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1M. esoscale w d in rm n is required... estim in fo atio ation... co cen n of p l n tratio o lu n (fo o ta ts. r, f) 2 W w b co cern here... aspects... physical clim lo y, m. e ill e n ed ato g ostly... a g b scale, (o, o w ) lo al n f, ith 3 A p h b md toin. ttem ts ave een a e vestig changes... g b circulation,... n tu ate lo al a ral... m -p d ce, (both... a d in an ro u d n, ) 4. The g a difference... th co tin tal a dth m re t e n en n e aritim clim e ates... m d a did le n h h latitu es is m ig d ainly..... th fact th t th solid e rth in contrast... th o an d e e ae a, e ce, o s n t sto an ap reciab am u t... h a (d eto o b een to o o re y p le o n e t, u, f, etw,, f) 5 The w vapour... th air h a p fo n effect... th tem eratu of th. ater e as ro u d e p re... e a o h re (o, in, o tm sp e, n f) 6 The co of th Black Sea... th m u of D. ast e e o th niester a dth Crim has... ne ea in es ofrain (a o t, b e n ch, b u etw e ) 7. The space... th u e niverseis inhabited... sta w aresim rs hich ilar... o r su. (b u n y, to th u h u, ro g o t) . 1. 2 .

^only--^ /' valready/yetV f-- lw y ja a s -b m s ow y ean n ^ fte on i , rather recently / just , J since / Jso nS o ' . 1. , 3 .

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1 The first cau of w ath ch g is th variatio in th te p ra re o th. se e er an es e n e m e tu f e a o h re tm sp e.

2 Inth tro ics th w erch g m refro d ton h th nfro su m to. e p e eath an es o m ay ig t a m m er w ter.

in 3 C einth air p reis th chiefcau ofw d. hang e ressu e se in s.

4. Theb m d p rap ly a th sto ap ro es.

aro eter ro s id s e rm p ach 5 The ap ro ofth sto canb d te in db th d p ofth b ro e r.

. p ach e rm e e rm e y e ro s e a mte 6 Theflowofth river inth p is sw a dd n e u. e is lace ift n a g ro s.

7 Electrons easily flowfro a mtoa m. m to to.

8 Several th u n mte rs lan o th su of th e rthd. o sa d e o d n e rface e a aily.

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1 Su m th n e rm (w acco p ied m an /h acco p ied. m er u d rsto s ere m an /acco p ied ave m an ) b hail arefreq en inp y u t laces w th h ith e eaviest atm sp eric tu u ce.

oh rb len 2 The te p re-m rin in m ts can o b (to e p se x o / ex. m eratu easu g stru en nt e x o /e p se p se ) freely toth sky a dd rays ofth su.

od e n irect en 3 H rainfalls (o rred as o rred ccu inn rth rna a ofSco do. eavy ccu /h ccu /o rs) o e re s tlan n th 25t a d26t ofFeb e hn h ruary.

4. The reflecting p w of clo d b m evid t w en th clo d a o er u s eco es en h e u s re (view ed /view /view g fro a airp e.

in ) m n lan 5 Clouds have a h h reflective p w (estim /is e a d re e ate ) a. ig o er, ated stimte /a stim d t a o t7 p ce t.

b u 8 er n 6. The h a a dm istu (are a so e /h v a so e /a so e ) fro th u d r e t n o re b rb d a e b rb d b rb d m e n e lyingsurfacew b carriedtoh h levels.

ill e ig er 7. C n u u reco s of air te p ra re a (o ta in /o ta e /too ta ) b th o tin o s rd m e tu re b in g b in d b in y e u ofth rm g p s o th rm mte se e o ra h r e o e rs.

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Rainfall Rain is fo ed w en air is co led b n its satu n p in a d th co lin rm h o eyo d ratio o t n e o g co tin es. The coo cau th w vap u in th air toco d se- usually a u d nu ling ses e ater o r e n en ro n d st p u articles flo g in th air - a d fo d p ts of w The d p ts u d rg a atin e n rm ro le ater. ro le n e o p cess of accretio a de larg m tu til th yb m b e o g tofall a rain ro n n n e en n e eco e ig n u h s.

Rainfall is p d ce in th em w co o d gtoth e d ro u d re ain ays, rresp n in re ifferen o in t rig s ofrain ro u gclo d -p d cin u s:

a co vectio al o instab rain. This typ, a th n eim )n nr ility e s e am plies, is p d ce bro u d y co vectio cu ts. W en th lan is in n n rren h ever e d tensely h a d th h t air n th sue te, e o ear e rface rises vertically. If th relative h m ity of th air is h h a o nis, a dif it ascen s e u id is ig, s fte n d rap ly, it is likely tog rise toth n ersto s w encarried alo a dco led Eq ato id ive u d rm h ft n o. u rial reg n exp ce co vectio rains. Su m th n e rmrain, a so e e o io s erien n n m er u d rsto s mtims c cu inBritain, is alsoofth kin.

rs is d b o g h o reliefrain This ty eofrainfall is p d ce w enm istu ) ro rap ic r. p ro u d h o re-lad en air is co p torise w enit me areliefb m elled h e ts arrier. The co seq en ascen exp sio n ut t, an n a dco lin of th air lead toco d satio of th w vap u in th air a dits p n og e s n en n e ater o r en re cip n The leew sid of m u tainb itatio. ard es on arriers, w ere th air is d d g u d r h e escen in, n e g in co p o g m ressio a dis b g w ed arem ch d th nth w d ard slo es a d nn ein arm, u rier a e in w pn aresaidtob inth rain ad w e e -sh o.

c) cyclonic, fro tal o co verg cerain. This resu fro th me ga dascen n r n en lts m e e tin n sio ofw, m ist air w a do co er, d ser air p d cin co d satio.

n arm o ith n ver ld en ro u g n en n It is n t alw p ssib tod e w facto is th cau of local p itatio, o ays o le efin hich r e se recip n e. in Britain, cyclonic a d relief rain a closely co n ;

in Ind th m n o.g n re n ected ia e o so n rainfall m b co vectio al, o g h o co verg tinfo.

ay e n n ro rap ic r n en rm Inco sid gth rainfa ofan p it is n n erin e ll y lace ecessary tokn wth fo in :

o e llow g a th to l a n al a o n ) e ta n u m u t;

b th seaso al d u n )e n istrib tio ;

c) th variability ofth rainfall;

e e d th reliability ofth rainfall;

)e e e) th n tu ofth rainfall, e. to tial, g n, e e a re e.g rren e tle tc.

f) th evap ratio ra.

e o n te . 3 .

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1 Convectional o in ility. r stab a w enm istu ) h o re-lad air is co en m rain... p torise w enit me arelief elled h e ts 2 Cyclonic fro tal o co verg ce b. n r n en arrier.

rainresu from lts... b it is likely tog risetoth n e ) ive u d r 3 O g h o reliefrainis p sto s w encarriedalo a dco led. ro rap ic r ro rm h ft n o.

duced... c) is p d cedb co vectio cu ts.

ro u y n n rren 4. If th relativeh m ityofth air d th m ga dascen nofw, e u id e ) e eetin n sio arm is h ha dif it ascen s rapidly,... m ist air w a do co er, d ser ig n d o ith n ver ld en 5 Thecoolingcau th w r. ses e ate air p d cin co d n n ro u g n e satio.

vap u inth air...

or e e toco d se.

) n en . 4 . :

1 W at in rm nis n. h fo atio ecessarytokn wa o tth rainfall of an place?

o bu e y 2 M th reb an local facto ofp itatio ?

. ay e e y r recip n 3 W d e th w vap u usuallyco d seinth air?

. here o s e ater o r n en e 4. W at kin ofrain is typ of eq ato reg ns?

h d s ical u rial io 5 W at facto aren.h rs ecessarytokn ww enco sid gth rainfall ofan place?

o h n erin e y . 5 . - , - .

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1 satu n( );

. ratio , , 2 floatin ( , );

. g , 3 en emn ( , );

. larg e t , 4. intensely( );

, , 5 h a d( );

. e te , , 6 cyclonic ( );

. , , 7 co vectio al ( , .n n , );

8 vertically ( , . , ).

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1 satu np in. ratio o t ) 2 cooling. ) 3 d p ofw. ro lets ater ) 4. rain ro u gclo d ) -p d cin u 5 co vectio cu t.n n rren ) 6 relativeh m ity. u id ) 7. o g h rainfall ro rap ic ) 8 p itatio. recip n ) 9 th n e rm. u d rsto ) 1. leew sid (slo e) 0 ard e p ) 1. w d ardslo e 1 in w p ) 1. cyclonic rain 2 ) . 9 . , .

