth p b offo tial e ro lem recastin. g 4 D ressio s travel o th island fro w toe st, b g gheavyrain. ep n ver e s m est a rin in.

5 Theb m is a in m t fo d. aro eter n stru en r eterm in atm sp eric p re.

in g o h ressu 6 Clim ofb cities is o ly o esm p b facin m k d. ate ig n n all ro lem g an in.

7 Inch g gw in iceits co p sitio is n tch n e.

. an in ater to mo n o a gd 8 So far as te p ra reis co cern, Britain is fo n te inhavin w er w. m e tu n ed rtu a g arm in ters th no e d a th r istricts inth sam la d.

e e titu e 4B : Participle I, II;

Gerund . 1 . :

- ?

- ?

- ?

Structure of the Atmosphere.

Measurement of the Atmosphere M ro g h d vered th t th atm sp e h a stru re, a d th e eteo lo ists ave isco a e o h re as ctu n re m layers arereco n :

ain g ised a The tro o h re w lies b een a o t 8a d 1 km(5 a d9m h h ) p sp e, hich etw b u n 4 n iles) ig ;

it is a zo e of te p ra re d n m e tu ecrease w h h a d w in it is co fin over 9 p r ith eig t n ith n ed 0e cen ofth a o h re w v o r.

t e tm sp e 's ater ap u b The strato h reo u p layers, u toah h of a o t 1 0km(60 m in ) sp e r p er p eig t b u 0 iles) w te p ra re areverylowa dfairly co stan th rearen clo d a dp hich m e tu s n n t;

e o u s n ractically n w vap u o d st a dn co vectio cu ts.

o ater o r r u n o n n rren c) The io o h o th u p rm st layer;

in th layer th re are electro s a d n sp ere r e p e o is e nn io s w in cerad w n hich fluen io aves.

M rem t is th first essen in an science a dth m ro g m st h easu en e tial y n e eteo lo ist u ave masu en o th w h h w co te t a dm vem t of air. Su m re e rem ts f e eig t, eat, ater n n n o en ch easu mn fo th raw m e ts rm e aterial w w h w rks. H req ires p ith hich e o eu recise in rm n fo atio a o tfo r th g b u u in s:

a ) P re, i.e. th w h of air a o a u it area;

th is m red by a b ressu e eig t b ve n is easu a ro e r.

mte b T p re, i.e. th m rem t of th h a o m lecu en y of th air;

) em eratu e easu en e e t r o lar erg e th is rea b ath rm mte is d y e o e r.

c) H m ity, i.e. th w co te t of th air w is m redb aw t a dd u id e ater n n e hich easu y e n ry b lbh d mte u y ro e r.

dV ) elocity, i.e. th sp e a d d e e d n irectio of w d w is m red b a a e n in hich easu y n n m mte o e r.

Four im o n facts h b m a p re t fro m rin th atm sp e :

p rta t ave eco e p a n m easu g e o h re a T p red p a afairly reg lar ra w ascen th d ) em eratu ro s t u te ith t;

is ecreaseis a o t bu 6C fo every 1 0mtre o 1F for every 3 0 fe t;

th g n d r 0 esr 3 e is e eral ecrease is kn w a ons th lap ra.

e se te b P re follow a sim p tte, d ) ressu s ilar a rn ecreasin : n rm b m p re a g o al aro etric ressu t sea level is 7 0 m (29.9 in es) b t d 6m ch u ecreases a th ra of 1cmfor every 1 8 mo t e te 0 f ascen th fact, incidentally, is tak in acco n in th calib n of an idaltim t;

is en to u t e ratio ero e te rs.

c) Air p re a n t d w w s o ly, b t in all d ressu cts o o n ard n u irectio s, since air is fluid n ;

in areas of h h p re, h w ig ressu o ever, th air te d tob stab a dth w d fairly co e n s e le n e in s n sta t, b t ina a oflo p reth co verseap lies.

n u re s w ressu e n p d In th u p r air, i.e. in th strato h re it h s b e recently d vered th t ) e pe e sp e, a e n isco a th reareextrem stro gair cu ts, "je stre m a th yh co etob called;

th e ely n rren t a s" s e ave m e e p reciseroleth yh inaffectin th Earth's w eris n t yet fully kn w.

e ave ge eath o on . 2 . ?

