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is eteo ater. ater ed im tary cks m th tim w en th y w originally laid d w is te e co n w r. W lib rate e e h e ere o n rmd n ate ate ater e d a aresu of ig eo s activity, e.g d rin th crystallisationofm m is calledjuvenile s lt n u.uge ag a, w te a r.

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- ;

- ;

- ;

- .

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. , 1 Theh ro g cycle co n tes...

. yd lo ical no 2 G u d ateris p se tin...

. ro n w re n 3 G u d ateris ofeither... or...

. ro n w 4 W is evap ra dby..., rises by..., a dis carriedby...

. ater o te n 5 T sp nfro p ts...

. ran iratio m lan 6 Them istu g e u d ro n...

. o re o s n erg u d 7 W is lib. ater erateda aresu of...

s lt . 5 . - , .

. 6 . . .

Evap ratio on P itatio recip n Run-off G u d ater ro n w . 7 , . . .

. 8 . .

1 Wte n n /th /e a o te /w d y e. a r/su /is/a d e v p ra d in /b /th.

2W. ater/can d o mn ir/b /lan /th /to a s.

ie /is/m ve e ts/a y d e w rd 3 T sp n lan. ran iratio /p ts/is/evap ratio /fro.

onm 4 S rin /th /fe d a r/stre m. p g e e s/w te a s.

5 G u d a r/o in f/d riv d te a e. ro n w te rig /o e e /is/in rn l/th /Earth m te r/th /o /fro /in rio e f.

6 A o n ms/th /p cip tio /fro /g a st/o ro n w te. m u t/co e e re ita n m re te f/g u d a r.

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1 ) 2) 3 ... ) 4) 5 ) 6 ... ) 7 ) 8 ) 9 ) 1 ) . 1. 0 - Future Past Indefinite :

Therearem yb o inth lib an o ks e rary.

Therew m yb o inth library.

ere an o ks e Therewill b m yb o sinth library.

e an o k e 1 Therearen p res inth b o.

. o ictu e ok 2 Thereisn ap stofficen arh. 't o e ere.

3 Therea n an flig a w. re 't y hts t eeken s.

d 4. Is th rem chw tod a h m e u ork o t o e?

5 Thereis n d u t a o tit.

. o ob bu 6 Areth rean p res inth b o.

. e y ictu e ok 7 Thereis aletter forhimo th ta le. n e b.

8 Thereis ag enn th h u.

. ard ear e o se . 1. 1 .

1 If th re is n relatively im ervio s stra mab veth w ta le th rem b.e o p u tu o e ater b, e ay e n su o rfaceru o n ff.

2 In th valley of th N th re are reco s of sta e th o e of w d te. e e ile e rd g, e ld st hich a b a o t 5,000years.

ack b u 3 W w flo ingd w C o er's C a dth rew ap reciab flo d gof. ater as w o n o p reek n e as p le o in LakeEyre.

4. Stream b m d if th reis m reth nash rt in s eco e ry e oa o terval b tw e rain e e n s.

5 There is a n e d g cycle, called th hyd lo ic cycle, of w m vin. ever n in e ro g ater o g fro th a o h re to th e rth o a d th u h th e rth a d to th a o h re m e tm sp e e a, ver n ro g e a, n e tm sp e a ain g.

6 W ereth rea h accu u n of sn w th reg enofth sp grun ff.h e re eavy m latio s o, e im e rin o is co tro b te p ra re n lled y m e tu.

7 In th p st h ry th re w m y exam les of flo rish g a d fertile lan s. e a isto e ere an p u in n d th tb ed w a ecam esert astes.

. 1. , 2 . .

1 M st of th rocks of Sco darean t a dvery h, sh w gtraces ofvol.o e tlan cien n ard o in canic actio.

n 2 M y rivers flo in in th English C. an w g to e hannel are very sh rt a du im o n o n n p rta t, unless th h n ab estu ey ave avig le aries.

3 Rivers are chiefly valu le in p vid g a d ag systema din su p g a. ab ro in rain e n p lyin man ofin dw r-tra sp rt fo co m e s lan ate n o r m erce.

4M. eltingsn wcancau aflo dw o t acco p yin rainfall.

o se o ith u m an g 5 O inarymth d ofm rin stream wareu satisfacto. rd e o s easu g flo n ry.

6 The retard n of sn wm g is a o e service th t fo p rmin th. atio o eltin n th r a rests erfo e reg latio of stream wa dth p te nofw un flo n e ro ctio atersh s.

ed 7. Increasing p p latio a dh h sta d rd of living d mn a ever g a r o u n n ig er n a s e ad n re te fo dfro th soil.

o me 8 Theloss of soil, o soil ero nis b m grap ly w esp a da te. r sio eco in id id read n cu.

. 1. 3 :

1 u d rg u dw r;

) n e ro n ate 2) w su p ater p ly;

3 city aeratio statio s;

) n n 4) fo b rest elt;

5 flo dlan soil;

)o d 6 an sio m res;

) ti-ero n easu 7) soil acidity;

8w d o ) aste isp sal;

9 p cap w co su p n ) er ita ater n m tio ;

1 ) p afro zo es;

0 erm st n 1 ) su 1 rfacem istu o re;

1 ) g u d aterru o 2 ro n w n ff;

1 ) w p llu n 3 ater o tio ;

1 ) su 4 rfacelayer;

1 ) river w 5 ater;

1 ) w reso rses;

6 ater u 1 ) te p ra reflu atio s;

7 m e tu ctu n 1 ) d ag system 8 rain e ;

1 ) river sta ep ictio ;

9 g red n 20) catch en a a m t re.

6 : - ;

there is/are, ( - ) .

: ( ).

. 1 . .

1 river reg e ) im ) 2 w level ) ater ) 3 streamch n ) an el ) ) 4) d arg ofariver isch e 5 p ro ) o sity ) 6 im ervio s layer )pu ) 7) run-off ) 8 d ag b /catch en a a ) ) rain e asin m t re 9 v etatio co ) eg n ver ) 1 ) ste pslo e 0ep ) . 2 .

. 1 H rolog Cycle.

. yd ical 2 River R im. eg es.

3 Types ofRiver C. hannels.

The seaso al variatio s in th vo m of w of a river, w are reflected in n n e lu e ater hich th w e ater-level in th streamch n fo th reg e of a river. The facto affectin e an el, rm e im rs g th d arg ofariver a tw fo :

e isch e re o ld a p sitive facto o influences w areresp n le fo a in )o rs r hich o sib r n crease in th vole u esu a a o n a dn reofth p itatio, th im ervio s ch m ch s m u t n atu e recip n e p u aracter ofth su e r faceover w run-offflow a dth sizeofth d ag b o catch en area;

hich s, n e e rain e asin r mt b n ativefacto o influences w cau ad ) eg rs r hich se ecreaseinth ru -o a d th re e n ff n, e fo a d re, ecrease in th vo m su a th a o n of evap ratio w takes p e lu e ch s e m u t o n hich lace fro th soil, v g ta na dw su me e e tio n ater rface o a aresu ofth p ro of th lan su rs lt e o sity e d r face.

There a o e co d n o local facto w m affect th n reof th re th r n itio s, ften rs, hich ay e atu e d arg For exam le, th n rea dch isch e. p e atu n aracter of th veg tatio cover have an tab een o le effect o ru -o w ereth p t cover is scan th ru -o will b accelerated w ere n n ff: h e lan ty, e n ff e ;

h th re is a thick fo co run-off will te d to b re rd d a d released g u e rest ver, n e ta e n rad ally.

A gain, ste pslo es especiallyif th rocks areim ervio s, facilitaterap ru -o ep e pu id n ff.

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1 The a o n a dn tu ofp itatio a resp n lefo d. m u t n a re recip n re o sib r ecrease inth vol e u eof w of ariver.

m ater 2 N ative facto affectin th d arg of a stre ma : evap ratio fro soil. eg rs g e isch e a re onm v etatio a dw su eg n n ater rfaces a dsizeofth d ag b o catch en a a n e rain e asin r m t re.

3 S slo es cau slo ru o. teep p se w n ff.

4. W ereth p n coveris scan th runoffwill b re rd d h e la t ty e e ta e.

5 Local facto cann t affect th n reofth d arg. rs o e atu e isch e.

. 4 - . , .

. 5 in. : crease, re g e, n tab affect, d im o le, ecrease, ste p re rd d e, ta e.

1 The seaso al variatio sinth vo m ofw of ariver fo the... of ariver.

. n n e lu e ater rm 2 Positivefacto areresp n lefo an... inth vo m. rs o sib r e lu e.

3 N ativefacto cau a... inth ru -o. eg rs se e n ff.

4. Local facto alsom th n tu ofth d arg rs ay... e a re e isch e.

5 Thech. aracter ofth v g tatio cover h a... effect o ru -o e ee n as n n ff.

6 W th reis athickfo co run-o w be...

. here e rest ver, ff ill 1.... slo es facilitaterap ru -o p id n ff.

. 6 , . :

seaso al n reflected usually variation . 7. ( , , ( : scan p t co ste p ), ) ty lan ver, e slo es, a o n ofp itatio, a o n of evap ratio, im ervio s ch p m u t recip n m u t o n p u aracter of th su e r face, p ro ofth lan su o sity e d rface, sizeofth d ag b thickfo co e rain e asin, rest ver.

n ativefacto eg rs local factors p sitivefacto o rs . 8. , .

