, , ,

<<


 >>  ()
Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 11 | 12 ||

LVII - 2011 TRANSACTIONS OF THE STATE ...

-- [ 13 ] --

The vessel, with its funnel-shaped mouth, now resembles a vase but originally it had a high narrow neck typical for Oriental vessels for rose water. The images of roses chiselled onto the vessels surface conrm this purpose. The shape of the vessel was changed in the last quarter of Ekaterina Nekrasova the 19th century: the neck was shortened, a non-silver roll of the Neusilber type was added to join the vessels parts together, and two tangs were stamped. One tang bears the name of Sultan ON THE PROVENANCE OF THE SILVER BOWLS Abdulhamid II and standard 90;

the second one has the word verify.

FROM THE OB RIVER AREA: AN ATTEMPT The meaning of the relief scenes depicting the conviction of Jesus Christ by Kaiafas, together OF FLORAL ORNAMENT ANALYSIS with the images of the two-headed eagle beneath the crown decorating the body of the vessel allow The objects in question, discovered at different times in the Ob River area, include bowls from us to suggest that the vessel was made after the mid-19th century for ones of the Patriarch of the collections of the Hermitage and the Metropolitan Museum, and a bowl and two covers from Constantinople (probably for Anthimus IV), and restored during the time of the Patriarch Joahime the Museum of the town of Muzhi. Close to these stylistically are two bowls and a cover from the III. The scene of Kaiafas judgment had symbolic signicance for both patriarchs who suffered Dune Hoard, Gotland. The objects have attracted the scholars attention for a long time. While the from human injustice.

dating of those poses no problem, the question of their provenance is still open. The newly acquired silver vessel generously donated to the Hermitage by Professor Nasser The article is concerned with the oral ornament which is an important element of the decor of D. Khalili is a unique work of post-Byzantine art;

it is closely tied with the history of the the objects. The analogues discovered suggest that the artists who created the bowls were familiar Constantinople Patriarchate in the 19th century.

with the Anglo-Norman decoration arsenal of the 12th and early 13th centuries. On the other (Translated by the author) 382 SUMMARIES SUMMARIES Tatyana Slepova made of silver in Ragusa and was equal to 12 dinars. As subsidiary coin, follar was used, 30 follars constituting 1 dinar. The golden coin of the Republic was Venetian ducat.

ON THE HISTORY OF THE FORMATION AND THE STUDY The monetary system of Dubrovnik was fairly diverse. In early 1517, the City Senate took the OF THE COLLECTION OF MEDIEVAL SOUTH-SLAVIC COINS decision to issue the golden coin of Dubrovnik, but the plan never materialized.

OF THE STATE HERMITAGE The Hermitage collection gives a good idea of all the denominations of coins in circulation in Ragusa between 1350 and 1803. The core of it was M. Rechetars collection bought in The rst part of the article, based on the data of the Hermitage Archives and the Department Vienna in 1911. The rest of the coins belong to the older Hermitage collection, partly from of Numismatics, is concerned with the stages of the formation of the collection of medieval South the collections of Jakob Reichel and the Counts Stroganov, which had formed by the early 20th Slavic coins, specifying, when possible, the motifs of acquisition, and stressing Jakob Reichels role century.

in the formation of the collection.

All the coins of the Hermitage collection, including the unidentied ones, are of interest, because The second part is devoted to the present-day study of the collection, with the focus on Irina they represent practically the entire coin inventory of Ragusa, which, in the 14th 17th centuries, Sokolovas contribution to making the inventory of the coins of this collection and on her article was one of the most important Mediterranean sea powers and cultural centres, known as Slavonic about Bulgarian ancient coins, as well as on Venetian inuence on South-Slavic, particularly Serbian, Athens.

minting.

So far, the studies of the present collection have been but sporadic. Nonetheless they are sufcient to give historians and numismatists an idea of its role for the research into minting both in the Mediterranean and in the Northern Black Sea area in the 13th 15th centuries.