1 Rainis fo e w enairis -cooled. rmd h - ha d e te -polluted 2 Rainfall is p d ce in th e m w co o d g toth e d. ro u d re ain ays, rresp n in re ifferen ori t g s of - rain ro u gclo d in -p d cin u s - th e ap ratio ra e v o n te - th sa ra nra e tu tio te 3Cn. o vectio al rainis p d cedb - co vectio cu n n ro u y n n rre ts - m istu o re-lad air en - reliefbarrier 4. O g h o reliefrainis p d cedw en - m istu ro rap ic r ro u h o re-lad air rises en - m istu o re-lad air d d en escen s - w er airrises arm 5 Theleew sid ofm u tainb. ard es o n arriers are- m chd m e u a pr - m chd u rier - m chco er u ld 6 Cyclonic rain resu fro th me g a dascen n of w m ist air w. lts m e e tin n sio arm o ith a dover - co er m u ta n ld o n in - w erw r arm ate - co er, d serair ld en . 1. .

0 1 W enairis co ledb n its satu npoint... is fo e.

.h o eyo d ratio rmd 2 Theco lin cau th w vap u to... a dform of w r.

. o g ses e ater o r n... ate 3 Eq ato reg n experience... rain. u rial io s s.

4. Theexp sio a dco lin of th air lead toco d satio of th w vap u an n n o g e s n en n e ater o r inth air a dits...

en 5 The leew sid of m u tain w ere th air is... are m ch d th n th. ard es o n s, h e u rier a e w d ardslo es.

in w p co d se, rain p itatio, d p d d g co vectio, clo d n en, recip n ro lets, escen in, n n u s.

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1. It is q iteu reaso ab toexp u ifo o typ co d n in all u anar u n n le ect n rm r ical n itio s rb eas.

2 To co p th tw system w n te th t th b iling p in of w is p t a. m are e o s eo a eo ot ater u t 212F a da 1 0C.

n t 3B. ecause of th n ral variability of clim sm ch g inrainfall a dte e atu ate all an es nm p rea d eratu re ifficult toid tify.

en 4. To g t a accu air te p ra reit is n e n rate m e tu ecessary th t th th rm mte b p a e e o e r e ro te dfro th d rays ofth su.

cte m e irect en 5 W o served th evap ratio of w r, a p e o e o to b fully d. eb e on ate h n mn n e escribed later.

6 To g atru p reofth su u d gmtte is th taskofn ral scien. ive e ictu e rro n in a r e atu ce.

7 P recau ice tom. ressu ses elt.

8 Theeffect w to sm tob d te d. as o all e e cte.

9 It is im ossib tod. p le eterm eth u p rlim ofth e rth a o h re in e p e it e a 's tm sp e.

1. Several facto co b etocau th n ctu al u p inversiono th city.

0 rs m in se e o rn p er ver e . 1. 2 . .

1 The valu le in rm n (to co. ab fo atio llect/to b co e llected b satellites w h to )y ill elp im ro p u fo p ve revio s recasts.

2 (To sim lify/sim lified th p cess of d in iso ars, an m er of em irical. p p ) e ro raw g b ub p ru h (tob d v lo e /tod p les ave e e e p d evelo ).

3W p. ater articles o ice crystals are so sm th t th slig test m ve e t of th r all a e h o mn e air is sufficient (tob k p keep th ma ft.

e e t/to ) e lo 4 All a m ts (to m d o els) th a o h rein th lab rato h signifi. tte p o el/m d e tm sp e e o ry ave can lim n t itatio s.

5 The ab of th air (toh ld b h ) m istu w vary as th te p ra re. ility e o /to e eld o re ill e m e tu varies.

6 (Tohaveco v rte /toco vert) fro Fah h toC tig ew m st tak. ne d n m ren eit en rad e u e / ofth Fah h too tainth C tig e.

e ren eit b e en rad 7 It is n t p ssib (to d te in /d te in ) th so rce of an p. o o le e rm e e rm e e u y articu w r lar ate vap u inth air a an tim o p o r e t y e r lace.

8 W vap u te d (tob re in d retain h a afterth su h se. ater o r n s e ta e /to ) et e n as t.

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1 ) I a g d a tob h in h m la ) e elp g im 2) b toh b e h lp d ) ave e n e e 3 ) c) toh h elp im 4 ) d toh h edh ) ave elp im 5 ) e tob h lp d ) eee 4 : ( );

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. Clouds and Fog Cloud. Cloud co sists of m u d p ts of w o ice crystals fo edb th n in te ro le ater r rm y e co d satio of w vap u Tw m classes of clo d are reco n acco in to n en n ater o r. o ain u g ised rd g th sh ea dm d offo atio :

eir ap n o e rm n a stratifo o layered ) rm r ;

b cu u rmo m ) m lifo r assive.

Tenm ty e ofclo dared g ish b mteo lo ists:

ain p s u istin u ed y e ro g a lowcloud strato m lu n b stratu cu u s, cu u n b s, stratu ) s: cu u s, im o s, m lu m lo im u s;

b m iu -h h clo d alto m lu alto s;

) ed m eig t u s: cu u s, stratu c) h hclo d cirrus, cirro ig u s: stratu cirro m lu s, cu u s.

S s clo d arefairly th, low tratu u s in -lying, b lanket-like a dg n reyish;

cu u s clo d m lu u s are m assive, g b lar in sh e, co n o l-like, a dw ite;

cirrus clo d areh h alti lo u ap tto w o nh us ig tu e clo d d d u s, elicate, w o streaky in th fo. The te n b s m in icates ispy r eir rm rm im u erely d rain.

Fog. M a dfo resu fro th co d satio of w vap u D ist n g lt m e n en n ater o r. ifferent ty e ps of fo a d g ish acco in tocau n A vectio fo is cau b th m ve g re istin u ed rd g satio. d ng sed y e o mn of w, m ist air over co (lan o w su et arm o ld d r ater) rfaces;

th su d n chilling of th e de e air b co tact w co su yn ith ld rface lead to co d satio. C astal fo s a co m n o s n en n o g re m o ly f th typ. R iationfo resu w enth lan su is e ad g lts h e d rfaceis quickly co ledb rad n th o y iatio : e air lying u o th su p n e rface b m co o d g chilled a d co d satio ta e eco es rresp n in ly n n en n k s p R iatio fo o rs especially in sp g a da tu na din hilly areas, early in lace. ad n g ccu rin n u m n th m rn g th h p m b b e in b h su sh e w th valleys a e o in ;

e illto s ay e ath d rig t n in hile e re sh u e inw item ro d d h ist.

The p e of th w fro t of a d ressio m b g fo g co d n b t assag e arm n ep n ay rin g y n itio s, u th sea usually sh rt-lived su fo, w ichis really very finedrizzle, is calledfro ta e re o ;

ch g h nl fo. So-calledhill fo o m u tainm is m low g g r on ist erely -level sh eet-clo d u.

Sm g is th te u tod o e rm sed escrib fo w ich is co b ed w sm ke a do e egh m in ith o n th r atm sp eric p llu ts su a in u oh o tan ch s d strial g se a d m to car fu es. It is o n yel asn or m fte low inco u acridinsm a dcanh ill effects o h m b g a dan als.

ish lo r, ell n ave n u an ein s n im The fo er Lo d n "p a u e w sm g M y larg cities, e.g Los-A rm n o e -so p rs" ere o. an e. ngeles, To kyo, su b lyfro tim totim w sm g ffer ad m e e ith o.

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R ht W n ig ro g 1 C astal fo s b n toth typ ofrad nfo.

.o g elo g e e iatio g 2 R iatio fo s occurinw ter a dsu m inb cities.

. ad n g in n m er ig 3 Socalledhill fo o m u tainm is low. g r on ist -level sh e clo d et u.

4 A cum lu a dalto. lto u s n stratu b n toth ty eofm iu s elo g e p ed m h h clo d eig t u s.

5 Thete s "n b s" in icates rain. rm im u d.

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1 A vectio fo is cau by...

.d ng sed 2 Tw m classes ofclo darereco n acco in to...

. o ain u g ized rd g 3. Suchfo, w is really very finedrizzleis called...

g hich 4. R iatio fo results...

ad n g 5 S s clo d are...

. tratu u s 6 So-called... or... is m low. erely -level sh e clo d et u.

7. Thesu d nchillingofth airb co tact w co su de e yn ith ld rfaces lead to...

s 8 R iatio fo o ;

ad n g ccurs especiallyin...

. 4 co d n n. : n e satio, typ ad e, vectio, co tact, rad n d ressio, really, atm sp eric, in u nn iatio, ep n oh d strial, crystal, class.

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M m ist air, co fo, su sh e, d ressio, fo g co d n fine drizzle, ist, o astal g n in ep n g y n itio s, sh e clo d atm sp eric p llu ts, fu es, ill effects, h m b g m u d p ts, et u, o h o tan m u an ein s, in te ro le m d of fo atio, sh e, altitu e, w streaky, hill fo.

o e rm n ap d ispy, g . 6 . , ( , blanket-like, m assive ). , .

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. 1 Fo resu fro th co d satio of...

. g lts m e n en n 2. The su d nchillingofth air b co tact w co su de e yn ith ld rfaces lead to...

s 3 R iatio fo resu w enth lan su. ad n g lts h e d rfaceis quickly co ledby... o 4. R iatio fo o ad n g ccurs especially in... a d n.

5.S o is th te u tod m g e rm sed escrib fo w is co b edw e g hich m in ith...

