авторефераты диссертаций БЕСПЛАТНАЯ БИБЛИОТЕКА РОССИИ

КОНФЕРЕНЦИИ, КНИГИ, ПОСОБИЯ, НАУЧНЫЕ ИЗДАНИЯ

<< ГЛАВНАЯ
АГРОИНЖЕНЕРИЯ
АСТРОНОМИЯ
БЕЗОПАСНОСТЬ
БИОЛОГИЯ
ЗЕМЛЯ
ИНФОРМАТИКА
ИСКУССТВОВЕДЕНИЕ
ИСТОРИЯ
КУЛЬТУРОЛОГИЯ
МАШИНОСТРОЕНИЕ
МЕДИЦИНА
МЕТАЛЛУРГИЯ
МЕХАНИКА
ПЕДАГОГИКА
ПОЛИТИКА
ПРИБОРОСТРОЕНИЕ
ПРОДОВОЛЬСТВИЕ
ПСИХОЛОГИЯ
РАДИОТЕХНИКА
СЕЛЬСКОЕ ХОЗЯЙСТВО
СОЦИОЛОГИЯ
СТРОИТЕЛЬСТВО
ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ
ТРАНСПОРТ
ФАРМАЦЕВТИКА
ФИЗИКА
ФИЗИОЛОГИЯ
ФИЛОЛОГИЯ
ФИЛОСОФИЯ
ХИМИЯ
ЭКОНОМИКА
ЭЛЕКТРОТЕХНИКА
ЭНЕРГЕТИКА
ЮРИСПРУДЕНЦИЯ
ЯЗЫКОЗНАНИЕ
РАЗНОЕ
КОНТАКТЫ


Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 3 | 4 || 6 |

«Федеральное агентство по образованию Архангельский государственный технический университет Ольга Борисовна Бессерт Обучение индивидуальному чтению ...»

-- [ Страница 5 ] --

140. Программы педагогических институтов [Текст]. - М.: Просве­ щение, 1989.- 105 с.

141. Проект временного образовательного стандарта по иностранно­ му языку [Текст]//ИЯШ. - 1993. - № 5. - С. 5 - 17;

1994. - № 2. - С. 4 - 15.

142. Пропастина, Е.С. Педагогические основы индивидуализирован­ ного обучения старшеклассников иноязычному говорению [Текст]: авто­ реф. дис.... канд. пед. наук: 13.00.01/Е.С. Пропастина. - Липецк: ЛГПИ, 2001.-22 с.

143. Профессиограмма учителя иностранного языка [Текст]/состав.

С. Ф. Шатилов [и др.] - Л.: ЛГПИ, 1987. - 27 с.

144. Рабунский, Е.С. Индивидуальный подход в процессе обучения школьников [Текст]/Е.С. Рабунский. - М. : Педагогика, 1975. - 184 с.

145. Рапопорт, И.А., Ейгер, Г.В. Язык и личность [Текст]/И.А. Рапо­ порт, Г.В. Ейгер. - Харьков: ХГУ, 1991. - 79 с.

146. Рапопорт, И.А., Оморокова, М.И. Преодоление трудностей: из опыта обучения чтению [Текст]/И.А. Рапопорт, М.И. Оморокова. - М.:

Просвещение, 1990. -126 с.

147. Рахманов, И.В. Обучение устной речи на иностранном языке [Текст]/И.В. Рахманов. - М., 1980. - 97 с.

148. Роговин, М.С. Проблема понимания [Текст]: автореф. дис.

...канд. психол. наук/М.С. Роговин. - М., 1956. - 15 с.

149. Родова, Л.Н. Об интерференции при изучении второго ино­ странного языка [Текст]/Л.Н. Родова//Лингвистика и методика в высшей школе: сб.науч.тр. - М., 1967. - Т. 4. - С. 203 - 213.

150. Российская педагогическая энциклопедия. Т.1 [Текст]. - М.:

Большая Рос. энциклопедия, 1993. - 608 с.

151. Рубинштейн, С. Л. Проблемы общей психологии [Текст]/С.Л.

Рубинштейн. - М. : Педагогика, 1973. -423 с.

152. Рыкова, В.А. Методика обучения эмоциональной интонации английского языка на первом курсе языкового вуза [Текст]: автореф. дис.

... канд. пед. наук/В.А. Рыкова. - М., 1968. - 18 с.

153. Салистра, И.Д. Очерки методов обучения иностранным языкам:

Система упражнений и система занятий [Текст]/И.Д. Салистра. - М.:

Высш. шк. - 1966. - 252 с.

154. Серова, Т.С. Теоретические основы обучения профессионально ориентированному чтению на иностранном языке в неязыковом вузе [Текст]: автореф. дис.... докт. пед. наук: 13.00.02/Т.С. Серова. - Л., ЛГПИ:

1989.-57 с.

155. Скалкин, В.Л. Основы обучения устной иноязычной речи [Текст]/В.Л. Скалкин. - М.: Рус. яз., 1981.-248 с.

156. Сластенин, В.А. Педагогика [Текст]/В.А. Сластенин. - М. : Про­ свещение, 1976. - 352 с.

157. Словарь иностранных слов [Текст]. - М.: Рус. яз., 1988. - 624 с.

158. Смелякова, Л.П. Теоретические основы отбора художественного текстового материала для языкового вуза (на материале английского язы­ ка) [Текст]: дис.... докт. пед. наук : 13.00.02/Смелякова Л.П. - К.:

КГПИИЯ, 1992.-390 с.