1p ) ositive a co d satio ) n en n 2) increase b p eab ) erm le 3 im ervio s )p u c) insignificant 4) e ap ratio vo n d n ative ) eg e thick ) 5) n tab o le 6 scan ) ty f) re rd d ta e 7g u ) rad ally gd ) ecrease 8a ) ccelerated h sh ) arp . 9 , . .

1 The sh eofth u p su. ap e p er rfaceof th w tab is d p n e t o th flowco e ater le e e d n n e n d n w th zo eof sa ra n itio s ithin e n tu tio.

2. W th w canm verap ly, it n rallyflo s fro th h h sp ts.

here e ater o id atu w m e ig er o 3 A d pofrainfalls directlytoth soil.

. ro e 4. Thein filtratio cap usually d p rap ly a rainsta n acity ro s id fter rts.

5 A rainoflo gd ratio a dlowin sityresu inm reinfiltrationth d e a. n u nn ten lts o an o s sh rtrainofh hin sity.

o ig ten 6 G u dw like su. ro n ater, rfacew flow as aresu ofd ater, s lt ifferen ofp re.

ces ressu 7 The g d al d p en of civilizationh ma t astead increase inth u. ra u evelo m t as e n y e se ofrivers.

8 Theflo w increaseinw seaso s a dd. w ill et n n ecreaseind o e ry n s.

. 1. 0 .

1 Thereis n relatively im ervio s stra ma o th w ta le. o p u tu b ve e ater b.

2 Therem b n su. ay e o rfaceru o n ff.

3 There are tw w to red u river w b man of reservo a d. o ays istrib te ater y e s irs n th u hcan ro g als.

4. Evaporationcano o w enth reis avap u p re g ien inth d nly ccur h e o r ressu rad t e i rectio fro sn wtoair.

n mo 5 Thereh b e co sid led. as e n n erab ifferen inth u ofte srelatin toru o ce e se rm g n ff.

6 Therea m yd. re an ifferen typ ofg t es laciers, 7 T ro g g lo ic tim th reh b co stan ch g insp g. h u h eo g es e as een n t an e rin s.

8 There is a g a variety of in m ts u dfo m rin th am u t of p . re t stru en se r easu g e o n re cip n itatio.

. 1. 1 , .

1 N t all w.o ater... b m g u d eco es ro n a th d ) e ifferen inp reis th result of ce ressu e water. surfaceslo ep 2 If th su. e rfaceis n tconfined,...

o b sinceits p sitio is d p n e to th ) o n e e dn n e 3 Surfacerun ffd e n tbegin...

. o os o co tin edaccretio ofg u dw nu n ro n ater 4. The w table,... flu ates ater ctu c) as it falls w a n al variatio s inrainfall.

ith n u n d its larg w ) er aterco rses ru o seld m u n nly o 5 T o g LakeEyre d s a o t. huh rain b u e) th te te th g u d a n rs e ro n half am sq arem illion u iles,... f) u til th soil su ne rfaceisth ro g ly w t o uh e 6 Snow varies g.... reatlyinits w ater a dsh wd ressio s a filled n allo ep n re co te t.

nn g th tth b lkofth lan ice is co tain ) a eu is d n ed 7 It is d. ifficult tosay... inth icesh e ofA e e ts ntarctica a dn 8 Thereaso is...

. n G lan reen d h ) w ofth seth eflow is th m st hich e re s eo im o n p rta t . 1. .

2 1 A exam le of river reg n ratio o alarg scale is th successful a mt (to.n p ee n n e e tte p re re sto d th Th es e ary.

sto /re re ) e am stu 2 It is ab lu inadm le (tod m/toh b nd m e ) u clean se a e. so tely issib u p ave ee u p d n ed w g in rivers a dlakes.

to n 3 It a p a th t H rto w th first (tob su g ste /to su g th th o of. p e rs a o n as e e ge d g est) e e ry infiltratio cap n acity.

4 In British Isles all th lakes are of fresh w a d all b d of w larg. e ater, n o ies ater e e o g (tob called nuh e /calling lakes areco n cte w th seabym s ofrivers.

) n e d ith e ean 5 Of th m istu p itated o th lan a a so e e ters in th p t fib. e o re recip n e d re m n to e lan er (m stre a /torem ) u til th p tis d stro e.

u min ain n e lan e y d 6 Th arevario s ty e ofevap ratio p n (u g b u d. ere u ps o n a s sin /to e se ).

6B : Participle Past Indefinite ( ).

. 1 . .

, a 1 im ervio s ro ) p u ck ) 6 ) 2 au ) q ifer ) 3 zo eofae tio )n ra n r) 4 zo eof sa ra n )n tu tio 5 p dofd u h ) erio ro g t ) e ) 6 in rm n sa ratio ) te itte t tu n ) 7 w r-tab ) ate le 3 ) 8 valley ) ) 9 im erm leb d ) p eab e ) 1 ) p latio 0 erco n . 2 :

. 1 ?

. 2 . , ?

3 . ?

6 ?

. Groundwater W seep slow d w w s th u h th p re in th ro a d th u h fis ater s ly o n ard ro g e o s e cks n ro g su u til it is h res n altedby a layer of im ervio s rocks. A w pu ater-h ld g b d of rock is o in e calleda aq ifer. Threezo es ab v a im erm leb a usu d g ish :

nu n o e n p eab ed re ally istin u ed a th u p r zo e th u h w ich th w d d a d w h s air filled ) e p e n ro g h e ater escen s n hich a p res;

th is calledth zo eofae tio o th vad se-w (w d gw r) zo e;

o is en ra n r e o ater an erin ate n b th low zo e w ere w accu u a d fro w ich th air h s b nex ) e er n h ater m lates n m h e a ee p ;

th is te e th zo eof satu n elled is rmd e n ratio ;

c) th in etw zo e, w co tain g u d ater a r lo g n u rainb t e -b een n hich n s ro n w fte n -co tin ed u d o t d rin p d ofd u h th is calledth zo eofin rm n sa ra n ries u u g erio s ro g t;

is en te itte t tu tio.

The u p su p er rface of th zo e of satu n is called th w r-tab. Its h h en ratio e ate le eig t varies fro p top a dfro seaso toseaso. The w r-tab reflects, in asu m lace lace n m n n ate le b d e w th lan su u d ay, e d rface p file, risingb n a th hills a dd p in u d r th val ro e e th e n ro p g n e e leys. The w also m ves ho ntally fro u d th hills, w ere th w ater o rizo m n er e h e ater-tab is le h h to ard th valleys. This lateral m vem t is very slo sinceit m ves usually ig est, w s e o en w o by p latio th u hth p re inth ro erco n ro g e o s e ck.

. 3 , . .

1 Thezo eofin rm n satu nis...

. n te itte t ratio 2 Thezo eof ae tio is...

. n ra n 3 An aq ifer is...

. u 4 The w. ater-tab is...

le 5 The w. ater-tab reflects... a dits h h varies from le n eig t...

6H. orizontally w m ves from to ard ater o... w s...

. 4 . , , .

1 The zo e of in rm n satu n is th in etw zo e w ere w accu. n te itte t ratio e -b een n h ater m lates a dfro w th air h sb nexp.

u n m hich e a ee elled 2 A w h ld gb dofrockis calledth w. ater o in e e ater-tab.

le 3 The vad se-w zo e is th zo e w co tain g u d a r after lo grain. o ater n e n hich n s ro n w te n b td o td rin p dofd u h u ries u u g erio ro g t.

4 Thelateral m ve e tis veryrap.

. o mn id 5 W canse pd w w th u hth p re inro w o tb gh d. ater e o n ard ro g e o s cks ith u ein alte.

. 5 . :

im ervio s ro aq ifer, im erm leb, air-filled p res, zo e of aeratio, to p u cks, u p eab ed o n n b te e, tob called, toco tain tovary, tom ve, ho ntally, since, usually, tore e rmd e n, o rizo flect, th u h valley, to ard w ro g, w s, ater-tab zo eof satu n m v mn le, n ratio, o e e t.

I . 6. , .

a lowzo e ) n 1 u w rd ) pa s 2 p rmab ) e e le b d ww s ) o n ard c) rise 3b w ) elo d im erm le ) p eab 4) u p rzo e pe n e p eab ) erm le 5 d sce d )en f) rap ly id 6 filled ) gao ) b ve 7a r ) fte 8 in rm n ) te itte t h wt )e 9 slow ) ly i) e p m ty j) b re efo 1 )d 0 ry . 7 air-filled,. :

p res, accu u o m lates, d o t, slo, b, co tain reflects.

ries u w ed n s, 1 W se p slow d w w s th u hthe... inth ro. ater e s ly o n ard ro g e cks.

2 Aw. ater-ho in... ofrockis calleda aq ifer.

ld g nu 3 Thezo eofa ra nhas... p re. n e tio o s.

