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IP- (ARP).

TCP/IP , , . , , . , , .

IP- hosts, DNS.

1. I P - , ?

:

) V P I / V C I A T M ;

) D N S - .25, , w l. l 2 0 d e p ;

) -, , 12---51-2-10;

) IP-, , 113.34.78.01.

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3. I P - ? : , , , D . :

) 223.13.123.245;

) 225.0.0.105;

) 194.87.45.0;

) 10.24.255.252;

) 125.24.255.255;

) 157.213.255.305;

) 129.12.255.255;

) 127.0.23.255;

) 1.0.0.13;

) 2 2 1. 1. 1. 1 ;

) 1 9 2. 1 3 4. 2 1 6. 2 5 5 ;

) 1 9 3. 2 5 6. 2 5 4. 1 1.

4. I P - 1 0 8. 5. 1 8. 1 6 7, 255.255.240.0. . ?

5. , IP- D N S - .

? ?

123.1.0. IP- 123.1.0.01 123.1.0.02 123.1.0. w2.mgu.ru w3.mgu.ru w4.mgu.ru w5.mgu.ru w6.mgu.ru DNS- wl.mgu.ru I P - , D N S - w5.mgu.ru w6.mgu.ru?

6. , D N S - : w1.mgu.ru, w4.mgu.ru w3.dept.ru. , . :

) w1.mgu.ru w6.mgu.ru, w3.dept.ru;

) w1.mgu.ru w3.dept.ru, w6.mgu.ru;

) .

7. A R P - ? ?

8. A R P .

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9. D H C P - , , ?

10. , ? ?

. 2 0 0 . , , 2 5 . , . I P - , , ?

16 IP (Intranet Protocol ), RFC 751. , , IP , , , -. , IP , . , IP , TCP, TCP/IP.

IP , IP- , . IP , . - , IP . , - , IP . , IP ( ).

IP . , . , , . IP, .

IP- IP- , . . , . I P - , , IP.

IP- . , . 16.1.

4 4 16 PR I D | T | R | 3 16 13 1 ID | 8 16 32 IP- 32 IP- . 16.1. IP- 4 IP. 4 ( I P v 4 ), (IPv6).

I P - 4 3 2 - . 2 0 ( 3 2 - ), . 6 0 .

( T y p e o f S e r v i c e, T o S ) , , DS-. . , . :

0 7. . T o S . D (Delay ) 1, , ( T h r o u g h p u t ) - , R ( R e l i a b i l i t y ) . .

516 16. , 90- , . DS- 6 , . D S - 18.

2 .

, , 65 535 , . , IP-. Ethernet, 1500 , Ethernet. T C P / I P , 576 ( , ).

2 , ( ) . () .

3 , . 1 D F (Do not Fragment ) , 1 M F ( M o r e F r a g m e n t s ) , ( ) . .

13 ( ) .

/ . 8 .

( T i m e Live, T T L ) , . . , , ;

, . , , , . , , . , .

, , , . R F C 1700, http://www.iana.org. , 6 , T C P, 17 U D P, 1 I C M P.

2 ( 1 6 ) . (, ), 16- . IP- . , , .

IP- 3 2 .

. .

, , .

, 32- .

I P - , E t h e r n e t ( N e t w o r k Monitor, N M ) M i c r o s o f t. N M , , , . , NM 6 , T C P (. , ).

IP: Version - 4 (0x4) IP: Header Length = 20 (0x14) IP: Service Type - 0 (0x0) IP: Precedence = Routine IP:...0 = Normal Del a y IP:.... 0... = Normal Throughput IP: 0.. = Normal Reliability IP: Total Length = 54 (0x36) IP: I d e n t i f i c a t i o n = 31746 (0x7C02) IP: F l a g s Summary = 2 ( 0 x 2 ) IP: 0 = Last fragment in datagram IP: 1. = Cannot fragment datagram IP: Fragment Offset = 0 (0x0) bytes IP: Time t o Live = 1 2 8 (0x80) IP: Protocol - TCP - T r a n s m i s s i o n Control IP: Checksum = 0xEB IP: Source Address = 194.85.135. IP: Destination Address - 194.85.135. IP: Data: Number o f d a t a b y t e s r e m a i n i n g = 3 4 (0x0022) IP- I P - , . 16.2. 2 0 ( ) 18 ;

N 1, N 2,..., N 1 8 .

IP.

() . : , . , 1 , N1, N2, N3. 1 , IP12 IP13. 518 16. IPti N1, , 1 N 1. I P t 2 N 2, IP13 N 3.

, , . , , .

". 16.2. . , , , 1 7, 1 2, 5, 4 1 1 7, 1 3, 7, 6 3. .

