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໗ 11, 2224, 56, 61, .4.3 : 1 109, .4.: 12^1318, I ( Xai - 22^ ) .1213 71-72, 74-75, - 2'.1618 .52:3540 ( ) 9 1 SUMMARY P. D. Sakharov. Mythological Narrative in Sanskrit Puranas.

The tradition cf story-telling undoubtedly existed in India as early as the Ve dic Age. The words 'itihasa-' and 'purana-' from the Vedas were used as collective nouns for various kinds of oral narrative improvised by bards at solemn royal sacrifices. These words were subsequently applied to deuterocanonical sacred Hindu texts of the Mahabharata (a great Indian epic) and the puranas (collec tions of myths). Both epic and puranic traditions sustained a transformation and exerted influence on one another. The development of Mahabharata had as a whole stopped earlier than the 4th century A. D. The evolution of puranas, ho wever, continued through centuries despite their written fixation;

they reflected the change occurring in Hinduism and incorporated a lot of new things.

Although the puranas originate from the Vedic ritual and admittedly the Vedas are in a superior position to them in the hierarchy of sacred texts, the puranas contain a multitude of extra-Vedic elements. Some important puranic deities are non-Aryan in their origin, for example, Devi who is a Hindu mother goddess. A comparative analysis of the Devl-mahatmya (the earliest puranic collection of myths about Devi) suggests that the early adepts of Hinduism considered deities borrowed from aboriginal cults as foreign. They primarily worshipped them for their gruesome and destructive powers. The inclusion of those deities in puranic myths was supported by the authority of the Vedas;

an extra-Vedic deity was usually associated with a certain Vedic sacrifice in the theme of a story.

Vedic ritual played a considerable role in the development of epic and pu ranic myths. In the Vedic Age, a sacrificer constituted a focus of the sacrifice;

every rite consisted of a number of stages, each providing its concise and frag mentary mythological information. As a result of the evolution of the tradition of story-telling, parallelled by the decline of solemn Vedic ritual practice, that information was actualized in new mythological narratives. The diachronical investigation of the puranic Hariscandra myth shows that the stages of royal sacrifice, once passed through by a sacrificer (the protagonist's prototype), de veloped into episodes of a new myth in which the mythological content of ritual was extended.

In contrast with the Vedic rites which were familiar and intelligible to reli gious mentality of purana-tellers, the aboriginal ritual practice was strange and obscure to them. For this reason its inclusion in the puranic myths was only perfunctory. A comparison of puranic data concerning the shape of Devi suggests an idea that some myths about this goddess appeared as an attempt of the Brahmanic religion to provide an interpretation of her idols and cult. Anyway, it was only those rites (both Vedic and aboriginal) which were accessible to the majority of the people that played a role in the puranic mythogenesis.

Summary The puraijas do not have such a regular compositional structure as epics in which all the sub-stories are accreted around the main threads of epic stories.

The unity of a purana is dependent on a number of other techniques;

one is the superfluous character of information, typical of the puranas. This concerns both their style (tautologic and pleonastic constructions) and composition (the matic and semantic reduplications). A number of cycles of myths posseses con tinuous story lines, e. g. the Devi-mahatmya. The final myth in a cycle is the largest. It contains the most important information, although all the main the mes of this myth are presented in concise form in the other myths of the cycle.

A similar technique is observed in cycles of the so-called framed myths, such as the Manvantara section of the Markandeya-punma. Here reduplication creates a system of leit-motifs repeated in succession in various parts of a cycle and merging together in the final myth. A thematic and semantic si milarity between the final and initial myths of two cycles, which is sometimes observed, may provide an explanation for compiling heterogenous cycles within the puraijic narrative.

It seems that the technique of narration, based on superfluous information,, was not prescribed by any canon, but was dependent on personal experience and taste of a story-teller.

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