4. Thelow zo ew erew er n h ater... is te e th zo eof sa ra n rmd e n tu tio.

5 The zo e of in rm n saturation... g u d ate a rain but... d rin. n te itte t ro n w r fter ug d uh ro g ts.

6 Thew table... th lan su. ater e d rfacep file. ro 7 Thelateral m v mn is very...

. oe e t . 8 . fro, a d rin, th u h to b fro, to ard : m fter, u g ro g,, y, m w s.

1 W se p slow d nw. ater e s ly ow ards... th p re e o s.

2 Zoneofin rm n satu nco tain w. te itte t ratio n s ater... lo gco tin edrain n nu.

3 Theh ig t ofw ta levaries... place... p. eh ater b lace.

4. W is halted... alayer ofim erio s ro ater p u cks.

5 Zoneofin rm n sa ratio d out... p d ofd u h. te itte t tu n ries erio s ro g t.

6 The w alsom ves horizontally... u d th hills... th valleys.

. ater o n er e e . 9 , . :

tod - d ag rain rain e;

toflo d- th flo d- flo d le;

o is o o ab tod te ra - d e rio te eterio g- d ratin eterio n ratio ;

top te - b p te g- p tectio - p tective;

ro ct y ro ctin ro n ro toco ta in te- co tam atio - co tam an n ma n in n n in t;

top llu - p llu n- p llu t;

o te o tio o tan top - p rificatio - p urify u n urifier- p re- im u u p re;

top late- p latio - p lato erco erco n erco r;

d e - d ly- d e e - d p ;

e p eep e p n e th top d ce- p d cer- p d cib - n n ro u - u p d ctive ro u ro u ro u le o -p d ctive n ro u - p d ctive- p d ctivity- p d ct;

ro u ro u ro u tom ve- m vin - m ve e t- m veless.

o o g o mn o . 1. , - .

0 1 Infiltrationb in a ah hrate, a dd. eg s t ig n ecreases rap lyd rin th earlier p rt o id u g e af th rainp rio.

e ed 2 Runoffis co p sedof su run ffa dsu su ru o. mo rface o n b rface n ff.

3 Evap ratio h a cte th in. o n as ttra d e terest of m y scientists, w o h p vid a an h ave ro ed fo id levo m ofw rko th su ject.

rm ab lu e o n is b 4. S m p g ss h b md b tm yp b s rem u so.

o e ro re as een a e u an ro lem ain n lved 5 Thew tab norm co es w th freesu. ater le ally incid ith e rfaceoflakes a dstre s.

n am 6 Thep in sityof th flo dw b red ce.

. eak ten e o ill e u d 7. M ofth w req iredb p ts is u dtoreg la theirte p ra re uch e ater u y lan se u te m e tu.

. 1. 1 .

1 Ap. articleof w reach gth so m b re rn dtoth skyb evap ratio.

ater in e il ay e tu e e yon ) ) ) 2. The relatio sh, rep tin th b ce o w th t exists b tw e th hy n ip resen g e alan f ater a e en e d sp ere, th lith sp erea dth atm sp e is calledth h ro g cycle.

ro h e o h n e o h re e yd lo ic ) ) ) 3 Thep cess ofretu in soil m istu toth a o h reis calledtran iratio.

. ro rn g o re e tm sp e sp n ) ) ) 4. D tho servatio s areo ta e b so n in w ag d a dro.

ep b n b in d y u d g ith ra u te d ) ) ) 5 P itatio - g g m rem ts a g u in. recip n a e easu en re rad ally creasin inaccuracy.

g ) ) ) 6 A p rtio ofth p itatio p n tra gth g u dsu. o n e recip n e e tin e ro n rface a in s filtratio p n er co in th g u d lates to e ro n s.

) ) ) 7M. eltingsn wcancau aflo db tth mg itu eofsu aflo dis m d ra.

o se o u e a n d ch o o e te ) ) , ) 6 : ( ).

Lakes The character of lakes. Lakes are accu u m latio s of w in th ho w of th n ater e llo s e lan su d rface. Lakes are essentially n ral featu b t m h cre artificial lakes atu res, u an as ated w serve a reservoirs for d hich s rinking w irrig n orhyd ater, atio ro-electricity. Lakes vary w insh ea dsize. Shap ise, ho ever, m stlakes fall in tw typ idely ap n e-w w o to o es:

a) ap ro ately circular lakes, o p g d ressio s in fairly level areas, e.

p xim ccu yin ep n.g Lake V ictoria, th A S e ral ea.

b ) e n ate o fin erlakes, o p gvalleys o tro g s, e.g Lake W d ere, lo g d r g ccu yin r uh. in erm Lake Tan ang yika.

Lakes vary in size fro m p n s tovery larg stretch of w su a th m ere o d e es ater ch s e G Lakes ofN rthA ericaa dth C reat om n e aspianS ea.

N ral lakes w h th w d edb rivers arefresh b t if th y h atu hich ave eir aters rain y,u e ave n o tle su a th D Sea, th y accu u salts a dh saline w o u t, ch s e ead e m late n ave aters.

Rivers, springs and lakes. Lakes a p rely te p rary featu of th Earth re u mo res e 's su rface, so n r o later b m gfilled in w allu m O lake b s w th allu oe r eco in ith viu. ld ed ith eir vial soils a usu very fertile a d p vid first-class ag ltu lan, e.g th Vale re ally n ro e ricu ral d. e ofPickeringinYorkshire a dth "clayb lt" offo erLake A ne e rm gassiz inC ad an a.

The formation of lakes. Lakes a fo e in a variety of w re rmd ays, b t canb b u est e classified acco in toth m d of o in N rally fo e lakes m b saidtofall rd g eir o e rig. atu rmd ay e in th em g u s:

to re ain ro p a th seresu gfro e rthm ve e ts ofo ekin o a o e )o ltin m a o mn n d r n th r;

b o d e to th ero n of th lan su )th se u e sio e d rface, th re y creatin a d ressio in eb g ep n w ichw canaccu u h ater m late;

c) th se d e to d o n of so e kin fo in a b ou ep sitio m d rm g arrier b in w w reh d hich ate p n su.

od p . 1 ?

. 1 Lakes a accu u n ofw inth ho w of th lan su. re m latio s ater e llo s e d rface.

2 M h scre artificial lakes.

. an a ated 3 Lakes m d insize, sh p a db o in th ymyb artificial a dn tu l.

. ay iffer a e n y rig ;

e a e n a ra 4 O lakeb s areveryfertile.

. ld ed 5 Lakes a p relytem o featu ofth Earth's su. re u p rary res e rface.

6 N ral lakes m b fo edth u he rthm vem ts, ero nof th lan su. atu ay e rm ro g a o en sio e d r facea dd etod o nof so ekin fo in ab n u ep sitio m d rm g arrierb in w w p n s u.

eh d hich ater o d p 7 Lakes m vary insalinity a dte p ra re. ay n m e tu.

. 2 .

. , 1 Lakes areaccu u n of...

. m latio s 2 Sh e-w m stlakes fall in tw types:...

. ap ise o to o 3 Lakes canb b classifiedacco in to...

. est e rd g 4. O lakeb s areusually very fertilea dprovide...

ld ed n 5 N ral lakes arefresh b t if th h n o tle they...

. atu, u ey ave o u t, . 3 . :

- , - , - , - , - .

. 4 fresh salt, d k. :, rin in w r, stretch alluvium g ate es,.

1 Lakes servea reservo fo. s irs r.

2 Lakes vary insizefro m p n stoverylarge... ofw r.

. m ere o d ate 3 N ral lakes w havetheirw d e b rivers are...

. atu hich aters rain d y 4 Lakes w h n o tle are...

. hich ave o u t 5 Lakes are p rely tem o fe tu s of th Earth su. u p rary a re e 's rface, so n r o later b oe r e co in filledw mg ith...

. 5 . .

1 artificial lakes a ) ) 2 circular lakes 6 ) ) 3 elo g dlakes ) n ate ) 4 lakeb d e r) ) 5 alluvial so il ) ) 6 ero nofth lan su ) sio e d rface e ) 7do n ) ep sitio ) 8 d ressio ) ep n 3 ) 9 salinew ater ) ) 1 ) irrig n 0 atio ) . 6 . : reservoir, o tle lake, p n, d ressio, artificial.

u t, o d ep n 1 W o tfor w stre m. ay u ater, a.

2H. ollow su kp inth su of so eth g especially th g u d, n lace e rface m in, e ro n.

3 N t n ral orreal: b th a ofmn. o atu y e rt a.

4 Placew erew is sto d(o na artificial lake).

. h ater re fte n 5 Alarg sh e ofw w la d. e e t ater ithin n.

6 A p o ofstan in w eith n rallyo artificially en sed. ol d g ater, er atu r clo.

. 7 "The character ofLakes".

. . 8 . to have ?

1 W en sn wh a d p of several fee it h ld a g a a o n of w in.h o as e th t, o s re t m u t ater te p ra n ral sto g.

m o ry atu ra e 2 InP. akistansalts haveru ed36,000sq arekilo etres offield in u m s.

3 For its ap licatio toin o o e e u flowsystem D. p n h mg n o s s, arcy's lawh dtob fo a e r m late ind u d ifferen fo. tial rm 4 To efficiently utilize g u d ate w h tou d. ro n w r e ave n erstan w ere it co es fro dh mm a dw ereit g e nh o s.