Valentina Shandrovskaya THE HERMITAGE SEALS OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE BULGARIAN CHURCH Elena Stepanova The article is concerned with the seals of the Bishop of Vidin, the Metropolitan and Sinkell BALKAN ARCHONS IN THE 8TH 10TH CENTURIES of Larissa, Bishops of Dimitriada and Sozopol, and the Metropolitan of Philipopol. The seals under review, mostly datable to the 11th and 12th centuries, in a greater or lesser degree, reect the (On the Basis of Seals of the State Hermitage) connections of Bulgaria and Byzantium. Of particular interest is Byzantine policy towards clergy and the Church during the Byzantine domination in Bulgaria.

Scholars are at variance as to the meaning of the ofce of archon in the administrative The iconography of the seals (St. Achilleus, the Virgin and St. Theodore) was to express the structure of Byzantium in the 8th 10th centuries. As has been noted many times, the reason, owners piety.

besides the scarcity of written data concerning the problem, is the term itself, which is too broad, To the specic features of individual seals belong the piety formula in the legend (M-6608), an meaning a leader. Hence, its application in denoting a wide range of positions, and, as a result, unusual form of expression of the rank of Metropolitan ( M-8076) and the rare personal name the uncertainty of the interpretation of the term by modern scholars. One of the categories of (-12102).

ofcers, fairly numerous, denoted by this term is archons of cities and themata. A signicant and The Hermitage molybdobuls are an addition to the published materials concerning the clergymen reliable source of information about these is seals, due to which, over 50 city and theme archons in in question.

the eastern and the western part of the Empire are known. Those archons must have represented the central power, being responsible for enclaves and cities free from direct administration by strategoi. Here, the Hermitage molybdobuls are discussed, which belonged to Balkan archons and pertain to city administration.

Tatiana Galich CHRISTIANITY AND ISLAM: SPECTATORS ON THE TWO ORIENTAL CULTURES Natalia Frolova The article is concerned with the perception of Christian and Muslim art by spectators THE HERMITAGE COLLECTION OF COINS representing different strata of Russian society. The recent exhibitions at the State Hermitage, OF THE 14TH EARLY 19TH CENTURIES FROM RAGUSA such as Byzantine Culture and Art: 4th 15th Centuries;

Earthly Art Heavenly Beauty: the Art of Islam;

The Hermitage has a collection of 250 mediaeval coins from Ragusa (Dubrovnik). Sinai. Byzantium. Rus. Orthodox Art from the 15th to 20th Centuries;

Iran in the Hermitage. The Formation The basic monetary unit of the Republic of Dubrovnik was dinar (later, grosh), a silver coin of the Collections and In Palaces and Tents: The Islamic World from China to Europe, have demonstrated the (1.951 g of silver, in the mid-14th century). Another item of the monetary system was Byzantine spectators attitude to the problem of many centuries contacts and mutual inuence of Christian perperos (hyperperon), a golden coin with the estimated weight of 4.55 g. Golden in the Empire, it was and Muslim traditions.

384 SUMMARIES SUMMARIES Archival Heritage V. F. LEVINSON-LESSINGS LETTERS TO A. V. BANK, FROM MOSCOW AND BESIEGED LENINGRAD, IN AUGUSTOCTOBER Publication and comments by N. N. Nikulin and I. S. Grigoryeva Yuri Pyatnitsky The letters are in small writing, often with abbreviations. The late Nikolay Nikulin in GOOD AND EVIL HAVE BECOME A SHADOW collaboration with Irina Grigoryeva, of the Hermitage Department of Western European Fine The present article, which is an introduction to the Heritage section, is concerned with Arts, have undertaken a difcult task to prepare them for publication. As similar documents of the the principles of selection of papers for the section. The Hermitage has always adhered to war time, the letters cannot leave anybody unmoved. In a prosaic manner, they narrate about war its traditions, one of which is veneration of the predecessors. This is why the special Curator time hardships and the heroism of the Hermitage people in those years. The letters are especially series has been created. The articles and documents selected for publication in this volume are interesting, because they describe both the museum per se in besieged Leningrad, and the museum connected with Russian Byzantinists, rst of all, Alisa Bank, the curator, for many years, of branch evacuated to Sverdlovsk.