IP- ( , S N M P ) , . , . (looopback a d d r e s s ), ( v i r t u a l i n t e r f a c e a d d r e s s ). 1 2 7. . . , , , .

, . , .

, , (, *). .

, . 16.2, , , , 4 ( . 1 6. 1 ).

16.1. N1 IP IPi2(Rl) 0() N2 IP N3 IP IPu(Rl) N4 IP21 (R2) IP 0() N5 IP N6 IP IP21 (R2) IP IPi IP21 (R2) IPs, (R5) IP42 1 6. 1 , , , ' , , ( ). . , , , - . , .

520 16. .

( , ), , .

, , (IP41 IP42) . , .

, . , . , . , , , . . 16. . , , 0, 1.

, I P . , . , - , N6, , IP21, 1 2.

IP-, . , , , I P ( , ). , , . , IP- . . 16.1 . , , 4, , , , ( 1), ( IP21), 1 ( IP12), N 3. , , , , .

, , , . , , IP- . . , ( d e f a u l t r o u t e ), . , , , . , . , , . ( d e f a u l t r o u t e r ). 4 , N1-N6. , N 7 - N 1 8, IP51 5, .

( ), . , I P , - . , , . .

. , . 16.2. , N 3, , . 16.2. IPg . , N 3 ( R R 3 ) .

16.2. N1 1 IPi3(Rl) N2 1 IPts(Rl) N3 1 N4 IP31 (R3) 1 N5 1 IPia ( R l ) N6 IP31 (R3) 1 31 (R3) 1 , , . , , . 522 16. , . . , , .

( . 16.3). , , , N 1 2, 1 17. .

16.3. N12 1 1 IPiM (R17) . , , , , .

, IP. . 16.1 . 16.2.

1. . I P IP- ( , 1).

2. .

IP- () . ( . 16.1), (IP21) (IP41). .

3. , 1, , . I P - . I P - ( I P s N3), - . ( ) (IP12) (IP41). .

4. , , , , . IP- I P ( IP51), , , 1. .

, , , , , .

T C P / I P . , , IP- T C P / I P. , R 1 , . 16.3.

(. 1 6. 4 ). ( 5 6. 0. 0. 0, 1 1 6. 0. 0. 0 1 2 9. 1 3. 0. 0 ), ( 1 9 8. 2 1. 1 7. 0 2 1 3. 3 4. 1 2. 0 ), .

16.4. R 213.34.12.4 213.34.12.3 56.0.0. 213.34.12.3 116.0.0.0 213.34.12. 198.21.17.6 198.21.17. 129.13.0. 198.21.17.5 1() 198.21.17.0 198.21.17. 213.34.12.3 1() 213.34.12.0 213.34.12. 198.21.17. 198.21.17.7 , .

, R 1 Microsoft W i n d o w s , , . 16.5.

TCP/IP , , , , .

524 16. 198.21.17. 198.21.17. 56.0.0. 213.34.12. 213.34.12. 116.0.0. 213.34.12. . 16.3. 16.5. Windows 127.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 127.0.0.1 127.0.0.1 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 198.21.17.7 198.21.17.5 56.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 213.34.12.4 213.34.12.3 116.0.0.0 213.34.12. 255.0.0.0 213.34.12.3 129.13.0.0 255.255.0.0 198.21.17.6 198.21.17.5 198.21.17.0 255.255.255.0 198.21.17.5 198.21.17.5 198.21 17.5 255.255.255.255 127.0.0.1 127.0.0.1 198.21.17.255 255.255.255.255 198.21.17.5 198.21.17.5 IP- 213.34.12. 255.255.255.0 213.34.12. 213.34.12. 127.0.0.1 127.0.0. 255.255.255. 213.34.12. 213.34.12. 255.255.255.255 213.34.12. 213.34.12. 198.21.17.6 224.0.0. 224.0.0.0 198.21.17. 213.34.12. 224.0.0.0 213.34.12. 224.0.0. 255.255.255.255 198.21.17.6 198.21.17. 255.255.255. R 1 , (. 16.6).

16.6. TTL 255.255.255.0 198.21.17.5 0 Up 198.21.17.0 255.255.255.0 213.34.12.3 0 Up 213.34.12.0 255.0.0. 56.0.0.0 213.34.12.4 14 Up 255.0.0.0 213.34.12.4 12 Up 116.0.0.0 RIP 255.255.0.0 1 Up 129.13.0.0 198.21.17. . 16.7 R1, U n i x.

16.7. Unix- UH 127.0.0.1 1 127.0.0.0 1 198.21.17.7 UG 5 43270 1 198.21.17.5 246876 1 198.21.17.0 213.34.12.3 44 132435 lei 213.34.12. 16450 1 129.13.0.0 198.21.1.7.6 UG 213.34.12.4 UG 12 5764 lei 56.0.0. 213.34.12.4 UG 21 23544 lei 116.0.0. , , , . .