5 Lakes h avery slig ran einlevel w ereth areaa do tle cap a. ave ht g h eir n u t acity re large.

6R. ecently d ital m d h b nd p toestim sn w elt ru o ig o els ave ee evelo ed ate o m n ff.

7 The u of atm mte h in. se o e rs as creased d rin recen years p ug t articu in th larly e fieldo ag ltu f ricu re.

. 9 " ", . :

It is assu edth tth a ais sm a du ifo insoil.

m a is re all n n rm This areais a mdtob sm a du ifo insoil.

ssu e e all n n rm 1 It is assu ed th t all m istu w w m is co cern o in fro. ma o re ith hich an n ed rig ates m atm sp eric m istu oh o re.

2 It is co sid th t h ro g cycleb in w th w ofth o s.

. n ered a yd lo ic eg s ith e ater e cean 3 It is kn w th tth flo is d. o n a e w erivedfro g u d a r.m ro n w te 4 It is likely th t artesianw h flu atio s th t ared etop reeffects.

. a ells ave ctu n a u ressu 5 It w believed th t th e rth w to im ervio s top it p n tra nof th. as a e a as o p u erm e e tio e rainw far b wth su ater elo e rface.

6 It is su p se th t w is aresid al p d ct of th slo so ificatio of th. p o d a ater u ro u e w lid n e m m.

ag a 7 It is saidth t p. a lastic flo is th distinctivecharacteristic ofg we laciers.

8 It is co sid th tth te "flo dco tro im lies co p co tro. n ered a e rm o n l p m lete n l.

. 1. " ", 0 :

kn, fin, exp saw w n like, h, feel.

ew d ect,, a t, eard 1.1... th mtob rig t.

e eh 2.1... himtob averyclever mn e a.

3.1... yo tom asp.

u ake eech 4.1... h cro th stre t.

im ss e e 5 W th mtoarriveso n. e... e o.

6.1d n't... yo tosay su th g o u ch in s.

7.1... so eb d call m.

m oy e 8 D you... th b g sh. id e rid e ake?

. 1. 1 one.

1 There w fro o etotw fe t ofsn wo th g u d. as m n oe o n e ro n.

2 O em safely exp th p ictio tob q itereliab. n ay ect is red n e u le.

3 N sp g m alsob cre o o o e p an tlya re.

. ew rin s ay e ated r ld n s erm en lte d 4 O e-fifthofth lan su w co.n e d rface as veredw icelateinPleiso Epoch.

ith cene 5 N p b s of flo dp te na createda do o e still rem.

. ew ro lem o ro ctio re n ld n s ain 6 The fo s of sn wo icecrystals areall varian ofth trian leo th h x g n. rm or ts e g r e e a o.

Crystographically, th a o e ey re n.

7 It is unlikelyth t an o eg u ew serveall req irem ts.

. a y n a g ill u en 8B. efore o e can stu y g u d a r flowu d n ral co d n th g o g n d ro n w te n er atu n itio s, e e lo y ofth flowm iu sh u b exam eda du d rsto d e ed m o ld e in n n e o.

VI 1 1. . .

1M. olecular attra nis effectivein... w in th soil u til th u p rp o ctio ater to e n e p e art f th soil b m w t.

e eco es e a topull ) b p llin )u g c) p lled u 2 In 1 4, after Lake Eyre h b e d fo th years, floodw. 99 ad e n ry r irty aters... fro far m aw inth n rth began... o its su ay e o -east ver rface.

a) co in mg b co es )m ) is co in mg a) sp in b sp s read g ) read c) is sp in read g 3 The very co m n su stan w m b b ken d w in elem ts a d. m o b ce ater ay e ro o n to en n th m b co b edb again... w te ese ay e m in ack a r.

a) fo s rm b fo ) rm c) fo in rm g 4. Theh ro g cyclem b considered... w th w ofth o s, yd lo ic ay e ith e ater e cean a b in ) eg b tob in ) eg c) b in eg s 5 In. filtratio of w in san s m be... to b g a r th n in n ater to d ay e re te a filtratio in n to clays.

a) ex ected b h ex e d p ) as p cte c) exp ect 6 The g u of p. ro p ractical mth d is b o o servatio s of p en m a... th e o s ased n b n h o en e flo ofg u d aterinn tu.

w ro n w a re a co tro )nl b co tro g ) n llin c) areco tro g n llin 7. W m p in th g u dw ater ay ass to e ro n ithout... th zo eofsa ra n en tu tio, a reach ) ed b h s reach )a ed c) reach g in 8... lake areas m in. ay creaseevap ratio a dp itatio, o n n recip n a in ) creasin b is in g ) creasin g c) in crease 2. - .

1 Floods m occuryearlyo evenm refreq en. ay r o u tly.

) ) ) 2 River d arg d taw havetob an. isch e a ill e alysedth ro g ly.

o uh ) ) ) 3 An extrao in sto canoccur, a dyet p d celittleru o. rd ary rm n ro u n ff, ) ) ) 4. Q an u tities ofw g in th u hind ual seq en ofth h ro g cycle ater o g ro g ivid u ces e yd lo ic canb evalu by th h ro g e u nw is asim lew te u g teq atio d e ated e yd lo ic q atio hich p a rb d e u n e finingth p cess.

e ro ) ) ) 5A. nnual rainfall sh u b m reda m yp in o ld e easu t an o ts.

) ) ) 6 In th n t to d t fu re mn actio s w b ab toin ce fu re cli. e o o istan tu a 's n ill e le fluen tu mte a.

) ) ) 7 Thean u flowd tam stb ta e in co sid. n al a u e k n to n eratio. n ) ) ) 8N. early co stan cap reach to ardth e dof arainm a p achzero n t acity ed w en ay p ro, .) ) ) .

3.

Tw g eral co d n of g u d ate o rren a reco n : 1 w ta o en n itio s ro n -w r ccu ce re g ized ) ater b 01*u co fin co d n in w th w is u d atm sp eric p re, a d le n n ed n itio s hich e ater n er o h ressu n ) artesian o co fin co d n in w ich th w is u d r p re p d ce b a r n ed n itio s h e ater n e ressu ro u d y n overlying im ervio s co fin g layer. In m y areas follo in h p u n in an w g eavy rain o in th r e sp g of th year a p e w ta le m exist a o e th m w tab Su a rin e erch d ater b ay b v e ain ater le. ch co d n w is g erally tem o is p d ced b th p ce of relatively im n itio, hich en p rary, ro u y e resen p u layers ab v th w ta le ervio s o e e ater b.

:

4.

1 m istu ) o re ) - ? ^ * ):n p a ) ) 2 evap ratio ) on ) ) ) erco n ) 3 p latio ) ) ) 4) ch n an el ) ) 5 ru -o ) n ff ) ) ) ) 6) aq ifer u ) ) 7 w r-tab ) ate le ) ) ) ) 8 sa ra n ) tu tio ) ) ) 9 artificial ) ) ) ) 1 ) lake ) ) 5. : reg e of im river;

aq ifer;

g u d ate zo eofaeratio ;

w r-tab.

u ro n w r;

n n ate le 1 W is p se teveryw ereinth soil, su so a db ro su w. ater re n h e b il n ed ck: ch ater is kn w as...

on 2 The seaso al variatio s inth vo m of w of ariver fo th...

. n n e lu e ater rm e 3 Aw. ater-h ld gb dofrockis called an...

o in e 4. Theu p zo ew h s air-filledp res is called...

p er n hich a o 5. The u p su ofth zo esatu nis called...

p er rface e n ratio 6. , .

a (l)W (2)is (3 o. ater )evap rated (4 e (5)su.

)th n b y b (l)and (2 e (3)w d (4)O (5)lan (6 sp n. )th in. n d )tran iratio from c. (l)plants (2 d (3 o n (4 e (5)soil (6 d )an )evap ratio )th )an from d (l)w. ater (2)su rfaces (3 d (4)w (5)vap u (6 e (7)air to )ad s ater o r )th e. (l)Spring (2)w (3 s (4)stream (5)even ally ater )feed s tu w hich f. (l)reach (2 e (3)sea. (4)The (5)g )th reatest (6 m u t )a o n of g (l)g. roundw (2)co es (3)atm sp eric (4 recip n ater m oh )p itatio. from I I I. TELEPHONE 1 . :

receiver - /hang on;

hold on;

hold the line - , / coin - j newsagent's - phonecard - ( ) put through - get through - switch board operator - extension - \poor line;

bad connection - / /) / \ speak up - / 'go ahead - , ^ 2 . :

1 Youcanm a in atio al call o fro BritishTelecomp o e. ake n tern n nly m h n s.

2. If yo d n w ttob yap o ecardyo canm acall fro aM u o t an u h n u ake m ercury p o e h n.

3 Youcanb y ap. u lastic p o ecarda th n sag ts a dso eo e sh p hn t e ew en n m th r o s.

PUBLIC TELEPHONES There are tw te p o e co p ies in Britain. The b g co p y is British o le h n m an ig est m an Telecoma dth o e co p yis calledM n e th r m an ercury.