the Byzantine collection, as well as such renowned scholars as Dmitry Ainalov, numismatist Ivan Spassky and the art historian Vladimir Levinson-Lessing. Very few know, however, that Fyodor Morozov of the Hermitage Department of the History of Russian Culture started his E. Yu. Solomakha and . . Yakovleva career as a Byzantinist. The materials published belong to various genres, because the editors goal is to show the human character of our outstanding predecessors, their habits, everyday TWO UNPUBLISHED MANUSCRIPTS concerns, etc.

FROM THE ARCHIVES OF THE STATE HERMITAGE (A.V. BANK AND F.M. MOROZOV) The article is an introduction to the publication of archival manuscripts by Alisa Bank and . N. Molchanova Fyodor Morozov. It gives new information about them, based on the personal les preserved in the Archives of the State Hermitage Museum.

THREE LETTERS OF I. G. SPASSKY TO A. V. BANK, 1928 Many years of friendship tied Alisa Bank and the numismatist Ivan Spassky of the Hermitage A. V. Bank Museum. They became friends still as University students. Spasskys three letters of 192830, published by Ekaterina Molchanova are a vivid illustration of life and human mentality at that PROBLEMS OF ART IN THE PUBLICATIONS period, as well as the relations between Spassky and Bank. Besides, the letters contain some OF THE ORIENTAL DEPARTMENT. important facts of the two correspondents biographies.

The War precluded Alisa Bank from publishing this article as it had been completed. The focus of the article is on the artistic aspect of the research of the Hermitage Oriental Department. It was induced by criticism, connected, in particular, with the neglect of art problems by the Department of the museum, which, rst and foremost, is a museum of arts. Banks article is a response to that N. N. Nikulin criticism. Many decades have passed since, but the problems discussed in the article, in particular, the artistic aspect of the Departments research, remain.

V. F. LEVINSON-LESSINGS LETTERS FROM BESIEGED LENINGRAD This small article by the late Nikolay Nikulin is an introduction to Vladimir Levinson-Lessings A. V. Bank and F. M. Morozov WWII-period letters to Alisa Bank, published here. It contains the major facts of Levinson Lessings biography and Nikulins opinion about the letters. As he has remarked, Although in his REPORT OF THE TRIP TO VOLOGDA, VELIKY USTYUG description of everyday life of the war time Vladimir Frantsevich [Levinson-Lessing] restrains AND SOLVYCHEGODSK, FROM 20 MAY TO 5 JUNE his feelings, each line of his letters is imbued with emotion, love of the city, the Hermitage and the people he had met there. Few descriptions like this have survived;

most of them deal with In the 1950s 1980s, the Hermitage researchers regularly visited Russian provincial towns in particular events or individuals. Here we have a picture of the life of the city and the Hermitage order to become familiarized with their museums and museum funds and help researchers and during a month. curators in their work. The trips included negotiations about collaboration, museum exchange and 386 SUMMARIES SUMMARIES Yuri Pyatnitsky the possibilities of transfer of works to the Hermitage. The document published is a report of such a trip to cities of Northern Russia undertaken by Alisa Bank and Fyodor Morozov in 1954.

