«f Ответственный редактор член-корреспондент АН СССР Ю. Б. ВИППЕР 'Монография посвящена сравнительно-типологическому рассмотрению генезиса и классических форм средневекового романа Запада и ...»
Despite the diversity of the plot and genre sources of the medieval romance, the importance of fairy-tale and fantastic motives is quite evident. These fantastic motives are partly associated with the atmosphere of adventure, but by no means can be reduced to it. With its orientation to the hero's destiny, usually depicted in a series of trials, the fairy-tale may be regarded as a connecting link between the romantic epos and folk-lore. Owing to the fairy-tale the romance acquires certain mythological motives, appearing in a considerably transformed form. The most typical of them are: search of magic attributes in another world, sacred marriage to the Goddess of fertility, the struggle with the demons of chaos, activity of the king-priest, affecting the forces of nature, initiation myths and rituals, and the like. Combination of different traditions helps to reveal the main mythological patterns (on the basis of this synthesis, the mythology of Graal appears, for example).
Creative transformation of archaic mythological patterns (the king-priest in «Perceval», «Tristan et Iseult», «Vis and Ramin», «Genji Monogatari», marriage to the Goddess of fertility, love-death, incest of the ancestors, etc.) in a new romantic «mythology of love» is of a special interest.
Fantastic and mythological motives, influencing the development of the pre-romance forms of adventure narrative were not, however, sufficient for creation of the romance with a tendency to depict the tragedy of an individual passion as an expression of a person's originality and with elements of psychological analysis.
The depiction of emotionaj life as such, appears under strong though sometimes indirect influence of lyric poetry and new conceptions of love (troubadours, trouvers and minnesingers, «uzrit» Arab lyric poetry, sufist Persian poetry, variations of Arab legends about poets, Japanese uta-monogatari).
Transition from epos (chronicles, and so on) first to the fairy-tale with its accent on an individual destiny and adventure, and then to the description of inner conflicts on the basis of lyric poetry can be traced in the composition of the medieval romance of chivalry, consisting of two substantial syntagmatic parts. In the introductory part often resembling a heroic fairy-tale, the hero is exposed to a series of trials through which he obtains certain fantastic goals (like «princess» and «half of a kingdom») while in the main romantic part proper, built up on the introductory part, a conflict between the «inner self» and the hero's «social person» appears requiring depiction and solution. In the second part the conflict is somehow interiorized. It may sometimes seem that the second part repeats the first one, though on a different «inner» level. Fantastic motives are usually concentrated in the first part, while psychological details and initiation ceremonies are found in the second part. Thus, for instance, in the introductory part Tristan, Erec, Iwain, Perceval perform their fantastic or epic feats and win the love and most often the hand of a beauty as well as the kingdom like Nizami's Khusrov who wins the heart of his beloved Shi-rin and becomes a shah. In the main (the second) part Tristan's «sinful» love for his uncle's wife, Erec's egoistic concentration on family life, the egoism of Perceval (Parzival), restricted by the knightly etiquette, Iwain's thoughtless oblivion of his young wife, Khusrov's light-mindedness and despotism break their happiness, as well as the social balance. Thus a new dramatic situation appears. New trails serve as a test of the social (epic) value and feelings of heroes. By way of exception and deviation from this syntagmatic scheme, in the Persian epos, based on legends about some poet's tragic love, the fantastic introductory part is absent. On the contrary, in the Georgian «Knight in the Tiger's Fell» the romantic layer is just a superstructure over the main continuous epico-fan-iastic action.
The Japanese romance-novel about Genji cannot be strictly divided into two parts. Still the fantastic motives play a significant role at the beginning of the novel, while in the course of narration they come to naught and are even parodied.
The fantastic narrative resembling old tales (denki-monogatari) develops and terminates in a psychological novel.
The central problem of the medieval romance (except for the Japanese one) is that of a possible violation of the desired harmony between the hero's feelings (the romantic layer) and his social duties (the epic layer). Love as an important form of individual self-expression should not be at variance with heroic deeds. More than that, it should become the main source of knights' inspiration and valour.