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. su oflan dsu rface d lan rface Crystals of ice, clo d of h h a d, a m vem ts of air, fu e of m d rn us ig ltitu e o en ms oe cars, ato of ahill, d p ts ofw te p ro le a r.

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1 fo. recast th w er (su a clo dco p itatio, etc.) th fo e eath ch s u ver, recip n e recaster u th resu ofth n m ses e lts e u erical p ictio, o servatio s, a dhis p st ex erien red n b nn a p ce.

2. To o tain th tru te p ra re of th free air it is very im o n th t th te b e e m e tu e p rta t a e m p re-m rin in m tsb ex o p p eratu easu g stru en e p sed ro erly.

3 Those facto w te dtoin. rs hich n crease evap ratio fro th lan a a w also o n m e d re ill te dtoin n creasep itatio.

recip n 4 It is essen tob ab toreco n th existingclo dty e a dtou d rsta d. tial e le g ize e u ps n ne n th relatio sh toth o e atm sp ericp cesses affectin w a e eir n ip e th r o h ro g e th r.

5 A p h b md torelate th freq en a d in sity of h rrican. ttem ts ave een a e e u cy n ten u es w flu atio s insolar en ya dsu sp tn m e ith ctu n erg n n o u b r.

6 Thep e o e atob co sid a very co p. h n mn e n ered re m licated.

7 To fo. recast th w ath r, m ro g u th resu of th n m e e e eteo lo ist ses e lts e u erical p ic red tio, o servatio s a dhis p st exp ce.

nb nn a erien 8 It is n t p ssib tod ew ichfacto is th cau oflocal p itatio.

. o o le efin h r e se recip n . 1. 1 , , .

1 Thetex is co sid tob d. t n ered e ifficult.

2. W co sid th te t tob rath d e n er is x e er ifficult.

3 Theleew sid ofm u ta b. ard es o n in arriers aresaidtob inth rain ad w e e -sh o.

4 P d of fine a d se d w er have b o served tob asso. erio s n ttle eath een b e ciated w ith relativelylo o n valu w zo e e.

5 The p res areco sid tob of valu in d g ish gb e nu p r a d. ictu n ered e e istin u in etw e p e n lo er vo w rtices inth tro ics.

ep 6 P llu air is o n seen tob m increasingly hazy w e th relative h . o ted fte eco e hn e u m ityin id creases.

7 M ro g co sid afo tob aclo dth tto ch th g u d. eteo lo ists n er g e u a u es e ro n, 8 Theco lingcau th w vap u inth airtoco d se.

. o ses e ater o r e n en . 1. 2 , .

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1 It is n t p ssib (tob e u e te /toen mra ) all th clim e en. o o le e n mra d u e te e atic lem ts.

2 It is difficult (b gclassified classify) th fo d. ein /to e g efinitely a tow eth it is s h er tro ical-air fo o arad nty e p gr iatio p.

3 A fo is sufficiently d se (to re u /to b red ced th h rizo tal visible. g en d ce e u ) e o n ran eto1 mo less.

g,000 r 4 The w d sh ( ) m st b sufficiently stro g (to o m vercam. in ear u e n verco e/o e) th stabilizingeffect ofth stratificatio.

e e n 5 In o er (tob a p d ap ly) th m ro g e u tio s toaverag vari. rd e p lie /to p e eteo lo ical q a n e ab th eq atio s th selves arefirst averag.

les, e u n em ed 6 The exp su fo w d masu en is alw adifficult p b ;

g erally,. o re r in e rem ts ays ro lem en aco p m so tio sh (fo n /tob fo n ).

m ro ise lu n ave u d e u d 7 Tow sh u b u fo in m tatio, w n e s (tob in lle /to in. ers o ld e sed r stru en n hich e d e sta d stall) a th elevels.

t re IV 1. .

1 Thete p ratu d p e tosu -zerovalues.

. m e re ro p d b ) ) ) 2 If th vap u is co ledb wits d p in so eofitb m liq id. e o r o elo ew o t, m eco es u.

) ) ) 3 So eofth a so e en yp d ces io.m e b rb d erg ro u nizatio ofth h ha o h re n e ig tm sp e.

) ) ) 4. Theid ofb sp erew in d cedin sciencealm st acen ry a o ea io h as tro u to o tu g byE. Suess.

) ) ) 5 Five m fro to nth a o h rew clear a du clo d.

. iles m w e tm sp e as n n u ed ) ) ) 6 Q eenElizabethI b n dth b rn gofcoal inth city d rin sessio s.u an e e u in e ug n ofP arliam t.

en ) ) ) 7. Thep llu nofth en n en n wreach th ate in p p rtio s.

o tio e viro m t o ed re n g ro o n ) ) ) .

2.

1 By co p n w th (a. b g /b b in in /. h gb a ) of th tw ti. m ariso ith e e in. eg n g avin eg n e en e cen ryth accu u nofcarb ninth a o h reh s in th tu e m latio o e tm sp e a creasedd zen oftim os es.

2 P itatio (a fall/b falling is falling) to th e rth su. recip n.. /. e a 's rface is eith re er tain w ereit falls o fin s its w in th su ed h rd ay to e rface-ch n systemofth b.

an el e asin 3 (a. T g. Taken Took) England a dW a a w o th p d fro. akin /b /. n ales s h le e erio m M toSep b w d th na yofth last 2 0years.

ay tem er as rier a n e 4. The m re rap ly (a. m v /b m vin /. b g m ve ) m lecu escap fro o id o e. o g ein o d o les em th w in th air.

e ater to e 5 M y of th fo s o se e o th G d B. an e g b rv d n e ran anks w tro ical-air fo s alread ere p g y inexisten b re(a. re ch. reach reach g th co w rs n N fo n lan.

ce efo a /b es/c. in ) e ld ate ear ew u d d 6 W er rad can g u l in rm n (a co ce e /b co cern /. co . eath ar ive sefu fo atio. n md. n s n cern g m scalesystem in ) eso s.

7 (a. P llu. P llu. o te/b o tes/. P llu ) air is th h ark of th a o h re of b o ted e allm e tm sp e ig cities.

8 In typ A erican cities, th re is a n tab d u le p of em ns (a. ical m e o le o b eak issio.

ca se /b is cau /c. tob cau ) by th traffic d rin th m rn ga deven gru ud. sed e sed e u g e o in n in sh hu o rs.

3. .

1 Leadp. articles fro car e h st a kn w tob sm a dh ceactive.

m x au re o n e all n en ) ) ) , 2 So eliquid a fo n todissolveth su stan.m s re u d is b ce.

) , ) , ) 3 InM d A p p b. id le ges eo le elievedth Earthtob th cen of th U e e e tre e niverse.

) , , ) ) , 4. Ino ertop rd reserveth p rityof w b d p visio is m efo w eu ater o ies ro n ad r ater p tectio m res.

ro n easu ) , ) ) 5 This is th first facto tob tak in co sid. e r e en to n eratio. n ) ) ) 6 m u reo eto ofp e 1 0mof w is req ired. an factu n n ap r, 0 3 ater u.

) , ) ) 7 The su stan tob an. b ce e alysedsh u b p reo ld e u.

) ) ) 8 The air ab veh ate d cytop. o as n en reserveits o in te p ra re rig al m e tu.

) ) ) .

4.

1 O enis essen toall fo s oflife.

. xyg tial rm ) ) ) 2 P lew -m vin tro ical air fo s fo m reread. o ard o g p rm g o ily.

) ) ) 3 The d eters of th p etary o its in. iam e lan rb crease fro p et to p et w re m lan lan ith m lereg larity.

arkab u ) ) ) 4 Increases inth m istu co ten ofair m o slow a dg u. e o re n t asses ccur ly n rad ally, ) ) ) 5 S rm cau g a d mg.

. to s se re t a a e ) ) ) 6 Several h u w d mg dbyfire.

. o ses ere a a e ) ) ) 7 It so etim rain inth m u tain insu mr.

. m es s e o n s me ) ) ) .

5.

1... is th science w stu ies, d te in s a dm res th exact sh e a d. e hich d e rm e n easu e ap n d en n ofth Earth im sio s e.

ag d ) eo esy bg m ) eo etry c) physics 2 2 p t of th su. 9 ercen e rfaceis o p by... th rem in 7 p t is co ccu ied e ain g 1 ercen vered by...

aw ) ater b lan )d c) air aw ) ater b air ) c) land 3 A o h co sists ofa...

. tm sp ere n a m reofliquid ) ixtu s b m reofg se ) ixtu as c) m reofso s ixtu lid 4. The scientific stu y of th p en m a a d physical p cesses of th a o d e h o en n ro e tm s p e is term h re ed...

a)mteo lo y e ro g b hyd lo y ) ro g c) o o g cean lo y 5 Thed. etailedstu yoflocal clim is...

d ates a m clim lo y b m clim lo y c) m b lo y ) acro ato g ) icro ato g icro io g 6 Theco d nofth a o h a ag p a aspecific tim is...