VASILY GEORGIEVSKY AND HIS TRAVELS TO MOUNT ATHOS The report was addressed to the administration of the Hermitage, therefore the information it IN 19111913 AS DESCRIBED IN HIS LETTERS contained was not subject to censorship. In this context, the Report is a piece of evidence, a sincere TO NIKODIM KONDAKOV narrative of the life of Russian provincial towns and their museums, and the hardships museum people had to face. As a result of this trip, with the mediation of the U.S.S.R. Ministry for Culture, This article provides biographical evidence on Vasily Georgievsky, an outstanding Russian some of the paintings and works of applied art became transferred to the Hermitage. It was not expert in icon painting at the end of the 19th 20th centuries. The author, for the rst time, looting of provincial museums, but rescuing works of art that required restoration and special presents the life and work of the scholar in a publication. He widely uses archival documents, conditions of keeping, impossible in local museums.

especially the letters of Georgievsky to his longtime friend, Academician Nikodim Kondakov.

Some of these letters written between 1908 and 1914 supplement the publication. The article talks about Georgievskys work in the Trusteeship Committee of Russian Icon Painting in Saint Petersburg in the 1900s, and his discovery of the 1502 frescoes by Russian artist Dionysij (Dionysius) in the Ferapontovo Monastery in the Russian North, and their study and publication.

D. V. Ainalov The three trips of Vasily Georgievsky to Mount Athos in 19111913 are discussed in detail, when he was able to make the complete photographic records of frescos in Protaton painted by REFERENCE LETTER OF THE HERMITAGE RESEARCHER Panselinos;

nd the icons of Deesis of the 14th century, known today as Deesis of Chilandar;

F. M. MOROZOV. collect the valuable Byzantine and post-Byzantine icons for Russian museums (presently at the Hermitage Museum). The article also traces the story of the 1913 publication of Frescos by In the 1930s, life conditions in the Soviet Union were complicated, especially for cultural Panselinos, the rst scholarly publication of the Protaton frescos. Thanks to the information workers without worker or peasant background. Regular purges and personnel inspections took recorded in the personal letters and archival documents, it became possible to trace the history part in museums. The Hermitage was no exception. The reference letter published was written on of other monographs of Georgievsky, as well as his teaching and social activities. Especially Fyodor Morozovs request for such an inspection, by Dmitry Ainalov, who, at the time, was the important is the reconstruction of the events in the scholars life after the October Revolution, only Byzantinist in Leningrad. Although at the University Morozov had been Ainalovs student only his participation in the Committee for Restoration of Russian Icon Painting in Moscow, his work for a short time, he regarded himself a disciple of the renowned Byzantinist, with which Ainalov in the Kremlin Armoury Chamber, and the establishment of a restoration workshop for Old did not disagree. His reference letter has important information about Morozovs early years as Russian embroidery.

a scholar, in particular, about the period connected with his study of Byzantine monuments in Trabzon. (Translated by the author) F. M. Morozov AUTOBIOGRAPHY. Fyodor Morozovs life was a complicated one. Although he was of peasant extraction, his pre Revolutionary connections with the St Alexander Nevsky Monastery, study at the Archaeological Institute and his interest in Byzantium and religious topics aroused suspicion of functionaries of the dark years of the rst post-Revolutionary period. He, as well as other Hermitage workers, had to undergo constantly various checks and evaluations. For one of those procedures, he wrote the present Autobiography. Very few people know that Morozov started his career as a Byzantinist. Still fewer know about his contribution to the preservation and xation of monuments of Trabzon and the Caucasus during WWI. He prepared a monograph, Ancient Monuments of Trabzon, with more than 200 illustrations. Unfortunately, the manuscript, so valuable for Byzantine studies, has not been found so far. As important is information about Morozovs Kiev period, when he organized the so-called Museum Village, as well as his Hermitage period.

It is owing to him exclusively that many works of Early Russian and Byzantine art found their way to the museum, among them the renowned Toropets icon of the Virgin, although notorious in the recent years.