- : , - , .

- .

- - .

- .

- .

- .

- .

. 3 . .

p reis ressu - u p rlayers u toah h ofa o t 1 0km pe p eig t b u te p ra reis - th w h of air a o t au it a a m e tu e eig t b u n re th io o h is - th u p m st layer e n sp ere e p er o th stra sp e is - th sp e a dd e to h re e e d n irectio of w d n in h m ityis u id - th m rem t of th h a o m lecu en yofth air e easu en e e t r o lar erg e velocityis - th w co te tofth air e ater n n e . 4 . , .

. 5 . :

stru re, tro o h re strato h re io o h zo e, p t, co sta t, p ctu p sp e, sp e, n sp ere, n ercen n n racti cally, co vectio, electro, b mte m lecu en y, th rm mte h d mte n n n aro e r, o lar erg e o e r, y ro e r, a e o e r.

n m mte , .

. 6 . .

S ctu ofth T p re P re H m ity W ressu ind In mn tru re e em eratu u id stru e ts a o h re tm sp e th tro o h re w h of air, b mte strato h re io o h m lecu e e p sp e, eig t aro e r, sp e, n sp ere, o lar n erg velocity, sp e, lap rate th rm mte w co te t, u p rm st layers, th e y, e d se, e o e r, ater n n p e o re m layers, d ain irectio, cu t, h ro eter, h a rad w n rren yd m e t, io aves.

. 7 , . ;

.

. 8 4.

. _ . 9 . .


(lyHave yo a ydifficultyinu d rstan in sp k English?

un n e d g o en '1 i)!b ) ) 2.1 a fo dofread gb o a o tg a mn lives, mn in o ks b u re t e 's )) ) ) 3 H e te dth ro mw o tn ticin h r.

. e n re e o ith u o g e ) ^ ) '' ' 4 N th gco ldp thimfrd g in th re. o in u reven mog e.

) , ) 5 sto p dsm kin.

. pe o g ) ( ) 6 En in fin u gw o m rep. g eers d sin o d o ractical th no e ma th r aterials.

^ ^ ) ) 7 Thevastn ofth universem b /o ta e b co sid gth su.

. ess e ay e b in d y n erin e n ) | ) . 1. .

0 . 1 M ro g th rm mte areg tu e ( ) eith m ry o. eteo lo ical e o e rs lass b s, er ercu r alco o h l.

a co tain )n 'b ntain g yco in c) co tain n ed 2 W en th w vap u in th air is co ledb wth te p ra re (. h e ater o r e o elo e m e tu ) toth p reof sa ra dvap u co d satio o rs.

e ressu tu te o r, n en n ccu /^ corresponding b co o d ) rresp n s c) co o d rresp n 3 Rain cro Sco d( ) tosleet o sn wo h h g u d. ssed tlan r o n ig er ro n, a tu e ) rn d ;

^^tum ing c) tu rn 4. Land su rfaces are g o ab rb rs a d h a rap ly w en th su ( o o d so e n e t id h e n ) n th m e. / a sh in ) in g i 'b k sh in ) s in g c) w b sh in ill e in g 5 A rain rmis a essen p rt of th h ro g cycle, ( to. sto n tial a e yd lo ic ) th lan th w th t th rivers carriedtoth se.

e d e ater a e ea a b gretu e ) ein rn d b re rn d ) tu e |c^ m g sretu in 6 Thep b of sm g( o eofm r im o ce. ro lem o ) n ajo p rtan, ab m g ) eco in ^)is b m g b eco in c) b m eco e 7 P cesses ( ) b g are th sam a th se ( ) toth fo. ro os e e s o e r m nofclo d atio u s.

ra p d ce ) ro u b p d ce ) ro u d ^producing pleading b lead ) s c) arelead g in 8 Ihio o h th rea electro s ( ) rad w. n sp ere e re n io aves, a influence b in en ) ) flu ced (^influencing . . . .