. n itio e tm sp ere t iven lace t e a clim ) ate b w er ) eath c) a o h re tm sp e 7 Latitud a d, p re- areth e en of...

. e, ltitu e ressu e lem ts a)w er eath b clim ) ate c) air 6. : relief rain, a o h re n rml b m p re, b mte sm g tm sp e, o a aro etric ressu aro e r, o.

1... is ath filmofg w su u d th Earth. in as hich rro n s e.

2 Air p reis m redb m s of a...

. ressu easu y ean 3... a sealevel is 760m o 29.9in es o 1 1 m.t mr ch r 0 3 illibars.

4... is th ty eofrainfall, p d cedw enm istu. ep ro u h o re-lad air is co p torise en m elled w enit me areliefb h e ts arrier.

5... is th te u to d. e rm sed escrib fo w is co b ed w sm ke a do e e g hich m in ith o n th r p llu ts.

o tan 7 . .

) 1 p e su ) lan rface io s ) 2 e u rial reg n ) q ato ) 3 e rth su ) a 's rface ) 4 la da a ) n re ) 5 fo of g ) rce ravity ) 6 m reofg se ) ixtu as ) 7 w vap u ) ater o r ) 8 carb nd xid ) o io e ) 9 air p re ) ressu 1 ) w ath rco d n ) 0 e e n itio s 8. "W System ind s".

W d is m air in m tio. The air cu ts w streamo t fro ce tre o in erely on rren hich u mnsf h h p re g rise toth principal w d system of th Earth's su ig ressu ive e in s e rface. The w d in s d n t b wd en rtho so thfo th y a d o o lo u o r u r e re eflectedb th Earth's ro n A ye tatio. ccord ing toFerrel's lawevery m vin b d o th Earth su o g oy n e 's rface is d eflectedtoth rig t in th eh e n rth rnh isp erea dtoth left inth so th rn o e em h n e e ue.

Theh hp res o rrin a o t 3 Na dS ofth e u to resu gfro th ig ressu ccu g b u 0 n e q a r, ltin m e p u of relatively co air, sen o t air stre s e u rw s a d p lew s. The iling p ld du am q ato ard n o ard fo er fo th N rth a dS u -east Trad co gro g ly th zo es b tw e rm rm e o -east n o th es, verin u h e n e e n 3 0a d 5 N a dS, w me in th d ld m o eq ato b of variab w d 0n n hich e t e o ru s r u rial elt le in s a dcalm The air stre s flow p lew s fro th su -tro ical h hp rea a n s. am ing o ard m e b p ig ressu re s fo th so th esterlies a dn rth esterlies respectively;

th b acro la d s rm e u -w n o -w ey low ss titu e 35 to6 tome th eq ato ard lo in p lar w d alo gth tu u t zo ekn w 0 e t e u rw -b w g o in s n e rb len n o n a th p lar fro t.

s eo n V Oceanography 5A : ( ), .

. 1 .

. - ?

- ( ?

) - ?

Oceanography. The oceans. The Seas O ceanography. The stu y of th o s, th w d e cean e aters of th o s a d th e cean n eir m vem ts, to e e w th eco o ic s& canceofthe sea, is kn w a o o ra o en g th r ith e n m nm o n s cean g p y. Inrecen tu es, o o rap y h se eco easoencein its o nrig t b t certaina h t n cean g h a $ m w hu s it fall w nlm p vin of g g p y First^ e m st ask th q e n w y itm e ro ce eo ra h. wu e u stio : h th g g p e co cern him lf-w -th stu \j of o o rap y? H m st d so e eo ra h r n se ith e d cean g h e u o for an m erofreaso s:

ub n e o s a d seas o p ap ro ately 7 p cen o ce sid ra ly m re cean n ccu y p xim 1 er t r m e b o th ntW -ffiird ofth a^se ^ a W o s, thro g e w d b w g o th ma dth cu ts flo ing in the cean u ffm in s lo in ver e n e rren w th m e lm cm tin ces o clim e, xert p an fluen n ate;

c) th o w a im o t a aso rceof fo da deco o ic p d cts, e.

e cean aters re p rtan s u o n n m ro u.g sponges/salt^^^l d in certain areas th tid affp sh p g a dalso o g a p te tia so rces ) e es ct ip in n ffer re t o n l u ofen yw co ldb ham erg hich u e esssPtop d cep w ro u o er;

j ^ he o s seX'ias greathlj^iw^for in atio al c m ie ^n ^ ^ e -^ f^ cean tern n b fe rce a d ovM m ch est fo ofbulktran o Y eap rm sp rt;

' ' ' \ ~ v f) th seas h e e d im o t in en of a p e ave x rte p rtan flu ces olitical n tu andiiave also a re in en mn cu ral d p en inavariety flu ced a 's ltu evelo m t The oceans^ area th Earth^suri^e a o n ap ro ately to5 9 m The e m u ts p xim 0 il lion km. Of tJu so 3 1 m 2 s m 6 illion km co p w a o t 2 m 2 m rise ater, b u 5 illionkm fo in 2 rm g th seas a dth rem in 3 5 m e n e ain g 3 illion km th oceans.iTh^afterarelour in n m er 2e ub th A e tlantic, thePaQ th Ind a dth Arctic - o five if^ e^ yth O is r ^ ipc, e ian n e r h p ern cean e o n a arep g ised s arafeo. But th So th O really co sists orrne O u e mst cean e u ern cean n T th rn o p rts ofth A a e tlantic, Ind a dPacific O s.

ian n cean The seas. A o t 8p cen of th w rld w are 2 m b u er t e o 's ater a 5 illion km fo th 2 rm e seas. W atd a sea? H d es it differ fro a oceai^ExpregPlM th V n le a d hs ow o mn in e $ p sftf n m st o9$oM w th o s are the^f^rvfa^er , th seas are th m o w o ^ ay e cean e e in r ater u its, ofth Earth's su n e rface. D isting uishingb eenth m etw e:

a th o s arem chlarg ) e cean u er;

b th o s h m chg ) e cean ave u reaterd p s;

e th c) th o s in m u icatefreely;

e cean terco m n d th co tin tal shelfis insignificantlyd p inth o s.

) e n en evelo ed e cean The seas of th Earth differ g e reatly inth size, sh e, d p, co a dcircula eir ap e th asts n tio, a w a in th physical ch n s ell s e aracteristics, e. te p ra rea dd sity, a dch i.g m e tu n en n em cal ch aracteristics, e.g d ree of saltn of th w. eg ess eir aters. It is p ssib h w tod o le, o ever, i vid th min tw b adcateg ries:

e e to o ro o a m in seas, e.g th N rth Sea, th Sea of Jap ;

th seco m n freely ) arg al. eo e an e m u icate w th o, th sh th o 's tid a dcu ts, a dth a p a th o ith e cean ey are e cean es n rren n ey p ro ch e cean w inth d g eofsaltn aters eir e re ess.

b co tin tal seas, e.g th Baltic Sea, M iterran a dRed Seas;

th a ) n en.e ed ean n ese re practically lan -lo, th are alm st tid d cked ey o eless a d u in en b o cu ts, n n flu ced y cean rren a dth saltn varies w fro th averag salinityofo w n eir ess idely m e e cean aters.

. 2 . , .

1 . , .

2 - . .

3 . 3 1 6 ?

4 . .

5 .

. 6 . .

7 , . , , , .

8 . , .

. 3 . , , .

1 Theo s areth m o w u its.

. cean e in r ater n 2 The o s m b d ed in tw b adcateg ries: m in a dco tin . cean ay e ivid to o ro o arg al n n en tal.

3 Theo s p vid th m stexp sivefo ofbulktra sp rt.

. cean ro e e o en rm no 4 Theare of th Earth's su is 3 5m km.

. ae rface 3 in 5 In recen tim g o rap y h b m a science in its o n rig t b t certain. t es, e g h as eco e w hu asp cts ofitfall w th p vin ofo an g h e ithin e ro ce ce o rap y.

. 4 . .

Adjective A verb d Nu on Verb practical practically practice toco sid n er co sid le n erab pw l o erfu pw o er todiffer expression dn e se po ly ssib toco m n m u icate freely . 5 . :

1 ex influence ) ert ) 2 tovary w ) idely ) 3 tod ein categ ries ) ivid to o ) 4 todiffer g ) reatly ) 5 inrecen tim ) t es ) 6 incertaina ) reas ) 7 certainasp ) ects ) 8 areaa o n to ) m u ts ) 9 for an m erof reaso s ) ub n ) 1 ) in avariety of w 0 ays ) . 6 , . :

asp p ects, rovince, reaso, o p ap ro ately, p ten se a te co m n n ccu y, p xim o tial, p ra, m u i cate, really, circulation, categ ry.

o . 7 . :

O o rap y cean g h Sea Ocean Gg hA eo rap y, tlantic, In ian m in Baltic, science, Pacific, co tin tal, Arc d, arg al, n en tic, m ch g u reater d p, stu y, o an g h r, m r w u it, m o w u it, e th d ce o rap e ajo ater n in r ater n M iterran, lan -lo, o cu n ed ean d cked cean rre ts.