526 16. , , .

, - , ( U n i x

Windows ).

( U n i x Windows ).

, , ( W i n d o w s ), . , U n i x 10 198.21.17.5, l e i 2 1 3. 3 4. 1 2. 3 10 127.0.0.1. , - , . , . , . 16.6 56.0.0.0. , 213.34.12.4. , 2 1 3. 3 4. 1 2. 0. , , 213.34.12.3 , 213.34.12.0.

. , 56.0.0 213.34.12.3.

, W i n d o w s ( ). . , , , .

Unix , , , . , .

0 1 W i n d o w s , , . (1 0) , , ^ . Unix , G ( G a t e w a y ) , .


, , IP ARP- IP- , .

IP- , . , , R I P. - , , , .

Unix , , R I P.

Unix.

U . .

.

G , (). .

D , I C M P.

.

, - , I C M P , .

U n i x , . , . , .

. ( T T L ) .

, . .

.

TCP/IP, , . , .' . 213.34.12.0 198.21.17.0, Unix 0.0.0.0 W i n d o w s . , . W i n d o w s 2 0 0 0 . 528 16. 127.0.0.0. 224.0.0.0 . , , ( , 8 11 , ). , .

, , route, U n i x W i n d o w s . . , . , , , . . .

, , R I P O S P F. , .

W i n d o w s Unix , . . 16.6 . , . R I P, T T L 160.

IP- IP-, . 16.4. , , , , . IP A R P DNS.

, cit.mgu.com, 129.13.0.0, FTP-. unix.mgu.com, F T P - :

f t p unix.mgu.com :

1. D N S - ( cit.mgu.com) D N S - , I P - unix.mgu.com, FTP.

2. D N S - , , D N S - I P - unix.mgu.com.

3. F T P - ( cit.mgu.com), IP unix.mgu.com, F T P - .

IP- FTP- DNS- :

IP-129.13.5.1 ' cit.mgu.com DNS- IP-200.5.16.6 IP-129.13.23.17 " MAC 008048A 129.13.0. IP-129.13.5.1 ^s MAC 008048EB7E FTP unix.mgu.com.

IP-198.21.17. MAC-00E0F77F1920 IP-56.01.13. MAC-484C0005469S 198.21.17. 56.0.0.0.

IP-56.6i.l65. " IP-198.21.17. MAC-00E0F77F5A02 MAC-00E0F71AB7F IP-200.5.16. IP-200.5.16. MAC-00E0F734F5C0 MAC-00E0F71AB7F IPDNS-200.5.16. MAC DNS -00E0F 200.5.16. 113.34.12.0, . 16.4. IP- , , , D N S, IP, A R P E t h e r n e t .


1. IP- DNS-. F T P - , f t p uni . m g u. com, DNS, , , D N S - , : IP- unix.mgu.com? UDP-, IP-. IP- 200.5.16.6 DNS-. , . IP- ( . 16.5), D N S - .

2. Ethernet IP- R3. I P Ethernet, - . E t h e r n e t , 530 16. . , , . IP, , 129.13.23.17 200.5.16.6, , , , , . IP- , . Ethernet IP-, - . ARP, : - I P - 194.87.23.1? A R P - . , , - 0 0 8 0 4 8 7 6 0. cit.mgu.com R 3 , E t h e r n e t ( . 16.6).

IP DNS- IP DNS- DNS-:

D unix.mgu.com?

129.13.23.17 I 200.5.16. . 1 6. 5. IP- DNS- R3 FTP- DNS- cit.mgu.com IP-129.13.5.1 IP-129.13.23. MAC - 008048760 MAC - 008048A . 1 6. 6. Ethernet IP-, 3. IP- - R2. 129.13.5.1 R3. Ethernet, , IP- IP. IP 200.5.16.6 IP- . R 3 200.5.16.6, :

200.5.16.0 198.21.17.7 198.21.17. , 200.5.16.0 R 3 198.21.17.6, R2, I P - 198.21.17.7. IP- , Ethernet. - R3. , ARP.

A R P - R3. ARP-, 1 9 8. 2 1. 1 7. 0. R 3 : I P - 1 9 8. 2 1. 1 7. 7 - 0 0 E 0 F 7 7 F 5 A 0 2 ( . 16.7).

R2 R IP -198.21.17.7 IP -129.13.5. MAC - 00E0F77F5A02 MAC - 0080487 Ethernet . 16.7. Ethernet ARP- ARP- , - R 2 ( 0 0 E 0 F 7 7 F 5 A 0 2 ), R 3 I P - D N S - ( . 16.8).