1 W o t (u d rsta d n e n in ) of th w th g b w er m in. ith u n e n /u d rsta d g e ay e lo al eath ach e w rks, fo o recastin can o b p g n t e recise.

2 This (w in /w s) w ate p rary d. arm g arm as m o eviatio fro th Little Ice A e p t n me ga te.

rn ~ 3 Thep cess of (ch g g an e ) fro g s toliquidis calledco d n n. ro an in /ch g d m a n e satio.

4 The effect of w. ateFvapour in (co tro g ill co tro a d (reg latin /w n llin /w n l) n u g ill reg late te p ratu s canb sh w very convincingly, r u ) m e re e on 5 The d. irectio a dvelocity of th w d in th te p ra latitu es is a indica nn e in e m e te d n tio of(co in /toco e) w er ch g s.

n mg m eath an e 6 (A m an g m an ) th sh ofth w dto ard th so thinn rth. cco p yin /acco p ied e ift e in w s e u o e latitu es a increaseinte p ra rea dh m ity w o r.

rn dn m e tu n u id ill ccu 7 East co is u d th in en of w d (b w lo in ) fro a larg co ti. ast n er e flu ce in s lo /b w g m en nne t.

8D. uring su m n h g co d w th (su u d d rro n in ) air toa m er ig ts rass ols o n e rro n e /su u d g p in w ereso eofth m istu is p itatedo t inth fo ofd.

ot h m e o re recip u e rm ew 4 : Participle I, II;

Gerund . 1 :

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Weather and Climate The scientific stu y of th p e o e a a dphysical p cesses of th a o h re d e h n mn n ro e tm sp e is te e m ro g Clim rmd eteo lo y. atology co cern th vario s clim of th Earth. A nse u ates e b chof th latteris m clim lo y w ichis th d ran e icro ato g h e etailedstu yoflocal clim d ates.

The te w er d n te th co d n of th a o h a a g p a a rm eath e o s e n itio s e tm sp ere t iven lace t specific tim clim is th averag ofth cu m w er co d n ofap e;

ate e e e sto ary eath n itio s lace.

A d ctio m st b d nb e n th elem ts o in red ts of clim a d istin n u e raw etw e e en r g ien ate n th facto o d e rs r eterm in cau in g ses.

The elem ts of b th w er a dclim are th se physical co d n p en o eath n ate o n itio s revail in a ag tim a dp inth a o h re They co p th fo w g g t iven e n lace e tm sp e. m rise e llo in :

a te p ra re ) m e tu, b p re, ) ressu c) w din, d m istu w includ ) o re, hich es: (i) h m ity, u id (ii) clo da dfo, un g (iii) p itatio, recip n e su sh e.

) n in The e en of clim resu fro th in lem ts ate lt m e teractio of an m er of facto o d n ub rs r e term in cau chief of w a a follo s:

in g ses, hich re s w a latitu e, ) d b altitu e ) d, c) relieffeatures, d d u noflan a dse, ) istrib tio dn a e) p re, ressu f) air m a dw asses n inds, g sto s, ) rm h o cu ts.

) cean rren . 2 , , . :

1 M ro g is th scientific stu yoflocal clim. eteo lo y e d ates.

2M. icroclimatology is ab chofm ro g ran eteo lo y.

3 Latitud is anelem t ofw ath r.

. e en ee 4 The te w er d n te th averag of th clim co d n of a certain. rm eath e o s e e e ate n itio s place.

5 C atology co cern physical p cesses ofth a o h re. lim ns ro e tm sp e.

. 3 "Weather" . , , "Climate" - , .

. 4. .

1 The scientific stu y of th p e o e a a d physical p cesses of th a o. d e h n mn n ro e tm s p e is term h re ed...

2.... co cern th vario s clim n se u ates ofth Earth.

e 3... is th d. e etailedstu yofth local clim d e ates.