All M ercury p o e arecardp o es. Youn e ap h ns hn e d lasticcardfo th p o e You r is h n.

canb y ap o ecarda n sag ts a dso eo e sh p Theyco 2, 4, 10o 20.

u hn t ew en n m th r o s. st r British Telecomp o e are b th coin p o e a d card p o e You p t m n h ns o h ns n h n s. u o ey in acoinp o e Them im mch eis 1 p You canm en n or in atio al to h n. in u arg 0. ak atio al tern n calls fro an p b te p o e m y u lic le h n.

3 . .

TELEPHONE CALLS 1 Id tifyin an m e. en g u b r.

M akingan rm call, yo id tify th n m er a so na yo g t th u h u less it is a o al u en e u b s o s u e ro g, n n m eryo ringfreq en a dfo w yo reco n th an erin vo ub u u tly n r hich u g ise e sw g ice.

For exam le: H Is th t eig t-th p ello! a h ree-five-o -six-seven(835-067)? W enth n m h h eu b is evid tlyw n, d n ask W at n m eris it? er en ro g o t h ub Ask instead: Ts th M 234-561? is ain 2 O en gate p o eco versatio.

. p in le h n n n Youm say : C /co ldI h aw rdw Jan ay an u ave o ith e?

M I sp toJan p ay eak e, lease?

Is Tomin p, lease?

Excuse m, areyo M Black?

e u r.

Is th t p st-o a o ffice?

If yo reco n th voice a th o e e dyo say: H Tom u g ise e t e th r n u ello, !

Tom is th t yo, a u?

W u th tb M Black, b a ychance?

o ld a e r. yn 3R. eceivingatelep o ecall.

hn W en th p o e ring yo pick u th receiver a d g yo o n n m e The h e hn su pe n ive ur w u b r.

caller id tifies yo a d p b ly th n g h er n e If th caller is kn w to en u n ro ab e ives is/h am. e on yo, yo m resp n th s:

u u ay o d u O, hello To !

h,m H d aello, e r!

H M Black!

ello, r.

A g n an ertoyo r telep o ecall is: Sp g e eral sw u hn eakin.

H Jan Jackso is sp in.

ello, e n eak g :This is Jan.e If itis aw n n m e yo say:

ro g u b r, u I th kyouveg t aw n n m er.

in o ro g u b W n n m e ro g u b r.

If th p ncalledis o t, yo say:

e erso uu ImafraidTomis o t a th m mn C yo rin b a a o t e h oclock, d u t e o e t. ould u g ack t b u ig t o yo th k?

u in Tomisntin Ill askhimtoringyo.

. u H go /h ldo am mn Ill h alo k if h is in. H out. Can I takeam an n o n o e t. ave o e es es sag o w yo ringlater?

e r ill u H isntavailab a th m mn Ill tell himyo ran.

e le t e o e t. ug H just g n o t. If youdliketoleaveyo r n m e Ill askhimtocall yo b es oe u u u b r, u ack.

4 Closingatelep o eco versatio.

. hn n n At th e dof te p o e co versatio, it is n en le h n n n ecessary to say so e w rd im lyin th t m os p g a yo w tofinishth co versatio. If yo areth caller yo m say:

u ish en n u e u ay Idb tte letyo g.

er uo Thanks fo yo r tim r u e.

I kn wyo a b sy, soIll let yo g.

o u re u uo Itsb e g o talkingtoyo.

en od u If yo a th p nb gcalledyo m say:

u re e erso ein u ay W th k forcalling. Let m kn wif I canb o a yfu erh.

ell, an s eo e f n rth elp ImafraidI d n h tim totalk I ap reciateyo r calling.

o t ave e.p u 5B. usiness calls.

The la g a eu dinb sin calls b p o ed n u g se u ess y h n iffers so ew at fro th lan u eu d m h m e g ag se inp rivatecalls. R th d g es ead ese ialo u a} With the switch-board operator.

S itch o o e to H w atn m e p w -b ard p ra r: ello, h u b r, lease?

Caller:Its 6 -8.

Sw -b ardo e to Imsorry? C yo g m th t ag ?

itch o p ra r: ould u ive e a ain Caller: I w t63-86. Thankyo.

an u Sw -b ard o e to H o, p itch o p ra r: old n lease. Imp ttin yo th u h Imso th re u g u ro g. rry, e s n rep o ly.

Caller: Thankyo. G o b u o d ye.

Sw -b ardo erato H N m er, p itch o p r: ello? u b lease?

Caller: 65-87, exten n2.

sio Sw -b ard o era r: H o th line, p itch o p to old n e lease. Youre th u h n w G a e d ro g o. o h a, please.

Caller: Thankyo.u b) With the secretary.

Secretary: H M Brow o ello, r. ns ffice. W at canI d for yo h o u?

Caller: CanI sp toM B n, p eak r. row lease?

Secretary: W ois calling?

h Caller: ItsM Jackson.

r.

Secretary: P ttin yo th u h G a e d p u g u ro g. o h a, lease.

Secretary: M Brow secretary. CanI h yo r. ns elp u?

Caller: Idlike tosp toM G o eak r. reg ry.

Secretary: Sorry. W n n m er. I d n kn wan n b th tn eh re ro g u b o t o yo e y a am e.

Caller: Imvery so rry.

Secretary: B na dCo. W ois calling?

row n h Caller: This is M G o C yo p tm th u htoM B n, p r. reg ry. ould u u e ro g r. row lease?

Secretary: M Brow is o t. W yo leaveam e?

r. n u ill u essag Caller: C yo sp u, p ould u eak p lease? I canh lyh yo.

ard ear u Secretary: Sorry, Its averyp o line. Isnt th tb or a etter?

Caller: Yes, th kyo.

an u Secretary: Imafraid M B n isnt in th office a th m mn I d n exp, r. row e t e o e t. o t ect himinu til M n aym rn g CanI tak am e?

n o d o in. e essag Caller: N th ks. Ill p o ehimn Tuesd G o b o, an hn ext ay. o d ye.

4:

1 3 . .

2 . , , , .

3 :

. ;

) ) ;

) .

II SHOPPING 1 . :

do the shopping;

go shopping , change - ;

, changing-room - pound - store - department - department store - coin - note (banknote) - shop-assistant - customer - wrap - // cost - goods - dairy products - bakers - chemists (shop) - fishmongers - butchers - grocers - 2 . .

British money There are a h n re p ce (p in a p u d (). Coins: 5 p (o a 5 p ce co u d d en ) on 0 r 0 en in), 2 p , 5, 2, lp a do ep u dco (1). N tes: 50 (o a5 p u dn te), 10,, 0, p p n n o n in o r 0 on o.

5.85= p u d eig five o n s hty-fivep ceo fiveeig ty-five.

en r h American money There are a h n re p n o cen (c) in a d llar ($). Coins: 25c (a q a r), u d d en ies r ts o u rte 1 c (a d e), 5c (a nickel), lc. N tes: $100, $50, $20, $10, $, $. $ 7 5 tw ty 0 im o 5 1 2.8 = en sevend llars eig o hty-fivecen o tw ty-seveneig ty-five.

ts r en h Stores, Department Stores and Supermarkets A sto is ap w ere g o s areso ;

it is alarg sh p(a clo in sto, afur re lace h o d ld eo th g re n re sto, ag cery sto ). A d p rtmn sto is alarg sh pw m y d p rtmn itu re ro re e a e t re e o ith an e a e ts fo d r ifferen kind of g o s (e.g afo dd p rtmn a m s clo in d p rtmn etc.).

t s o d. o e a e t, en th g e a e t, S m p p d n like su e ark ts a d b sto s. They p o e eo le o t p rm e n ig re refer th sm sh p e aller o s, w ereyo g tp n service.

h u e erso al You can b y d p d cts (m cream ch u airy ro u ilk,, eese) a th dairy, fruit a dv g ta te n ee ;

bles a th g g cers, b a drolls a th b t e reen ro read n t e akers, fish a th fish o g ma t e m n ers, e t a d sau es a th b tch '. In England a chem sh p sells m icin to arti n sag t e u ers ists o ed es, ilet cles a dso etim o e th g su a film a dcam n m es th r in s, ch s s n eras.

3 . .

C sto er: Excuse m Idlike ap ofjean um e. air s.

Sh p o -assistan Thejeans areo th re W at size d yo take?

t: ver e. h ou C m Tw ty-eig t.

usto er: en h S o -assistan W areyo lo kin for ap hp t: ell, uog articu co ur?

lar lo C sto er: Yes, b e.

um lu Sh p o -assistan W at a o tth t: h b u ese?

C sto er: CanI tryth mo ?

um en S o -assistan Yes, ach g g o is o th re hp t: an in -ro m ver e.

C sto er: H yo g tb g inan x size?

u m ave u o ig er et S o -assistan In a30? N, Imso But w sh u h so em reinaw hp t: o rry. e o ld ave m o eek.

C m Thanks. Ill try ag th n usto er: ain e.

S o -assistan CanI h you?

hp t: elp C sto er: Excusem Idlike afilmfo m cam um e, r y era.

S o -assistan H m yexp su hp t: ow an o res?

C sto er: Sorry? W at d e exp su m ?

um h o s o re ean S o -assistan H m yp res? 1, 2 o 36?

hp t: ow an ictu 2 4r C sto er: 24, p um lease. H m chd es itco ow u o st?