CONTENTS Preface.................................................. ............................................... Vera Guruleva . . Bulgarian Copper Coins Discovered in the Crimea, from Private Collections.............. XIIIXIV ., , ..... Vera Zalesskaya . . Some Symbolic Images of the Balkan Pottery of the Second Bulgarian Kingdom (11851396) and Their Possible Prototypes....................................... (11851396) .............. leg Ionnisian . . On the Role of the Architecture of the First Bulgarian Kingdom in the Formation of Early Russian Architecture (Late 10th Century)............................ ( X .)................................. Alexander Kakovkin . . From the Thracian Horseman to the Coptic Mounted Saint (Which of Warrior-Saints ( is Depicted in One of the Carved Wooden Panels from the Church of Abu Sarga in Cairo)...... )........ Mark Kramarovsky . . Dobruja and the Eastern Crimea in the Second Half XIII XIV .

of the 13th and Early 14th Centuries................................... ......................................... Zlata Lvova . . The Djagfar Manuscript of the 17th Century in Russian and Bulgarian Publications XVII . of the 20th and Early 21st Centuries................................... XX XXI ............................................ Ekaterina Nekrasova . . On the Provenance of the Silver Bowls from the Ob River Area:


, :

an Attempt of Floral Ornament Analysis................................. ............................... Dmitry Nikitin . . Three Paintings on Turkish Theme.................................... ........................... Yuri Pyatnitsky . . New Silver Vessel in the Oriental Collection of the Hermitage..................... ..................... Tatyana Slepova . . On the History of the Formation and the Study of the Collection of Medieval South-Slavic Coins of the State Hermitage......................... ...................................... Elena Stepanova . . Balkan Archons in the 8th 10th Centuries (On the Basis of Seals of the State Hermitage)...... VIIIX . ( ).......... Natalia Frolova . . The Hermitage Collection of Coins of the 14th Early 19th Centuries from Ragusa......... XIV XI .................. Valentina Shandrovskaya . . The Hermitage Seals of Representatives of the Bulgarian Church................... ....................... Tatiana Galich . . Christianity and Islam: Spectators on the Two Oriental Cultures.................... : .................. 390 CONTENTS Archival Heritage . . Yuri Pyatnitsky ..................................... 205 Good and Evil Have Become a Shadow................................ . . . N. Molchanova . . . . , 19281930 ........................ 226 Three Letters of I. G. Spassky to A. V. Bank, 19281930........................ . . N. N. Nikulin . . -............................ 230 V. F. Levinson-Lessings Letters from Besieged Leningrad........................ . . - . . Vladimir Levinson-Lessings Letters to Alisa Bank Sent from Moscow 1942 ......................... 234 and Besieged Leningrad between August and September 1942..................... . . , . . E. Yu. Solomakha and . . Yakovleva Two Unpublished Manuscripts from the Archives of the State Hermitage (. . . . )...................................... 270 (A.V. Bank and F. M. Morozov)...................................... . . A. V. Bank ............................ 274 Problems of Art in the Publications of the Oriental Department.................... . . , . . A. V. Bank and F. M. Morozov , , Report of the Trip to Vologda, Veliky Ustyug and Solvychegodsk, 20 5 1954 ........................................ 284 from 20 May to 5 June 1954....................................... . . D. V. Ainalov ............................... 287 Reference Letter of the Hermitage Researcher F. M. Morozov..................... . . F. M. Morozov ............................................. 289 Autobiography.............................................. . . Yuri Pyatnitsky . . 19111913 Vasily Georgievsky and His Travels to Mount Athos in 1911 . . ...................................... 294 as Described in His Letters to Nikodim Kondakov........................... . . . . ............................ 354 Vasily Georgievskys Letters to Nikodim Kondakov........................... ......................................... 379 Abbreviations............................................... Summaries................................................. 380 Summaries................................................. LVII XXII , 2227 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.08.2011. 60 84 1/8.

. . . 46,8. . 300. . 190000, -, ., 190000, -, .,

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 11 | 12 ||
 
 >>  ()





 
<<     |    
2013 www.libed.ru - -

, .
, , , , 1-2 .