As.for the correlation of romantic and epic features proper, two stages may be traced in the history of the French romance (most significant in Western Europe) and the Persian romantic poem (leading in the countries of the East). At the first stage («Tristan et Iseult», «Vis and Ramin») revelation of «inner self», the life of a soul is naively expressed via passion, both as a miracle and a demonic force causing social chaos (adultery with the elder relative's wife, violation of the vassal duty, etc.). At the second stage first and foremost in the works by Chretien de Troyes and Nizami who more freely constructed plots of ihe traditional elements, there appears a possibility of harmonization of the romantic and epic features owing to the idea of indissoluble connection between love and heroic deed, inner qualities and social value (with the use of the.knightly and sufist conceptions of love).
Amazing parallelism between «Tristan et Iseult» and «Vis and Ramin», as well as between Chretien's and Nizami's works has a typological nature.
Within the limits of the above-described compositional dichotomy, harmonization takes place in the second (the main, strictly romantic) part of the romance. In Nizami's «Leila and Mejnun» harmonization is achieved with the help of the sufist-pantheistic conception of love and poetry, despite the tragic end of the poem (with Kise's madness being not only a source of destruction but also a source of poetic inspiration). Elements of a similar approach may be found in Gottfried's «Tristan».
In Murasaki's novel about Genji irrespective of the fact that individual's love causes social chaos (violation of exogamy/endogamy and caste bounds, metaphoric incest of the type «son/mother» and «father/daughter», infringement of ritual magic and even of the normal functioning of the State), the same love from the point of view of the «mono-no-avare» conception, is interpreted as the highest manifestation of sensitivity, as a source of aesthetic harmony.
According to the above typical syntagmatic dichotomic structure, Chretien's romances may be described as a synchronic scheme, some parts of which are in relation of complementary distribution. The system of Chretien's romances should be analysed with special regard to the variation of the central collision «love/chivalry» and with the aid of additional oppositions like «knightly/Christian bve», «worldy formal/true chivalry», as well 'as «knightly conjugal love/knightly love-adultery». Chretien's four romances present all possible combinations of mutual images. Similar variants may be found in Nizami's «Khusrov and Shirin» and «Leila and Mejnun». The Japanese romance-novel is based on a lyrico^musioal compositional principle. The main collision is presented in a lot of images, variations with smooth transitions.
Most essential structural elements of this novel are the ritual calendar of holidays, gradual change of court masks-ranks, alternation of seasons and moon phases, use of natural classifiers (flowers and colours). The cyclic model of the life flow of heroes differs from the linear perspective of life trials in the West-European romance.
СОДЕРЖАНИЕ Предисловие................ Введение. Греко-византийский роман. Античное наследие в средневековом романе............... Часть I. Западноевропейский «бретонский» куртуазный роман XII в. 1. Предпосылки.............. 2. Теории происхождения............ 3. Преобразование источников и формирование жанра.... 4. Романы о Тристане и Изольде Беруля и Тома. Полемика сними в творчестве Кретьена де Труа......... 5. «Бретонские» романы Кретьена де Труа и их структура..
6. Немецкие версии «бретонских» романов....... Часть II. Романический эпос Ближнего Востока и Закавказья... 1. Предпосылки.............. 2. Персоязычный романический эпос Нрава XI в...... 3. Персоязычный романический эпос Азербайджана XII в... 4. Грузинский романический эпос XII в........ Часть III. Средневековый роман на Дальнем Востоке. Японский куртуазный роман XI в....:::::;
:........ Заключение................... Литература................ Указатель......, ;
.......... Summary................. Елеазар Моисеевич Мелетйнский „СРЕДНЕВЕКОВЫЙ РОМАН Происхождение и классические формы Утверждено к печати Институтом мировой литературы, им. А. М. Горького Академии наук СССР Редактор Л. Ш. Рожанский. Младший редактор М. И. Новицкая. Художник Л. С. Эр ман. Художественный редактор Э. Л. Эрман. Технический редактор Г. А. Никитина.
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