S o -assistan Thatll b tw p u d n etyn e.

hp t: e o o n s in in C sto er: Canyo ch g a2 p u dn te?

um u an e 0 o n o Sh p o -assistan Yes, su H yo r ch n e t: rely. eres u a g.

C sto er: Thankyo.

um u 4 . :


1 W yo canb yth seth g. here u u e in s?

ab ) iscuits a dsw n eets a) to sh p yo b aCD, reco s ) rd b m sh p co sh p ) usic o /re rd o c) aloaf ofbread c) travel ag ts en d ap eticket ) lan d chem ) ists e) sta p a dp st-card ms n o s e) p stoffice o f) toys f) bakers g atu eofto th a a dato th ru )b o p ste n o b sh g sw sh p ) eet o 2 W at canyo b ya the...?

.h uu t a) bakers a) atap e-reco er, areco -p rd rd layej b g cers ) ro b ma sau es ) e t, sag c) b tch u ers c) rolls a db a n re d d fishm n ers ) og d m cream ch ) ilk,, eese e) g g cers reen ro e su ar, salt, sp flo r, rice )g ices, u f) dairy f) fish g veg les, fru ) etab it g rad sh p ) io o 5 . .

Baker: G o m rn g W at canI d fo yo o d o in. h o r u?

C sto er:...

um Baker: B nb a o w iteb ?

row re d r h read C m...

usto er:

Baker: H wm ylo w u yo like?

o an aves o ld u C sto er:...

um Baker: Shall I w it u o p t it inap rap p r u lasticb ?

ag C sto er:...

um Useful exp ressio s:

n ab ttleof m /w o ilk ater/ju il/vin ar ice/o eg acanofle o ad ca-co eer m n e/co la/b atinofma it/sa in s e t/fru rd e ajar ofjam o ey/co /h n ffee ap acket ofte /cig re s/b its a a tte iscu ab of su ar/flo r ag g u acarto ofcre /so r-cre n am u am ab ofch co ar o late ab xofm es o atch aloaf ofb a re d atu eof to th a b o p ste ab ofso p ar a 6 . :

1m ) ilk a tu e )b 2) su ar g b)box 3 te )a ) can 4 lem n e ) o ad dp e ) ack t 5 to th a ) o p ste e) b ttleo 6 m es ) atch f)bag 1 TRAVELLING BY PLANE 1 . :

air traffic controller - check-in - ;

to land - announcement - customs - baggage / luggage - hand baggage - single / one-way ticket - return ticket - ;

arrival hall - departure lounge - departure gate - waiting room - aisle seat - boarding card - 2 . .

ENGLISH-THE INTERNATIONAL LANGUAGE OF THE AIR To ay m d illions of p p travel b p e. InA erica m rep p travel b p n eo le y lan m o eo le y la e th nb train b se it is su a b co n In Eu p m st flig ts a in rn n a y, ecau ch ig u try. ro e o h re te atio al flig b se th co n are m ch sm English is th in atio al lan u eo hts, ecau e u tries u aller. e tern n g ag f th air. All p ts h tosp English soth to e p ts a dair traffic co tro can e ilo ave eak a th r ilo n n llers u d rstan th m So, w en a G p e lan s in Sp, th p t a d th air traffic ne d e. h reek lan d ain e ilo n e co tro w talktoeacho e inEnglish. All check-inclerks m st sp Englisha d n llers ill th r u eak n all an o n mn o p es m st b g inEnglish. For exam le, if ap eis trav n u ce e ts n lan u e iven p lan ellingfro G an toFranceth an o n mn w b g inG an Frencha d m erm y e n u ce e ts ill e iven erm, n English.

Britains th em airp rts a n Lo d n The b g is H ro, w ich is re ain o re ear n o. ig est eath w h w of Lo d n The b g airp rt o tsid Lo d n is M ch est no. ig est o u e n o an ester. Britains b g ig est airline is British Airw b t th re are a lo of sm airlines, to, like Virgin Air ays, u e t aller o wD ays, anair a dBritishM land n id.

Dialogues TRAVEL AGENCY A en CanI h yo g t: elp u?

M H n Is it p ssib toch g eretu flig t o th ticket?

r. u t: o le an eJ:h rn h n is A en Imso Its a sj^mQare, yo see, a dyo cant ch g th retu flig t. It g t: rry. u nu an e e rn h w u co a ex Q.

o ld st n tra 2 M H n Thats a p I cant affo it. So I w n b ab tostay lo g Ill h to r. u t: ity. rd o t e le n er. ave g b o M n ay.

o ack n o d CUSTOM S Im ig nofficer: Are yo British?

m ratio u M H n Yes. ImBritish.

r. u t:

Im ig nofficer: H yo g t ap o sir?

m ratio ave u o assp rt, M H n Ju am u Its inth b. H it is.

r. u t: st in te. e ag ere Im ig nofficer: Thankyo.

m ratio u C sto s officer: H yo g t an in tod um ave u o yth g eclare?

M Hn N,Ihvn r. u t: o a e 't.

C sto s officer: Thankyo, sir.

um u M H n H D I checkinh fo M i?

r. u t: ello. o ere r iam Check-inclerk: Yes. CanI h yo rticket a dyo r p o p ave u n u assp rt, lease?

M H n H yo a.

r. u t: ere u re Check-inclerk: Thankyo. H m yp ofb g g areyo ch u ow an ieces ag a e u eckingin?

M H n Ju th to e. This is h n b g a e r. u t: st a n a d a gg.

Check-inclerk: Imso its allo edtota eo ly o ep of h n b g g o b a.

rry, w k n n iece a d ag a e n o rd H is alab fo yo r h n b g a e D yo w t sm kin o n n o gsectio ?

ere el r u a d a g g. o u an o g r o -sm kin n M Hn Nn o g p r. u t: o -sm kin, lease. Idlikeaw d wseat, if youveg to e in o o n.

Check-inclerk: Imso all th w d wse ts areta e. D yo w t a aisle seat?

rry, e in o a k n o u an n M H n Yes, all rig t.

r. u t: h Check-in clerk: Heres yo r b ard gcard B ard g w b a 1.4 a d p rtu g te u o in. o in ill e t 0 5 t e a re a n m er2. H aniceflig t.

u b 0 ave h M H n Thankyo.

r. u t: u 2 :

. ;

;

9.50;

;

7.

3. ( th check-in d th p e;

th p o co tro b g g re ): e esk;

e lan e assp rt n l;

ag a e claim th arrival hall;

th d p rtu lo n e;

w gro m ;

e e e a re u g aitin o.

IV _ ' ;

,. TRAVELLING BY TRAIN 1 . :

departure time - arrival time - destination - timetable - Information Office - ticket office/boarding office - fare - , booking office - to catch a train - to miss a train - notice board - 2. .

INFORM ATIONOFFICE A: G o m rn g Canyo tell m th tim oftrain b fro G o d o in. u e e es s ack m lasgo, please?

: A o n even g W end yo w t toco eb ftern o, in ? h o u an m ack?

A: A o 5oclockth a rn o.

b ut is fte o n B: Theres atrainth tleaves a 4.30 a dth a o e o ea 5.20.

a t n eres n th r n t A: A w at tim d th yg t in?

nd h eo e e B: At 7.15 a d8 n.2.

A: Thanks alo t.

TICKET OFFICE A: H Idlike aticket toLeeds, p ello. lease.

B: Singleo retu ?

r rn A: R rn p etu, lease.

: D retu o p dretu ?

ay rn r erio rn A: I w t toco eb th even g an m ack is in.

B: So, ad re rn H d yo w ttopay?

ay tu. ow o u an A: Cash, p lease.

B: Fo rty-eig p u d fifty, p ht o n s lease. H eres yo r ch g a dyo r ticket.

u an e n u A: Thankyo. u 3 2 . .

4 .

. ANNOUNCEM ENT This is aBritishRail a n u ce e t.

n o n mn Thetrainfro N castle arrives o p rm8a 08.30. Thetrainfro Ed b rg a m ew n latfo t m in u h r rives o p rm6a 08.35. Thetrainis fo m u la.

n latfo t rty in tes te NOTICE BOARDS d p rtu s e a re arrivals fro m p rm tim latfo e rem ark d atio p rm tim estin n latfo e N castle ew 8 08.30 o tim ne H rt ertfo 1 0. Ed b rg in u h 6 08.35 d 40m s elay in A er th follo ingq estio s:

nsw e w u n 1 W d e th trainfro N castlearrive?

. hen o s e m ew 2 W at trainarrives o p rm6?

.h n latfo 3 D es th trainfro Ed b rg arriveo tim.o e m in u h n e?

4. ThetraintoH rt leaves a 08.25, d esn it?

ertfo t o t 5 , . , , .

AT THE RAILWAY STATION Jan H M Black. W n t late, a w e: ello, r. ere o re e?

M Black: H Jan. N, yo a n t la. I w alittleearly.

r. ello, e o u re o te as Jan W end e th trainleave?

e: h o s e M Black: It leaves a fo rtw ty-seven If w h rry, w b ab tocatchit.

r. t u en. eu ell e le Jan Is it a exp e: n ress?

M Black: N, its asto p gtra.

r. o p in in Jan Shall I b yth tickets, M Black?

e: ue r.

M Black: O, yes. I fo o a o t th m Theres th b o go r. h rg t b u e. e o kin ffice.