. 8 : w d. in s, sm aller, cu ts, insignificantly, g g p y lan -lo, hig ays, saltn d sity, rren eo ra h, d cked hw ess, en o s.

cean 1 Certainasp ofo o rap yfall w th p vin of...

. ects cean g h ithin e ro ce 2 The o s th u hthe... b w go th ma dthe... flo in in th m ex. cean ro g lo in ver e n w g e, ert im o n influenceo clim p rta t n ate.

3 Theo s servea g. cean s reat... forin atio al co m tern n m erce.

4 The seas arem. uch... th nth o s.

a e cean 5 The... havem chg a r d p s.

. u re te e th 6 Theco tin tal shelfis... d p inth o s.

. n en evelo ed e cean 7 T p reand... a th m physical characteristics of seaw te. em eratu re e ain a r.

8 D ree of... is o e of th of th m chem ch. eg n e e ain ical aracteristics of th sea w e a ters.

9 Inco trast w m in seas, co tin tal seas arepractically...

. n ith arg al n en . 9 "O. ceanography".

. 1. 0 , .

1 Theo cansto larg a o n ofh a. cean re e m u ts e t.

2 The te p ratu of th sea w m b raised b d co d ctio of h a. m e re e ater ay e y irect n u n e t fro w er atm sp e.

m arm o h re 3 W th o itself th rem st b aco tin al p eofh a fro low to. ithin e cean e u e n u assag e t m er h h latitu es.

ig er d 4 The o inof th seirreg larities m stb so g tinth irreg lar stru reofth. rig e u u e uh eu ctu e e rth in r.

a 's terio 5 It sh u b em h. o ld e p asized th t th g eral d u n of te p ra re in th a e en istrib tio m e tu e o is relatedtoth d u nofd sity.

cean e istrib tio en 6 The rad ne te gth sea-su. iatio n rin e rfacem co ed ay m irectly fro th su o fro me nr m th clo s a dth a o h re e ud n e tm sp e.

7 Thew thofth co tin tal shelfm vary co sid ly.

. id e n en ay n erab . 1. 1 ;

.

;

1 The su ;

rface cu ts of th o d p n o th p rren e cean e e d n e revailin w d a d d g in s n iffer en ind sityof se w r.

ces en a ate 2 O cu n h im o n influen o clim te. cean rre ts ave p rta t ces n a.

3 Theo s a tra sp re t toarelativelyg a d p.

. cean re n a n re t e th 4. The ap e ceofb thsea-ice a diceb s varies w ely.

p aran o n erg id 5 Froman g w th a o h re D t ap liedth te s "tro o h re a d. alo y ith e tm sp e, efan p e rm p sp e " n "stra sp e " totw d to h re o ifferen p rts ofth o an ta e ce.

6 Turb cew n tch g th d sityofth se -w te. ulen ill o an e e en e a a r.

7 W reach g fo o th so th estco ofEn lan.

. inds ed ale rce n e u -w ast gd 8W d. ind irectio s w m so th n ere ainly u erly.

. 1. 2 , it.

1 It h b e in icated earlier th t w d can p d ce excessively h h o low. as e n d a in s ro u ig r tid es.

2 The C t ofP flo s n rth ardalo gth w co of S u A erica. It. urren eru w o w n e est ast o th m is aco cu t w favo rs th fo atio of stra s clo d o fo.

ld rren hich u e rm n tu u s r g 3 It is th w thofth Gulf Streamth t m es th cyclonic sto s ofth N rth. e arm e a ak e rm eo A tlantic sovig ro s.

ou 4. A sim b t less im o n cu t is fo n in th N rth Pacific;

it is called ilar u p rta t rren ud e o th K e uroshioo Black S a.

r tre m 5 It is w kn w th tm eclim areverym d ra.

. ell o n a arin ates o e te 6 Thep cesses ofe ap ratio a dp itatio rem ve w fro certainp rts. ro v o n n recip n o ater m a ofth o a drep it a o e p rts.

e cean n lace t th r a 7 It is n t kn w w e e th cu ts are d te in db local w d o b th. o o n h th r e rren e rm e y in s r y e d arg offreshw fro th rivers.

isch e ater m e 8 It h n t yet b e d ed w p cesses h led to th fo atio of th. as o e n ecid hich ro ave e rm n e co tin tal a dinsular sh n en n elves.

. 1. 3 .

1 If th b o is n er (h rs/h r), n r (h /h it sh u b (m in. is o k eith e e o im is), o ld e y/m e).

2 Sheis afrien of (m/m e e. d y in /m).

3 A n b g is b gb ilt n y, (it/its/h w this 1 0mtre. ew rid e ein u earb is) id 0 e s.

4 D yo kno (th m e e a d ss ?

. o u w e /th ir/th irs) d re 5 (Th. ey/Th eir/Them b a w faster th n(o r/o rs).

) o t as a uu 6 (This/These) b o s b n to(o r/o rs/u. o k elo g u u s).

7 This is (m in w. Itb n s to(m This w is (m in. y/m e) atch elo g e/I). atch y/m e).

8 H co p sitio is m chm rein. is m o n u o terestin th n(yo /yo r/yo rs) o (m/m e e).

g a u u u r y in /m 5 : . Continuous ( ( ), ).

. 1 2 , . .

A o g m yfacto co trib te, th recanb littled u t th t o cu ts a lth u h an rs n u e e o b a cean rren re principally d e to th g a p u e re t revailing w d system of th Earth su in s e 's rface. Air m ve o mn o w su e t ver ater rfaces p d ces a " ra " of th su ro u dg e rface w resu g fro th ater, ltin m e friction b een th air a d th w etw e n e ater;

th s th w d m b said toblowth w r u e in s ay e e ate alo g The d n. irectio of flow of th p cip cu ts is, th re re closely co n cte n e rin al rren e fo, ne d w th d ith e irectio of th p n e revailing w d For in ce, th w ard flow of o in s. stan e estw cean w in n u rial latitu es is d e toth p ater eareq ato d u e ersisten tra e w d Sim t d in s. ilarly, in m id latitu es th g n p d e e eral revalenceof th so th esterlies (n rth esterlies inth so th rn e u -w o -w e ue h isp ere) lead toasu em h s rfaced ofo w to ard th n rth a rift cean ater w s e o -e st.

P ap th stro g st evid w h for th efficacy ofth w d a th p e erh s e n e ence e ave e e in s s e rim m tivatin fo of su o g rce rface cu ts is to b fo n in th n rth rn p rt of th In ian rren e ud eo e a ed O. H th cu ts are flow n rth ard a d eastw s d rin th su m cean ere e rren ing o w s n ard u g e m er m n o seaso w en th w d areb w o -sh re, b t flo so th ard a dw o so n n h e in s lo ing n o u w u w s n est w s d rin th w ter seaso w enth w d areb w g o o in o e w rd ard u g e in n h e in s lo in ff-sh re;

th r o s, th re is a co p reversal of cu t flow w can b co e m lete rren hich e rrelated w th seaso al ith e n ch g inth w dd an e e in irectio. n . 2 .

. 1 W System inth N rth H isp ere.

. ind s e o ern em h 2 W System. ind s.

3 Seaso al C g inth W D. n han es e ind irectio n.

4. W a dC rren inds n u ts.

5 TheW ardFlowofO W. estw cean ater.

. 3 :

. 1 . , - .

2 . :

The d irectio of flow of th principal cu ts is closely co n n e rren n ected w th di ith e rectio ofp cip w d n rin al in s.

3 :

. , ) ;

- - ;

) - ;

) ) - .

, .

. 4. .

, 1 O cu n areprincipally d eto...


. cean rre ts u - th d e ifferen inw ch ces ater aracteristics.

- th p e revailingw dsystem ofth Earth su in se 's rface.

- th attra nfo b e nth Eartha dth M o.

e ctio rces etw e e n e on 2 Air m ve e t o w su. o mn ver ater rfaces p d ce a " ra " of th su ro u s d g e rface w re ater, su gfro th friction...

ltin m e - b e nth air a dth w te etw e e n e a r.

- b e nth w a dsh re etw e e ater n o.

- b e nth su etw e e rfacea db tto w te n o m a r.

3 The d. irectio of flo ofth p cip cu ts is closely co n n w e rin al rren n ectedw th di ith e rectio of...

n - th Earth ro tio.

e 's ta n - m vin sh s.

o g ip - th p e revailin w d g in s.

4 Thew ardflowofo w inn areq ato latitu es is d eto...

. estw cean ater e u rial d u - th w e esterlies.

- th p e ersisten m n o s.

t o so n - th p e ersisten tra ew d t d in s.

5 In m -latitu es th g eral p. id d e en revalen of th n rth esterlies in th so th rn ce e o -w e ue h isp erelead toasu em h s rfaced ofo w to ard rift cean ater w s...

- n rth a o -e st.

- n rth e o -w st.

- so th a u -e st.