4. Theco d nofth atm sp e a ag p a aspecific tim is...

n itio e o h re t iven lace t e 5. The average of the customary weather conditions o f a place i s...

. 5 a o. : t, f, fro, in, m .

1 study... th p e o e a ). e h n mn ;

2). processes... th atm sp e ;

e o h re 3 clim ). ates... th Earth;

e 4). conditions... ag p iven lace;

5). conditions... ag tim iven e;

6). co d n th atm sp e ;

n itio s... e o h re 7). elem ents... w ath e er;

8... aspecific tim ). e;

9). d tes... th co d n eno e n itio s;

1 ). elem 0 ents... clim result... ;

ate 1 ). anum er... facto 1 b rs.

. 6 : . , , , , , , , , .

. 7 , . .

1 W at d e clim lo y d ?

. h o s ato g o 2 W te - "w a e o "clim " - d n te th co d n of th a o. hich rm e th r" r ate e o s e n itio s e tm s p e a ag p a aspecific tim h re t iven lace t e?

3 W at ele e ts co stitu b thw era dclim. h mn n te o eath n ate?

4 D es th d u noflan a dseaaffect clim. o e istrib tio dn ate?

5 W at a th ch. h re e aracteristics ofm istuo re?

6 W at a th m facto d. h re e ain rs eterm in clim in g ate?

7 W at is clim.h ate?

8 D th o ancu ts d. o e ce rren eterm eclim in ate?

. 8 .

. . 9 . , .

1 . , a acco p in ) m lish g b acco p ed ) m stb acco p ed ) m lish u e m lish 2 , . a strikin ) g b strike ) ) stro e k 3 . , a sp in ) eak g b sp s ) eak ) sp k n oe 4 , . a w te ) ro bw ) ritten ) w rites 5 . , aw g ) aitin b is w g ) aitin ) w aits 6 , . a is g ) iven bg ) iven ) gave 7 , . a ared te in d d te in d ) e rm e ) e rm e ) determ in in g 8 . , a) so g lvin b so tio ) lu n ) solved . 1. 0 . .

1 M ro g is th stu y of th air a dth ch g (tak p. eteo lo y e d e n e an es e lace/tak gp in in lace) th air.

e 2 The co b atio of all e en (o rred ccu n ) a a g m mn. m in n lem ts ccu /o m g t. iven o e t m th akes e b&S& flj Mj .q * 3 Theaverag sta ofth a o h re(calls/iscalled) th clim. e te e tm sp e e ate. v -HP}- 4. Su stantial ch g in vap u p b an es o r ressu resul^ mth C a g o air m re fro e jg ssa b f asses (h g ave) d avin /h ifferen m ro g ch t eteo lo ical aracteristics. np oG 5 The n rth est of Sco d d. ow tlan iffers fro th rest of th co n in (h g ave) me e u try avin /h less severeco.ld 6 Fogs th t occur a lo te p ra re w n t dissolve a a resu of d rn. a t w m e tu s ill o s lt iu al (h ats/h a g e e tin ).

7M. any p p incorrectly th k of m ro g a d w er (fo eo le in eteo lo y n eath re casted recastin ) a syn n o s.

/fo g s o ym u 8 There a m y reaso s for (b gu d sin ) satellites fo m ro g o . re an n ein se /u g r eteo lo ical b servatio s.

n . 1. 1 . .

1 R io n th o m h h h o low p itatio, ( . eg ns ear e cean ay ave ig r recip n w eth th w d a offth o o offth lan.

) h er e in s re e cean r ed a dpn u o ) eed pn b dpn e u o ) e e dd p n c) d e d gu o ep n in p n 2 Elevationd. ifferen alw ( te p ra rech g ces ays ) m e tu an es.

a)in d ced tro u b in d cin ) tro u g c) arein d cin tro u g 3 In p llu n p b s, b th vertical a dlateral ( ) of p llu. o tio ro lem o n o ted air w cleanair is im o n ith p rta t.

am g ) ixin bm) ixed c) h m ave ixed 4. There are( iA eca)system su a g u s of th n ersto cells a dto n s ch s ro p u d rm n r n o w arech ad es, hich aracterizedby stro g w d th nan o e w er system n er in s a y th r eath.

a travelled ) b travelling ) c) travels 5 Thearea( ) b th fo m b several h n re kilo eter ine te t.