Jan D y ukn wh wm chth fareis?

e: o o o o u e M Black: 1 p u d fo asing ticket a d1 p u d fo aretu. B askfo aw r. 0 ons r le n 5 ons r rn ut r eek e dre rn T at m h b ch er. Ask fo atimtab, to. Youll n e it o Su d n tu. h ig t e eap r e le o e d n n ay.

Jan All rig t. Ill me yo a th en cetoth p tfo. W p rmis o rs?

e: h e t u t e tran e la rm hich latfo u M Black: P rmsixteen Ill tak yo r su r. latfo. e u itcase. W o eis yours?

hich n Jan That o eis m e.

e: n in I i right or wrong?

st a Thetra leaves a fo r tw ty-seven ) in t u en. ^ b Jan a dM Black w late;


th ym th traina dh dtow fo th n o e ) e n r. ere e issed e na ait r e ext n.

c) M Blackb u h tw retu tickets.

r. o g t o rn d Jan a dM Black mt a th en cetoth p rmsixteen ) e n r. e t e tran e latfo.

e M Blackto kJan su ) r. o es itcasetoth p tfo.

e la rm V WEATHER-I 1 :

. unpredictable - y jQ Su.

& wet - , ^, quite the wrong clothes - to be wet to the skin - umbrella - weather map - mist- ^ e\. fog - fine - overcast - W ^ weather forecast - weather s t l i e - , .*, aelts Meteorological Office - 2 . .

Weather in Britain The w erinB eath ritaincanb very u p ictab It ch g very quickly. P p e n red le. an es eo le w oco efro h tco n o nfin th t it is to co o w tfor th m TheEnglish h m m o u tries fte d a o ld r e e.

o nsay th t th yh n clim b t on w er. English p p o nb intalkin fte a e ave o ate u ly eath eo le fte eg g a o t w er w enth yme eacho e b u eath h e e t th r.

D g es ialo u 1 A: W at is th w ath liketo ay?

) h e e er d : Its b co o tsid. Theseareq iteth w n clo es fo su w ath r.

itter ld u e u e ro g th r ch e e 2 A: D es it lo klikerain?

) o o B: It certainly d e You sh u takea u b w y u o s. o ld n m rella ith o.

3 A: Is it g in torain?

) og : I h p n t, th u hit lo ks like rain Therea m yd clo d inth sky a da oe o og o. re an ark u s e n co w is b w g ld ind lo in.

4) A: Its aniced to ay isntit?

ay d, B: It certainly is. N t aclo dinth sky, b t 3 C (d g e C tig e) is to h t.

o u e u0 e re s en rad oo 3 , . , .

1 a) Thew erinB. eath ritainch g quickly.

an es b English p p d n like totalka o t w ath r.

) eo le o t bu e e c) Thew erinB eath ritaincanb p ictedeasily.

e red d The w erinBritainis to h tan w t.

) eath oo d e 2 , . . .

rain, drizzle * sn w o A hail =m ist = fo g fine o vercast W clo y, su n d co.

et, ud n y, ry, ld 4 . . Thew erfo eath recast a) In rm nis co fo atio llectedb w er statio s.

y eath n b Thew erfo ) eath recast is b ad o TV.

ro cast n c) A w erfo eath recast is w.ritten d A w ermpis d n ) eath a raw.

e Thein rm na dth p o g p s a receivedb th M ro g O ) fo atio n e h to ra h re y e eteo lo ical ffice co p te m u r.

f) P o g h areta e b w ersatellites.

h to rap s k n y eath g Thein rm nis se ttoth M ro g O ) fo atio n e eteo lo ical ffice.

h Thein rm nis so db co p ter.

) fo atio rte y m u VI W EATH ER-II 1 . :

records - warning - heavy rain - flood - , ;

message - accident - ;

junction - ;

shower - cancellation - delay - mph = miles per hour - 2 .

. THE WORST STORM SINCE RECORDS WERE STARTED Last n h So ig t uth-East Eng land w h b th w rst sto sin reco s w re as it y e o rm ce rd e sta d Tw ty p p w killed b th h rrican rce w d H n red of h u s rte. en eo le ere y eu e-fo in s. u d s o se ww ere reckedb w d of u to 1 0m h T o san s of p p arew o t te p o e y in s p 1 p. h u d eo le ith u le h n s.

R ad a drailw lines w b ckedbytre s a dm ycars w cru ed o sn ay ere lo e n an ere sh.

N w in w g b th M ro g O o arn g as iven y e eteo lo ical ffice. The laten h w er fo ig t eath re cast is usually reco ed early in th even g A th t tim th sto w e p cte to rd e in. t a e e rm asnt x e d h En lan. But a o t m n h it ch g d its d it g d b u id ig t an e irectio a d m vedn rth The stro g nn o o. n w d h b e fo w b h rain a dm y p rts of th so tha dw a still in s ave e n llo ed y eavy n an a e u n est re flo d d oe.

D ialogue M H n Thew erfo r. u t: eath recast hasntb ng yet, h it?

ee iven as M H n I d n th kso I haven h a it y t.

rs. u t: o t in. t e rd e M H n Turnth rad u, p r. u t: e io p lease. Therell p b lyb arep rt in afewm u s. Its ro ab e o in te a o o eoclock.

lm st n A n u cer: N w h is a special m e. O th A5 in B ckin ham non o ere essag n e u g shire, w ereh stro g w d h b w several tre s o to th ro, driving is very d n e u Ac n in s ave lo n e n e ad a g ro s.

co in to o r rep rts, th re h b several accid ts: a m d d w en a tre fell rd g u o e ave een en an ie h e a dcru edhis car. The accid t h p e e a th junctionofth A a dth A a o t n sh en a p n d t e e 5 n e 43, b u six m n rthofB cking. D iles o u ham rivers aread visedtoavo th a a sin th traffic is id is re ce e veryh a dd eavy n elays ofu to3 m u s aree p cte.

p 0 in te xe d A dn wh is th w er fo n o ere e eath recast fo th n tw ty-fo r h u u til m d r e ext en u o rs n id ay to o w Rain w co tin e in all areas u til late to ig t b t w d aw g u m rro. ill n u n n h u ill ie ay rad ally.

T m rro w b sh w a db h p d T p res w b b e nse e te n o o w ill e o ers n rig t erio s. em eratu ill e etw e v n e a de h e d rees C tig e. That is sixty-th a dsixty-sevend g e Fah h n ig te n eg en rad ree n e re s ren eit.

M H n Isntth tterrible? D yo th kits safetofly?

r. u t: a o u in M H n If th p es are still flying, Imsu its safe. They n fly w en th y rs. u t: e lan re ever he kn wth an d n e o eres y a g r.

M H n P ap w o g t top o eth a o r. u t: erh s e u h h n e irp rt.

M H n Ivealread d n th t. Thereh b e n can rs. u t: y oe a ave e n o cellatio a dn d ns n o elays y t.

e M H n Yet? W at d e th tm ?

r. u t: h o s a ean M H n The p es haveb ntak goff o th tim b t if th b dw er co tin es r. u t: lan ee in n e eu e a eath n u so ed m elays aree p.

x ected M H n I d h p o r flig w n b d r. u t: o o e u ht o t e elayed.

3 2 . :

1 W at w th m st serio s resu ofth sto ?

. h as e o u lt e rm 2 W w tth p p w ed. hy eren e eo le arn ?

3 W at tra sp rt p b s w cau byth sto ?

. h n o ro lem ere sed is rm 4. H yo everb inasto like this?

ave u een rm 4 , . , .

1 The w er fo. eath recast fo th n tw ty-fo r h u w re o d a half p r e ext en u o rs as p rte t ast twelve.

2 Thew erw ex ectedtob m w rseinth n tw ty-fo rh u. eath as p eco e o e ext en u o rs.

3 Thetraffic w veryh. asnt eavy.

4. Eig teend reesC tig eis e u l tosixty-sevend g e Fah h h eg en rad q a e re s ren eit 5 M H n w su it w safetofly.

. rs. u t as re as 6 M H n p o e th a o. r. u t h n d e irp rt.

7 Their flig w d. ht as elayed.

5 .

. 1 W at w th w erlike th td. h as e eath a ay?

2W w d. hy as rivingvery d n e u th t d a g ro s a ay?

3 Thetraffic w veryheavy, w it?

. as asnt 4. W at accid ts w re o dinth sp m e?

h en ere p rte e ecial essag 5 W at h h p e e o th A5 inB. h as a p n d n e ucking shire? t ham VII j/ DIRECTIONS \J 1 . : I on the right - to the right - straight - opposite - turn left/take a l f turning - et turn right/take a right turning - t a f c lights - rfi cross the road - go back/return the way you came/retrace your steps - at the crossroads - to be l s,to loose one way - ot s to take a wrong bus - 2 . .

1.

A: Excuse m, p e lease. I thin Imlo H wcanI g t toth n k st. o e e earestb s sto ?

up B: W straig t alo gth stre t a dth ntu toth rig t. Inless th nfivem u s yo alk h n e e n e rn e h a in te u w se it.

ill e xr- J"y r iL A: Thankyo verym ch u u.