4. R2 DNS-. I P R 2 : Ethernet, IP- . , 200.5.16. . , , - . A R P I P ( A R P - , ) - 0 0 E 0 F 7 7 5 1 2 3 1 D N S - . 532 16. -, R2 Ethernet DNS ( . 16.9).

R2 R IP-198.21.17.7 IP-129.13.5. MAC - 00E0F77F5A02 MAC - 008048EB7E MAC IP R3 - 008048760 129.13.23.17 DNS-:

UDP unix.mgu.com?

MAC IP DNS- 200.5.16. R2 -00E0F77F5A . 16.8. Ethernet DNS-, R R DNS- R IP-200.5.16.6 IP -198.21.17. MAC - 00E0F7751231 MAC - 00E0F77F5A MAC IP R2 -00E0F77F5A02 129.13.23.17 DNS-:

UDP unix.mgu.com?

IP DNS- MAC DNS- 200.5.16. 00E0F . 16.9. Ethernet DNS-, R 5. DNS- Ethernet, - , , IP. I P . DNS- DNS- DNS- , , D N S - , :

unix.mgu.com IP- 56.01.13.14.

D N S - c i t. m g u. c o m D N S - , . , IP, A R P E t h e r n e t D N S - (. 16.10).

, DNS- IP- IP- . , , - .

FTP- DNS- R cit.mgu.com IP - 129.13.23. IP -129.13.5. MAC -008048 MAC - 0080487 IP DNS- MAC DNS-: R3- 0080487 200.5.16. UDP unix.mgu.com IP MAC 56.01.13. 129.13.23.17 008048 . 16.10. Ethernet DNS-, R - FTP-, I P - F T P - , , . , I P - .

, . , ? .

, , , . . - . , , , .

534 16. , : 129.44.0.0. , 0.0.0.1-0.0.255.254. (216 - 2 ) . , . . , , . .

(, .) . 16.11 4 2 . , , , ( ) . , I P - , 18 , 255.255.192.0.

129.44.0.0/18 (10000001 00101100 00000000 00000000) 129.44.64.0/18 (10000001 00101100 01000000 00000000) 129.44.128.0/18 (10000001 00101100 10000000 00000000) 129.44.192.0/18 (10000001 0010110011000000 00000000) , ( ). , 129.44.0.0/18,129.44.64.0/18,129.44.128.0/18,129.44.192.0/18.

, R F C 950, , , . , 129.44.0.0 255.255.192.0, , , 00. 129.44.192.0 . . , R F C 1878, .

, 4 , . 16.12.

129.44.0.0, , R1. R2. 1 2 9. 4 4. 0. 0 / 1 8, 1 2 9. 4 4. 6 4. 0 / 1 8, 1 2 9. 4 4. 1 2 8. 0 / 1 8 1 2 9. 4 4. 1 9 2. 0 / 1 8 R2.

3 4 1 2 ( ( ) ) 129 000000 10000001 00101100 0 0 129.44.0. 255.255.192. 0 2 111111 10000001 000000 10000001 129.44.64. 255.255.192. 0 2 00101100 000000 10000001 00101100 129.44.128. 255.255.192. 0 2 111111 19999991 000000 10000001 129.44.192. 000000 10000001 000000 10000001 255.255.192. -^ (2-4)| 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 00101100 111 ll 111111 . 16.11. 129.44.0.0 (129.44.192.0/18), , 129.44.192. ( R 2 ) 1 2 9. 4 4. 1 9 2. 2 ( R 1 ). . , .

- , . R 2 .

, , , , 3 2 - , , . , (. 16.8).

, R2.

0. 0. 0. 0 0. 0. 0. 0 .

1 2 9. 4 4. 1 2 8. 1 5. , I P - , 536 16. 255.255.255.255. 129.44.128.0, 129.44.128.5 R 2, R3.

2 14 129.44.0.0 255.255.192. 129.44.192. 129.44.0. 129.44.192. 2 14 129.44.64.0 255.255.192. 129.44.64. R:

129.44.192.0 129.44.64. 255.255.192. 129.44.128. 2 14 129.44.128. 2 14 129.44.128.0 255.255.192. . 16.12. 16.8. R2 255.255.192.0 129.44.0. 129.44.0.0 129.44.0.1 255.255.192.0 129.44.64.7 129.44.64.7 129.44.64. 255.255.192.0 129.44.128.5 129.44.128.0 129.44.128. 255.255.192.0 129.44.192.1 129.44.192. 129.44.192.0 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 129.44.192.2 129.44.192.1 255.255.255.255 129.44.64.8 129.44.64. 129.44.128.15 , , , . .



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