. y e g ay e ud d m xn a co g ) verin b is co ) vered c) co vered 6 Theen yfro th su ( . erg m e n ) a solarrad ntoth e rth s iatio ea.

a tra sm d ) n itte bis tra sm d ) n itte c) w tra sm d as n itte 7. The atm sp e p ssesses g b tid w sm am litu e w are a o o h re o lo al es ith all p d hich lm st en tirelyd eto( ) rath th g u er an ravitatio al a ctio.

n ttra n a b gh a d ) ein e te b ha d ) e te c) h a g e tin 8 B d -p in a dw u te p ra re canb easily ( . oth ew o t n et-b lb m e tu s e ).

a m rin ) easu g b easu )m red c) m re easu 4 : Past Indefinite Participle II.

: ( ).

. 1 , , . , .

. 2 .

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Air and Air Temperature Air h w h a db se of th h h of th a o h re its w h exerts a as eig t, n ecau e eig t e tm sp e eig t p re of 0.9 kg p sq are cen etre u o all su ressu er u tim pn rfaces. Since air is fluid, th p is res su a n t o ly d w w s b t in all d re cts o n o n ard u irectio s. Air p re is m red b ma s n ressu easu y e n of a b mte N rm b m p re a sea-level is 760 m or 29.9 inches o aro e r. o al aro etric ressu t m r 11m,0 3 illibars, b tp red u ressu ecreases w h ig t. ith e h P re is n t u ifo o th Earth su ressu o n rm ver e 's rfaceb t varies co sid ly fro re u n erab m g ntoreg n Thesed io io. ifferen resu fro :

ces lt m a variatio s inair te p ratu ;

a d ) n m e re n b variatio s inw ) n ater-vap u co te tofth air.

or n n e Any in crease in te p ra re cau air toe p n, th in tu, cau th air to m e tu ses x a d is, rn ses e rise, ap cess kn w a co vectio. Air co tain gw ro ons n n n in ater-vap u is lig th nd air or hter a ry b sew ecau ater-vap u is lig terth nd air.

o r h a ry Resulting fro th se variatio s is a m v mn of air fro co ler, d areas, me n oe e t mo rier w h hp re, tow er, d p areas, w lowp re.

ith ig ressu arm am er ith ressu A art fro a sm a o n of terrestrial h a - h a released fro th cen o p m all m u t et et m e tre f Earth - th su is th so so rce of h a a dth rad t en y received is te e in e n e le u e t, n e ian erg rmd so n The a o n of so en y received d p n s u o a n m er of facto o latio. mu t lar erg eed pn u b rs r co d n n itio s:

1 Thesu 's o tp tofrad n w flu ates slig. n uu iatio, hich ctu htly.

2 TheEarth d cefro th su, w varies seaso ally.

. 's istan m e n hich n 3 Theo liq ityofth su 'srays, w varies seaso ally.

. bu en hich n 4. Thed rn su -p d w varies w latitu ea dth seaso.

iu al n erio, hich ith dn e n 5 Thetran issio, reflectio a da so tio ofth atm sp e.

. sm n n n b rp n e o h re The so en y w reach th Earth su w s th lan a dw su lar erg hich es e 's rface arm e d n ater r faces w intu, rad en yb in th air, ap cess kn w as rad n Land hich, rn iate erg ack to e ro on iatio.

a dw u d rg d n ater n e o ifferen h atin. Land w s u m rerapidly a din tial e g arm p o n tensely th n a w b se:

ater ecau a lan h alow specific h a ) d as er e t;

b th reis n tran issio tod p (as intran cen w )e o sm n e th slu t ater);

c) th reis n d u nofh a (as inm b w e o istrib tio et o ile ater);

d th reis less evap ratio a dth reless lo ofh a )e o n n erefo ss e t.