6 Thew d areth p em tivatin fo of...

. in s e rim o g rce - b tto cu ts.

o m rren - su cu ts.

rface rren - all cu ts.

rren 7 In th n rth rn p of th In ian O th cu ts are flow n rth a s. e o e art ed cean e rren ing o w rd a de ard d rin th...

n astw s u g e - w ter seaso.

in n - su m m n o seaso.

m er o so n n - sp gm n o seaso.

rin o so n n . 5 . "Winds and Currents". , "Winds", , "Currents".

. 6 , . .

. , 1 tra ew d w ) d in, esterlies, evid ce, m n o s;

en o so n 2 n rth a, o o w ard stro g ) o w rd ff-sh re, estw, n ;

3p ) ersisten seaso al, stro g w t, n n, eak;

4) In ian A d, tlantic, M iterran, A ed ean rctic;

5 cu t, m ve e t, w d d ) rren o mn in, irectio ;

n 6 p cip p ) rin al, revailing m, reversal;

, ain 7 ice, air, w solid ) ater, ;

8 closely, co ) rrelated sim, ilarly, eq ally.

u . 7 . :

) 1p ) revailingw d in s 2 principal cu t ) rren ) 3 e u rial latitu es ) q ato d ) 4) tra ew d d in s ) 5 m -latitu es ) id d ) 6w ) esterly ) 7 su ) rfacecu t rren ) 8o o ) ff-sh re ) . 8 "Winds and Currents".

. . 9 .

. .

1 W is m chw er o th o co. inter u arm n e cean asts.

2 N th co th Canaries C. ear e ast e urrent is resp n lefo m chco ler d o sib r u o ays.

3 The S u Eq. o th uatorial C urrent reach its g a st velocity d rin th so th rn es re te u g e ue w ter.

in 4. The g a r p rt of th A re te a e tlantic w sp a s as aw layer o larg p rts ater re d arm ver e a ofth Polar Sea.

e 5 Inh hlatitu es th te p ratu is lowfro th su. ig d e m e re m e rfacetoth b tto.

eo m 6 Them st im o t of all cu ts is th Gulf Streama dits exten n kn w. o p rtan rren e n sio, o n a th N rthA s e o tlantic D rift.

7 Thecu t te d tom vem reo less w th w d. rren n s o o r ith e in.

8 P g to ard b rfo. ro ress w s ette recastin w co tin e.

g ill n u .10. .

1 A tid estu m b d ed a a co b d of w co n g ( . al ary ay e efin s astal o y ater n ectin ) fresh a d salt-w / n ater so rces an co tain g ( u d n in / salinities in ed b eenth tw so rces.

) term iate etw eou 2 N wo o rap ers are w rkin ( / ) tod p aco s. o cean g h o g evelo u tic to o ra h m g p y.

3 The o s, co. cean vering ( nearly th e u s of th / ) re -fo rth e e rth su havead influenceo th h gofth air.

a 's rface irect n e eatin e 4. The so th rn exten n of th A ue sio e tlantic a d th Pacific, su u d g ( ne rro n in th co tin t ofA / ) e n en ntarcticais d n das th A esig ate e ntarctic O.cean 5 O w cools slow th u hrad n a n h co trib tin (. cean ater ly ro g iatio t ig t, n u g / ) toth o servedte p ra reu ifo ity.

eb m e tu n rm 6. The d u nof th tid fo o th e rthtakes p in areg lar m istrib tio e al rces ver e a lace u an n varyin ( ) w th latitu e.

er, g / / ith e d 7 N m u ed ies d p resu g in ( . u ero s d evelo, ltin / / ) ahig co p hly m licatedsystemofsu rfacecu ts.

rren 8 The w d w are b w g ( / ) fro th o. in s hich lo in m e cean are heavily ch edw m istu arg ith o re.

9 The d e w of th Pacific is th m st h m g n o s o rrin ( . e p ater e e o o o e e u ccu g / ) inan ofth o s.

y e cean . . , .

1 W of th N rth Eq ato C t is (m ixed ixes) w w of. ater eo u rial urren ix/m /m ith ater Su A o th tlantic o in rig.

2 The classification of sea ice d w fo s (h p d ce /a p . eals ith rm ave ro u d re ro d ce /p d ce ) u d d u d ro u d n er ifferen co d n offreezin.

t n itio s g 3 In o r stu y of th o s w follow th term o g (a o te /a o tin /w s. ud e cean e e in lo y d p d d p g a a o te ) by Sverd p Jo n na dFlem.

dp d ru, h so n ing 4. The n rth p lar ex sio of th A o o ten n e tlantic a d th Pacific is (te /w s ne rm a te e /te e ) th Arctic O.

rmd rmd e cean 5 M y (iso /w iso d iso ) sectio s of th p ary o s are. an lated ere late /are lated n e rim cean kn w a se o n s as.

6 The g a st d p (is ach ve /h ach /ach ) b sto w is 1. re te e th ie d as ieved ieved y rm aves fath m o s.

7 B een S u Africa a dA. etw o th n ustralia th cu t is (d e rren irected irect/w d /d ill irect) fro w toe st.

m est a . 1. , 2 .

1 cansw.

. im is ab tosw.

) le im b H w b ab tosw.

) e ill e le im c) H h tosw.

e as im 2 W m st g th re. e u o e. a W cang th re )e o e.

b W h tog th re ) e ave o e.

c) W co ldg th re e u o e.

3 Youm leaven w. ay o. a Youwill leaven w ) o.

b Youm stleaven w ) u o.

c) You arep rm dtoleaven w e itte o.

4 Sheco ldn tco eo tim. u o m n e. a) Sheh n tim toco e ad o e m.

b Shew u ab toco eo tim.

) as n le m n e c) Shew ab toco eo tim.

as le mn e 5 Theyh toso th p b m a They cansolveth p b m. ave lve e ro le. ) e ro le.

b They w b ab toso th p b.

) ill e le lve e ro lem c) They m st solveth p b m u e ro le.

6 Youm readth le r.

. ay is tte a You a allo edtore dth le r.

) re w a is tte b Youm streadth le r.

) u is tte c) Youh toreadth le r.

ave is tte 7.1 m std it to ay.

uo d a I a ab tod it to a.

) m le o d y b I h tod it to a.

) ave o d y c) I cand it to a.

o dy 8 Theyh too m alo ofd. ave verco e t ifficulties.

a They w ab too m alo ofdifficulties.

) ere le verco e t b They cano m alot ofdifficulties.

) verco e c) They m st o m alo ofd u verco e t ifficulties.

. 1. 3 P t, P resen ast Futu C n u u re o tin o s.

1 Is Susanveryb syjust n w Yes, sh is. She(totyp. u o? e e).

16 2 W areyo hu gto I (tohu toth th a.

. here u rryin ? rry) e e tre 3.1 cau h co w e I (toskate) o afro d g t ld h n n sty ay.

4. D n rin th mu a seveninth m rn gto o w They (tosleep o 't g e p t e o in m rro. ).

5 W at w yo b d in a th U. h ill u e o g t e niversity fo five years? I (tostu y) mteo l r d e ro ogy 6 Look ! It (tosn w. o ).

7 H h ardth t so gw ensh (tolisten toth conceit o th rad.

. elen e anh e ) e n e io 8 W yo (tod ) a th tim yesterd. hat u o t is e ay?

5B : ( ), ( ).

: ( ( ), ), .

. 1 . .

1. ?

2 . ?

3 . ?

Salinity. Surface Temperature Salinity. The d g e of saltn of w is kn w a salinity a d is exp e re ess ater on s n ressed eith as p tag o as p rts p th u d Since averag o w co tain 3.5kg er ercen e r a er o san. e cean ater n s of solids (in so tio ) to 1 0k of w th averag salinity is 3 p cen o m re lu n 0 g ater, e e.5 er t, r, o co m n 3 p cen sin 1 0 kg of w co tain 3 kg of salts. Salinity varies m o ly,.5 er t ce,0 0 ater n s fro p to p averag g 0.7 p cen in th Baltic, over 4.0 p cen in th R m lace lace, in er t e er t e ed Sea, a da m cha 24.0p cen inth in dd ag b ofth D Sea.


nsu s er t e lan rain e asin e ead The saltn of sea-w is n t u ifo a d th variatio d p n s m u o ess ater o n rm n e n e e d ainly p n th efacto re rs:

a) th a o n offresh ater ad e by:

e mu t -w dd (i) rainfall;

(ii) rivers;

(iii) ice-m elt;

b th ra ofevap ratio ;

) e te on c) th p ceof o ancu ts.

e resen ce rren Surface temperatures. The te p ra reof o m e tu ceanw rs varies b thho ntally ate o rizo a dvertically. Let u d al first w th su n se ith e rfacete p ra re ofth se.

m e tu s e a The man a n al te p ra re of o e n u m e tu cean w sh w a g n d ater o s e eral ecrease fro m eq ato reg n w ere it is 2.7 C (80 F) o o a th su u rial io s, h 6 r ver t e rface, to ard th p les w s eo w ereit is n freezin p in h ear g o t.