: You arew m G I w ab toh. ^, elco e. lad as le elp r' 2, A: Is th reap st officen here? Idlike tob y so esta p eo ear u m m s.

B: Yes, th reis. Itsjust o th reo th o p sitesid ofth stre t. B Imafraidits e ver e n e p o e e e ut clo.

sed A: Is it o e to o w p n m rro ?

B: Su re.

A: W at tim d e it o en h e os p ?

B: It o e s a n e, I th k.

p n t in in A: Th ks.

an B: A tim.

ny e 3 A: Excuse m, canyo tell m w ereth n are chem is?

e u eh e e st ists B: Yes, g alo gth stre t. Taketh th tu in o th left a dits a th e dofth o n is e e ird rn g n e n t en e stre t o th rig t.

ene h A: H wlo gd e it taketog tth o n os e ere?

B: 2 m u Youdb tte tak ab s. C th stre ttoth o e sid a dyoull se a 0 in tes. e r e u ross e e e th r e n e b s sto n th sch o u p ear e o l.

A: Than alo ks t.

4.

\ A: Excusem I to kth w n b s. W is th sh rte w toth u d t-g u dsta e, o e ro g u hich e o st ay e n e ro n y tio ? n B: Take an m er 2tra.

ub m A: H wlo gd e it taketog t toth sto ?

o n os e ep :^ inutes. C n u straig t a e d m o tin e h ha.

\ 3 . .

4. , , (p , , o lice statio ), n . :

Excusem canyo tell m th w to...

e, u e e ay H wcanI g tto...

o e H wlo gd e it tak tog tto...

o n os ee Is this...?

D es th b s g to o is u o.

V III GREETIN GS AND INTRODUCTIONS 1 :

. GREETINGS Formal Informal H wd yo d ?- o o uo !

H wareyou? - o ? H - i! !

G o m rn g - !

o d o in ! H (H - 1 ello! allo). !

G o a rn o ! - o d fte o n ! 2. G o even g - o d in ! !

INTRODUCTIONS Formal Let m introduce... ...

e Informal M m friend... eet y ...

SAYING GOOD-BYE Formal G o -b - !

o d ye! Seeyo so n Seeyo ag ! Seeyo later! - !

u o! u ain u Informal Seeyo ! Solo g - !

u n! name;

Christian name;

f r tname - is surname, la t name, family name - s f l name - ul I ' nice to meet you - ts I was nice to meet you - t I'm pleased to meet you - 2 . .

1.

- G o a rn o, M S ith o d fte o n r. m.

- G o a rn o, M W ite. H wareyo o d fte o n rs. h o u?

- Very w th k H a yo ell, an s. ow re u?

- 1a all rig t, th ks. I w ttoin d cem frien, M G, toyo.

m h an an tro u y d r. reen u - H d yo d, M G. P ow o u o r. reen leasedtome yo. et u - H d yo d, M W ite. I a p ow o u o rs. h m leasedtome y u et o.

2.

- W o is th t y u gm o th h a o n an ver ere?

- Theo einth d b esu n e ark lu it?

- Yes, d yo kn whim ouo ?

- Very w in e d That is M B w.

ell d e. r. ro n - C yo in d cem tohim ould u tro u e ?

- Yes, su M B n, let m in d ceM H n toyo.

re. r. row e tro u r. u t u - H d yo d, M B w N tome y u ow o u o r. ro n. ice e t o.

- H d yo d, M H n I a very p ow o u o r. u t. m leasedtome yo.

et u 3.

- H Jan me m sister P ela.

ello, e, e t y am - H n tome yo, P ela.

ello, ice e t u am - N tome yo, Jan.

ice e t u e 3 . .

;

1. W at is yo r n e?

h u am 2. W d yo live?

here o u 3. W ered yo w h o u ork?

4. W at a yo h re u?

5. Is th yo r first visit toSain etersb rg is u t-P u?

6. H wd yo like ith oou ere?

7. Are yo o b sin h u n u ess ere?

4 :

.

1 I w t toin d ceafrien ofm e.

. an tro u d in 2 You area ap yo r frien in d ces yo toth g e. t arty, u d tro u u e u sts.

3 You area a in. t n terview.

IX HOTEL 1 :

. to stay at a hotel;

to put up at a hotel - to check in - reception - ( ) reception desk - a room - ^ a s i t- (/&';

/.

tt a single room - ,,j j j J j t " a double room - Al f c l t e - ( ) ;

' aiiis arrange beforehand - ( ) to book a room - to fl in a form - il permanent address - a key - a suitcase- durationofstay- tochange- lu g e- g ag /iA/l/-A- Ufj f acharge- 2 . .

Holiday Arrangements If yo g fo yo r h lid yo m st arran e everyth gb re yo g o atrip u o r u o ays u u g in efo u o n.

H a w rd w yo r travel a e t a dp yo r vacatio. You can p t u a ah te ave o ith u g n n lan u n u pt ol b t yo sh u m yo r reservatio s b reh d The h tels in all larg cities of an u u o ld ake u n efo an. o e y co n usually in e th follow facilities: b th or sh w televisio, ro mp o u try clud e ing a o er, n o h nes, air co d n g cen h a g n itio in, tral e tin.

Dialogues 1.

G o a rn o. M n eis M B n. CanI havearo mb o e inm n e?

o d fte o n y am r. row o o k d y am G o a rn o. M Brow Ju am u Ill checkth t. Yes, yo r ro mis 615.

o d fte o n r. ii. st in te, a uo W yo fill in th fo ? S yo r full n e, p rmn n a d ss a dyo r sig a ill u e rm tate u am e a e t d re n u n tu. H is th key toyo r ro m The p rte will b gyo r su re ere e u o. or rin u itcase.

Thankyo. u 2.

- o deven g I w t asing ro mfor to ig t a dto o wn h G o in. an le o n h n m rro ig t.

Shall I m it b da db ake e n reakfast?

Yes, p lease.

W yo p fill inth fo ? S yo n e, su am n n d ratio of ill u lease e rm tate ur am rn e, atio ality, u n stay, etc.

Is th t all rig t?

a h Yes, th kyo. W yo p n w an u ill u ay o ?

CanI p b cred card ay y it ?

Certainly, sir. Theb yw sh wyo u toyo r ro ma dtak inyo lu g e o ill o u p uon e ur g ag.

Thankyo. u 3 . .

1 Canyo m yo rreservatio b reh d ) u ake u n efo an ?

2 W at facilities d e th h tel include?... )h os e o 3 What accommodatron'WOuflyou like to have?

) 4) H wm yro m d yo w ttoreserve?

o an o s o u an *J 5 H wlo gw yo staya th h tel?

) o n ill u t eo 4. ( - ) :

1 Youw t tocheckin ) an.

2 You w t tob o a ro m ) an o k o.

3 You d n likeyo r sin lero mw o t ab, yo askarecep ntoch g it.

) o t u g o ith u ath u tio an e 5 . . .

Pay b cred cardo b cash ask ap rte tob gyo r lu g e fill in th fo, y it ry, o r rin u g ag, e rm m yo reservatio b re an, checkin ake ur n efo h d.

X FOOD 1 . :

to have breakfast - to have lunch - to have dinner (supper) - food - ;

;

meal - ( , , e , : ts) beef- lamb - pork - chicken - potatoes - vegetables - cheese - to drink - to fry - to boil - to prefer - white coffee - black coffee - to order - cauliflower - fizzy water - s i lmineral water - tl national cuisine - 2 . .

Eating in Britain There is n p b mfin in a p toe t in Britain. There are excellent restau o ro le d g lace a ran b san w b cafes, p b a dte o s. You can h yo r m a a y ts, ars, d ich ars, u s n a-ro m ave u eals t n h u of th d y o n h but, g erally sp g lu chh u arefro 1 to3a dd or e a r ig t, en eakin, n o rs m2 n in n fro 6to1.

er m Lunch is aq m fo m y p p o w ays. O Su d m y fam uick eal r an eo le n eekd n n ays an ilies h atrad n lu ch They havero ma eith b lam, chicken, o p rk, w ave itio al n. ast e t, er eef, b r o ith p ta e v etab a dg o to s, eg les n ravy. G is asau md fro th ma juices.

ravy ce a e m e e t Dialogues 1.

CanI h ach san w, p ave eese d ich lease?

A nythingtod rink?

Yes. A cu ofte, p p a lease.

K. H yo a.

. ere u re H m chis th t?

ow u a Four p u d eig ty, p o n s h lease.

Thanks 2.

G o m rn g W uldyo h m too erb o d o in. o u elp e rd reakfast inm ro m y o?

Certainly, sir. D yo w tEnglish o co tin tal b o u an r n en reakfast?

English, p lease.

W at kindofjuice?

h G e-fru p rap it, lease.

H d yo w tyo e g th m rn g friedo b iled ow o u an ur g s is o in : ro ?

3 in tee g p -m u g s, lease.

D yo p to sto b ?

o u refer a r read To a db tte p ast n u r, lease.

Any co ffee?

Yes, of co rse. W p u hite, lease.

3.

G o even g sir. G o even g md m o d in, o d in, a a.

G o even g W like atab fo tw, p o d in. ed le r o lease.

Is th tab all rig t?

is le h That is fine. C w haveth m u p ould e e en, lease?

H yo a. Areyo read too er?



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