The air is w edm b arm ainly y:

a co d ctio, i.e. co tact w th su ) nu n n ith e rface;

b rad nfro th Earth;

) iatio m e c) co vectio, i.e. th ascen nof w air.

n n e sio arm . 3 . . , .

- - - . 4 . . .

1 W at is th air m w edby?

.h e ainly arm a b co d ctio, tran issio a drad n ) y n u n sm n n iatio ;

b b rad n evap ratio a dco d ctio ;

) y iatio, o n n nu n c) b co vectio, co d ctio an rad n yn n n u n d iatio.

2 W at is in latio ?

.h so n a It is th rad t en yreceived ) e ian erg.

b It is th so en yw is e itte b b th lan.

) e lar erg hich m d ack y e d c) It is th ability ofth su toem en rg.

e en it e y 3 W at characteristics ofth atm sp e in ceth a o n ofin latio ?

.h e o h re fluen e m u t so n a tran issio, h m itya dth level oftran aren ) sm n u id n e sp cy;

b reflectio, tran issio a da so tio ;

) n sm n n b rp n c) reflectio, p rea dh m ity.

n ressu n u id 4 W at facto co tro gth a o n ofsolar en y receivedvary seaso ally?

.h rs n llin e m u t erg n a th su 's o tp trad n ) e n u u iatio ;

b th Earth d cefro th Sun;

)e 's istan me c) th tran issio ofth a o h re e sm n e tm sp e.

5 W at in m tis u tom rep re?

. h stru en sed easu ressu a th rm mte ) e o e r;

b b mte ) aro e r;

c) w dv e in an.

6 Inw atd. h irectio s d e air p react?

n o s ressu a d w w s;

) o n ard b inall d ) irectio s;

n c) u w s.

p ard . 5 . .

, 1 P reis u ifo over th Earth's su. ressu n rm e rface.

2 Air p reacts onlyd w w.

. ressu o n ard 3 A in. ny creaseinte p ratu cau air tosin m e re ses k.

4 Air co tain gw. n in ater-vap u is heavier th nd air.

or a ry 5 The so en y w reach th Earth su. lar erg hich es e 's rface cools th lan a d w e d n ater surfaces.

6 W w s u m re rap ly a din selyth nlan.

. ater arm p o id n ten ad . 6 .

. 1 Since air is (fluid/so ) p rea inall d. lid ressu cts irectio s.

n 2 P re(d. ressu ecreases /in creases) w h ig t.

ith e h 3 Air p reis (m redI calcu ) b man of ab ro e r.

. ressu easu lated y e s a mte 4 A in. ny creaseinte p ratu cau air to(co tract/ex an ).

m e re ses n pd 5 Land(w s u /co ls) m rerap ly a din sely th nw r.

. arm p o o id n ten a ate 6 The so en y w (reach /leaves) th Earth su. lar erg hich es e 's rface...

. 7 . .

1 so rceofh a \ /) ). u et 2). toflu ate ctu ) 3). so en y i /) lar erg 4). tran issio % sm n ) ) 5). reflection ) 6). a so tio b rp n e t ) 7). specifich a ) 8 co d ctio ). n u n ) 9d u n ). istrib tio :) 1 ). e ap ratio 0 vo ) 1 ). w v p 1 ater a i () ) 1 ). co vecti^ 2n ) 1 ). la d 3 titu i 1 ). d rn p d 4 iu al erio ) 1 ). rad n 5 iatio ( ) ) . 8 . , .

"temperature".

"pressure" . 9 . , :

"Au,' so en y, e rth su lar erg a 's rface, o tfit ofrad n specific h a d u nof h a u iatio, e t, istrib tio e t, airp re, in ressu creaseo co vectio, w f, n n ater-vap u toex tou d rg.

o r, ert, n e o . 1. .

0 . 1. 1 .



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