Surfacete p ra re vary ap reciab seaso m e tu s p ly nally, b t m chless soth nair te uu a m p re The sean g ts a w o as co as th lan b sew h u, a d eratu s. ever e s arm r ld e d ecau ater eats p n cools d w, m re slow th nlan d e Th re th te p ra reran e of sea-w on o ly a d o s. erefo e m e tu g ater is n veryg a ever re t.

The p lew d o ard ecreasein te p ra reis n treg lar largely b seofth effects m e tu ou ecau e of w a dco cu ts, w tra sp rt larg vo m ofw a dco w a o t arm n ld rren hich n o e lu es arm n ld ater b u th o, a dth w in o chillingin ceof airm a dw d e cean n e arm g r fluen asses n in s.

. 2 . , .

1 W at facto co tro th saltn of seaw.h rs n l e ess ater?

a Thera ofe ap ratio.

) te v o n b Thesu ) rfacete p ra re m e tu.

c) Thep cip cu ts.

rin al rren 2 W seah th g a st salinity?

. hich as e re te a TheR S ) ed ea.

b TheD Sea.

) ead c) TheBlack Sea.

3 H wd e th te p ra reofo w vary?

. o o s e m e tu cean aters a Season a dho ntally.

) ally n rizo b H rizo ) o ntally a dvertically.

n c) Vertically.

4 W d e th se n g t a w o a co a th land. hy o s e a ever e s arm r s ld s e ?

a) Because of th d e ifferen w in a d chilling influen of airm t arn g n ce asses over th m e.

bB ) ecausew h a u a dco ls d w m reslow th nlan d e ater e ts p n o o n o ly a d o s.

c) Becauseofth influenceofo cu ts.

e cean rren . 3 , . , .

True False 1 Thep lew d. o ard ecreaseinte p ra reis n treg lar.

m e tu ou 2 The saltn of seaw is u ifo.

. ess ater n rm 3 Surfacete p ra red p n s o th ra ofevap ratio.

. m e tu e e d n e te on 4 Fresh aterm b a d dtoo b rainfall.

. -w ay e d e cean y 5 Surfacete p ra reis in en b ice-m. m e tu flu ced y elt.

. 4 as since.

. 1 Thed g eof saltn is kn w a (/ / salinity.

. e re ess ons ) 2 As ( / th air te p ra re in. / )e m e tu creases th sea g ts e e w er.

arm 3 Salinity is 0 p n in th Baltic a das m ch as (/ / 24...7 erce t e n u ) p tinth D Sea.

ercen e ead 4 Such facto a (/ / ) e ap ratio a d p ce of o cu. rs s v o n n resen cean r re ts a veryim o n n re p rta t.

5 The se n g ts a w o a co a ( . a ever e s arm r s ld s ... / / th la d ) e n.

6 Thete p ra reof o w is n tu ifo a (/ ) it varies. m e tu cean aters o n rm s / b thho ntallya dvertically.

o rizo n 7. The averag salinity of o w is 3 p t since ( e cean ater.5 ercen // ) 1,000kgofw co tain 3 kgofsalt.

ater n s . 5 . :

1 0;

0,7%;

24%;

1 / 0,6 0 6;

1 0 ;

3 0 ,5 1 0 ;

5 1.

00 . 6 . .

1 d g eof saltn ) e re ess 1 ) 2 p tag ) ercen e 2 ) 3 p rts p th u n ) a er o sa d 3 ) 4) averag salinity e 4) 5 freshw ) ater 5 ) 6 ra ofevap ratio ) te on 6 ) 7 o cu ts ) cean rren 7 ) 8 su te p ratu ) rface m e re 8 ) 9 ma a n al te p ratu ) e n n u m e re 9 ) 1 ) freezin p in 0 got 1 ) 0 1 ) te p ra reran e 1 m e tu g 1 ) 1 1 ) co cu t 2 ld rren 1 ) 2 1 ) icem 3 elt 1 ) 3 . 7 . .

1 d g eof saltn of w is kn w as...

. e re ess ater o n 2 Theaverag salinity is 3.5... sin 1 0 kgofw co tain 3 kgof sa. e ce,0 0 ater n s 5 lt.

3 Thea o n offreshw d p n s o rainfall,... and...

. mu t ater e e d n 4. Thep ceof o cu ts, th ra ofevap ratio a dth a o n offresh resen cean rren e te o n n e mu t w affect...

ater 5 Thete p ratu of o w variesb thho ntally and...

. m e re cean aters o rizo 6 The mana n al te p ratu of o anw d. e n u m e re ce ater ecreases from reg n to a... io s w rd the...

7. Thetem eratu of sea-w is n very g a p re... ater ever re t.

. 8 . , .

1 In th straits b een Sw en a d D m th su. e etw ed n en ark e rface cu t is d rren irected fro th Baltic toth N rthsea.

me eo 2 Inth Baltic th cu ts a g vern b local w dco d n. e e rren re o ed y in n itio s.

3 Inth PolarSeath su. e e rfacecu ts a g rren re reatlyin en b local w d flu ced y in s.

4. TheN rthEq o uatorial C urrent is fedb th so th y e u -easterly cu ts off th w st rren ee co ofN rthAfrica.

ast o 5 Theg eral d u nofte p ra reis closelyrelatedtoth tofth d sity.

. en istrib tio m e tu a e en 6 Theu p rlayer of w w is se a te fro th d e w b atran n. pe arm ater p ra d m e e p ater y sitio layer w w th te p ratu d ithin hich e m e re ecreases w d p. ith e th 7 The te p ra reof th seaw m b raisedb th a so b nof rad n. m e tu e ater ay e y e b rp tio iatio e terin th sea-su n ge rface.

8 If th a o h re a dth o an a co sid to e e th y co stitu ah a. e tm sp e n e ce re n ered g th r, e n te e t en in in w en y is tak in a certain p g e hich erg en t laces a d g o t a o e p n iven u t th r laces a d n m tio is m tain acco in toth p cip of th o yn ics.

o n ain ed rd g e rin les erm d am . 9 . . .

1 The air inb cities (p llu. ig o tes/is p llu ) b exh st g se o ted y au a s.

2 Theclassificationoficeb s (b se /isb ) o th sh eofth b rg. erg a d ased n e ap e e s.

3 In A g st - S tem er th N rth Eq ato C. uu ep b e o u rial urrent d p a d (re isap ears n places/is rep ) b th M n o cu n laced y e o so n rre t.

4 Several classifications of seaice (h p p se /h v b p p se ).

. ave ro o d a e een ro o d 5 B eenS u Africa a dA. etw o th n ustralia th cu t (d e rren irects/is d irected fro w st ) me toe st.

a 6 H (is ta e /h s taken in b th su. eat kn a ) y e rface w aters in lo latitu es a d (is w dn g e /h s g ) o t inh hlatitu es.

iv n a iven u ig d 7 The lo g w (a so e /a a so e ) in th im ed n ig b u o dof. n er aves b rb d re b rb d e m iate e h o rh o th sea-su e rface.

8 In su m th Eq. m er e uatorial C rren (d u t rives/is d ) fo ardb th S.W m n riven rw y e. o so n o.

.1. , 0 .

.

1D. ifferingair d sities cau b d goflig t rays.

en se en in h 2 The cau of su flu atio s are n t kn w, n r is it kn w w e e th se. ses ch ctu n o on o o n h th r e flu atio s arep d inch ctu n erio ic aracter.

3 O ig t fo fo s freq en m in so th rn a d cen a a of Eng. vern h g rm u tly ainly u e n tral re s lan.

d 4 H d e th m ro g a p a th p b h faces ?

. ow o s e eteo lo ist p ro ch e ro lem e 5 In a flo to ard th so th in th So th H isp ere, th co est w in. wwseu e u ern em h e ld ater fo n in o a dth seasu rises w end p rtin fro th co u d sh re n e rface h e a g m e ast.

6 The classification of sea ice d w fo s p d cedu d d. eals ith rm ro u n er ifferen co d t n i tio s offreezin.

n g 7 As is tob exp. e ected in a flo to ard th so th in th So th H isp ere, wwseu e u ern em h th seasu rises w end artin fro th co e rface h ep g m e ast.

8 Off P rt Elizabeth th rise a o n toa o t 2 cmin a d ce of a o t 1. o e m u ts b u 9 istan bu k.m 9 The Gulf S. treamflow fro th Gulf of M s me exico a dtran a g a d al o n sfers re t e f h a fro e u rial reg n ton rth e rnEu p e t m q ato io s o -w ste ro e.

. 1. 1 .

1 w rd w w rker;

) o, orse, o 2 larg m th d n ) er, o er, in er;

3 lo g h m er;

) n er, er, arin 4 receiver, su m richer;

) m er, 5 b tte b th r, farm ) e r, ro e er;

6 sister, g ) reater, w ter;

in 7 w teach h h ) ater, er, ig er;

8 letter, last, less;

) 9 flo r, an er, m re;

) o sw o 1 ) d d u h r, d er;

0 iffer, a g te ark 1 ) fath fo n faster;

1 er, reig er, 1 ) o er, o e o 2 ld th r, ver;

1 ) co er, com car;

3 ld er, 1 ) n m er, stro g r, m e 4 ub n e in r.

.1. 2 . .

1 It isn a w to a a it w yesterd. 't s arm d y s as ay.

2 This lectu is n t soin. re o terestin a th lectu d g s e re eliveredb p fesso N y ro r.

3 The S nh am a o t 2 000000tim a g a a th m o ;

b t it is 3. u as ass b u 7 es s re t s e o n u tim as far aw fro th e rth es ay m e a.

4 The hig th te p ra re of th g s o th vap u th h h th averag. her e m e tu e a r e o r, e ig er e e velocity ofth m lecu e o les.

5 Theto l a o n ofw inth p to cean w m chless th nto a.

. ta m u t ater e ro -o s as u a dy 6. The te p ratu d m e re ifferen b een th tro ic a dth A zo es a su ces etw e p n e rctic n re r p risingly sm - n g all o reaterth n 1 0F.

a 7. The m re o less p rmn n cu ts of th A or e a e t rren e ntarctic O s co sist princi cean n pally oftw typ o es.

8 W th cu ts flow th u h th Straits of Florida, th lig ter w is. ithin e rren ing ro g e e h ater fo n o th rig t-h dsid ofth cu t, a dth d serw - o th left-h dsid u d n e h an e e rren n e en ater n e an e.

V 1. .

1 .

. a) D n co eh to o w o 't m ere m rro.

b Youn e n co eh to o w ) e d 't m ere m rro.

c) You w n tco eh to o w ill o m ere m rro.

2 .

. a) Thein m ts w b exam ed stru en ill e in.

b Thein m ts co ldb exam ed ) stru en u e in.

c) Thein m tssh u b exam ed stru en o ld e in.

3 . .

a M exam les ofth p e o e o m b g.

) any p is h n mn n ay e iven b M exam les ofth p e o e o w b g.

) any p is h n mn n ill e iven c) M exam les ofth p e o e o h tob g.

any p is h n mn n ave e iven 4 . .

a) I m st it to a.

u dy b) This m stb d n to ay u e oe d.

c) I a ab tod it to a.

m le o d y 5 . ?

17 a) Youcanw am u ait in te?

b Canyo w am u ?

) u ait in te c) W yo w am u ?

ill u ait in te 6 . .

a) Youh dtod th w rkyesterd a o is o ay.

b You co ldd th w rkyesterd ) u o is o ay.

c) You d th w rkyesterd id is o ay.

7 9.

. . a Thelectu canb ina 9.30.

) re eg t b Thelectu b in a 9.30.

) re eg s t c) Thelectu is tob ina 9.30.

re eg t 8 . .

a)Youn e n h rry.

e d 't u b Youm sth rry.

) uu c) You'll h toh rry.

ave u 2. .

1 It is n. early a tu n so nth leaves... th co u u m;

o e eir lo r.

a) a ch g g re an in b ch g d ) an e c) w ch n e ill a g 2 Thew d w. in s hich... fro th o arech edw m istu.

m e cean arg ith o re aa b wg ) re lo in bb w g ) lo in c) b w lo s 3 Theo s liketh co. cean e ntinents... th h a fro in latio.

eir e t m so n ad ) erives bd ) erive c) d g erivin 4 Convection... th p m e tfeatu ofo b avio. e ro in n re cean eh r.

a) is b are ) c) b g ein 5 Thereexists th beliefth tth oceans... still... to a.

. e ae dy ag w ) ro s bh g w ) ave ro n c) a g w g re ro in 6 Theo currents... im o n g eral o local effects o clim. cean p rta t en r n ate.

a is ) bh ) as c) have 7 Thep cip tid ro u gforces... th sem iu al fo. rin al e-p d cin e id rn rces.

aa) re b is ) c) h s a 8 Theco. ntinents... th w a ain th e rim o s: th A e ater re to re p ary cean e tlantic, th Pacific, a dth In ian e n ed.

a se a te ) p ra s b se ara ) p te c) h s se a te a p ra d 3. .

1 This zone,... th co tin tal shelfm b veryn w. e n en ay e arro.

a calls ) b is called ) c) called 2 As w co ls a th su. ater o t e rface, th coldw sinksb reheat...

e ater efo a h lo ) as st b is lo ) st c) is lo g sin 3 TheA. tlantic co ofM ast orocco..... b th co l C y e o anaries C rrenu t.

a is w ed ) ash b h w ed c) is w in ) as ash ash g 4 Toth n rthofth e u to th cu ts..... b m n o s ofS u Asia.

. eo e q a r e rren y o so n o th a) h co tro ave n lled b w co tro ) ill n l c) a co tro re n lled 5 Toth so thofS u Africath A ulhas Streamb n s toth so thth n. eu o th eg ed eu e toth east, thus... toth In ianO.

e e d cean a re rn g ) tu in b retu ) rn c) re rn d tu e 6 InA g st-Sep b th N rthEq. uu tem er e o uatorial C rren is rep ut lacedb th ye M n o Current,... fro w toe st.

o so n m est a a flo )w b flow ) ing c) flow 7. By th p cess ofvertical m d etotu u ce, th changes... a th e ro ixing u rb len e te sea-surfacearep p g te d w w s.

ro a a d o n ard a in d cin ) tro u g b in d ce ) tro u c) in d ced tro u 4. o s, : cean o o rap y, w d salinity, clim tra sp rt, seas, Pacific.

cean g h in s, ate, n o 1... is th stu yofth o s, th w ofth o s a dth m vem ts.

. ed e cean e aters e cean n eir o en 2 The o s e e im o tin ces on...

. cean x rt p rtan fluen 3 Theo s p vid th ch est fo ofbulk....

. cean ro e e eap rm 4. Theo s a fo rinn m er- th A cean re u u b e tlantic, th In ian th Arctic a dthe...

ed,e n 5 The... a th m r w u its, the... areth m o w u its.

. re e ajo ater n e in r ater n 6 Thed. irectio offlowofth p n e rincipal cu ts is closely co n rren n ectedw th d ith e irection ofth prevailing...

e 7. Thed g eof saltn ofw is kn w as...

e re ess ater o n 5. .

1 o cu ts ) cean rren ) 2 e rth su ) a s rface ) 3 so th rn o p rt ) u e m st a ) 4 co tin tal shelf ) n en ) 5 d sity ) en ) 6 d g eofsaltn ) e re ess ) 7 chem ch ical aracteristics ) ) 8p ) revailin w dsystem g in s ) 9 tra ew d ) d in s ) 1 ) n rth ard 0ows ) VI Hydrology 6 : there is/are;

(n+n);

Participle I, Gerund ( ).

. 1 , , . .

. 2 .

. - ?

- ?

- ?

, - ?

The Hydrological Cycle. Underground Water The hydrological cycle. The h ro g yd lo ical cycle co n tes th m ve e t of no e o mn m istu fro th o su o re m e cean rfaces (o a y o e w su r n th r ater rface) tolan, w ere it is p dh re cip itated a dits even al retu b e ap ratio a dru -o toth se.

,n tu rn y v o n n n ff e a W is e ap ra d by th su a d th w d fro th o ater v o te e n n e in m e cean su rface, rises by co vectio a dis carried b air m vem ts to ard th lan. O lan th w va n nn y o en w s e d ver d e ater p u in th air m or e asses u d rg e co lin a d co d satio, eith b co vectio o n e o s o g n n en n er y n nr o g h liftin. U ately th atm sp eric m istu is p itated a rain hail, ro rap ic g ltim e oh o re recip s, sn w sle t. This su o, e rfacem istu d e o eofth eth g o re o s n re in s:

a it is re-e ap rate b reith tim tosinkino ru offth lan su ) v o d efo as e rn e d rface;

b it sin in th soil a dp lates d w w s in th rocks;

) ks to e n erco o n ard to e c) it ru s offth lan su n e d rfaceinth fo ofsh e w, rills a dstre s.

e rm e t ash n am At th sa etim o lan, tran iratio fro p ts a devap ratio fro th so e m e, n d sp n m lan n o n m e il a d w su n ater rfaces a d w vap u to th air. The m istu th t g e u d rg u d d s ater o r e o re a o s n e ro n, th u h p latio a d n ral se p e usually b ro g erco n n atu e ag, reaks th u h to th su ro g e rface a ain g, e. inth fo of sp g low d w th slo e;

th sp gw feed stre s w.g e rm rin s, er o n e p is rin ater s am hich even allyreachth se. Thus th reis aco p cycle ofw m ve e t.

tu ea e m lete ater o mn Underground water. W ater, inlesser ofgreaterq an u tities, is p t everyw ere resen h inth soil, su so a db ro su w is kn w a g u d a r. It is of eith ex e b il n ed ck: ch ater o n s ro n w te er te a o in (d rn l rig erived fro atm sp eric o su m oh r rface w aters) o in al o in (d r tern rig erived fro th in r ofth Earth).

m e terio e Su stan b tially th g a st a o n of g u d ate co es fro atm sp eric p e re te m u t ro n w r m m oh re cip n th is called m ric w The w retain in sed en ro fro itatio ;



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