159. Соловьева, Н.Г. Обучение устной речи в старших классах школ гуманитарного типа с использованием аутентичных культурно страноведческих материалов [Текст]: автореф. дис....канд. пед. наук/Н.Г.

Соловьева. - Томск, 1997. - 21 с.

160. Солонцова, Л.П. Методика обучения чтению научной литерату­ ры на основе двух параллельных текстов [Текст]: автореф. дис.... канд.

пед. наук/Л.П. Солонцова. - М., 1992. - 16 с.

161. Степанов, Г.В. Несколько замечаний о специфике художествен­ ного текста [Текст]/Г.В. Степанов//Лингвистика текста: сб. науч.

тр./МГПИИЯ им. М.Тореза. - 1976. - № 103. - С. 144.

162. Теоретические основы методики обучения иностранным языкам в средней школе [Текст]/под ред. А.Д. Климентенко, А.А. Миролюбова. М.: Педагогика, 1981. - 4 5 4 с.

163. Томахин, Г.Д. Теоретические основы лингвострановедения (на материале лексических американизмов английского языка) [Текст]: авто­ реф. дис.... докт. филолог. наук/Г.Д. Томахин. - М., 1984. - 32 с.

164. Ульянов, А.В. Обучение коммуникативным умениям чтения оригинального газетного материала учащихся старших классов школ с уг­ лубленным изучением французского языка: 13.00.02 [Текст]: дис.... канд.

пед. наук/Ульянов А.В. - Л.: ЛГПИ, 1990. - 195 с.

165. Унт, И.Э. Индивидуализация и дифференциация обучения [Текст]/И.Э. Унт. - М.: Педагогика, 1990. - 188 с.

166. Унт, И.Э. Индивидуализация учебных заданий и ее эффектив­ ность [Текст]: автореф. дис.... докт. пед. наук: 13.00.01/И.Э. Унт. - Виль­ нюс, 1975.-40 с.

167. Филимонова, Л.Н. Формирование навыков и умений работы с английскими оригинальными текстами по специальности (на материале исторических текстов) [Текст]: автореф. дис.... канд. пед. наук/Л.Н. Фи­ лимонова. - М., 1984. - 16 с.

168. Фоломкина, С.К. Методика обучения чтению на английском языке в средней школе [Текст]: автореф. дис... докт. пед. наук:

13.00.02/С.К. Фоломкина. - М., 1974. - 64 с.

169. Фоломкина, С.К. Обучение чтению [Текст]: лекции по курсу «Методика преподавания иностранных языков»/С.К. Фоломкина. - М.:

МГПИИЯ, 1980. - 76 с.

170. Фоломкина, С.К. Обучение чтению на иностранном языке в не­ языковом вузе [Текст]/С.К. Фоломкина. - М.: Высш. Шк., 1987. - 206 с.

171. Фоломкина, С.К. Текст в обучении иностранным языкам [Текст]/С.К. Фоломкина//ИЯШ. - 1985. - №3. - С. 18 - 22.

172. Хазов, П.В. Особенности строения текста газетной хроники и проблемы обучения чтению [Текст]/П.В. Хазов//Русский язык за рубежом.

- 1985.-№3.-С.76-79.

173. Халеева, И.И. Основы теории обучения пониманию иноязычной речи (подготовка переводчика) [Текст]/И.И. Халеева. - М.: Высш. шк., 1989.-238 с.

174. Хлыбова, Г.Б. Реализация принципа активности в обучении французскому языку студентов неязыковых факультетов педвузов [Текст]:

автореф. дис.... канд. пед. наук/Г.Б. Хлыбова. - М., 1988. - 16 с.

175. Хомякова, Н.П. Индивидуально-дифференцированный подход как фактор оптимизации учебного процесса [Текст]: учеб. пособие для преподавателей/Н.П. Хомякова. - М.: МГИМО, 1989. - 139 с.

176. Черепова, Н.Ю. Субъективные стратегии работы с текстом [Текст]: автореф. дис...канд. психол. наук: 19.00.01/Н.Ю. Черепова. - М., 1998. - 22 с.

177. Шатилов, С.Ф. Методика обучения немецкому языку в средней школе [Текст]: учеб. пособие /С.Ф. Шатилов. - М.: Просвещение, 1986. 223 с.

178. Шатилов, С.Ф., Путилина, Т.Н. Некоторые вопросы обучения второму иностранному языку как специальности [Текст]/С.Ф. Шатилов, Т.Н. Путилина//Теория и методика преподавания иностранного языка в ка­ честве второй специальности. - Л.: ЛГПИ, 1980. - С. 3 - 10.

179. Шевченко, Н.И. О комплексе упражнений для обучения чтению на иностранном языке [Текст]/Н.И. Шевченко//Обучение чтению на ино­ странном языке в вузе. - Саратов: Изд-во СУ, 1983.-124 с.

180. Шейлз, Д. Коммуникативность в обучении современным языкам [Текст]/Д. Шейлз//Совет по культурному сотрудничеству. - Совет Европы Пресс, 1995.-349 с.

181. Шицгал, А.Г. Шрифтовое оформление современных газет и журналов [Текст]/А.Г. Шицгал. - М., Просвещение, 1967 - 46 с.

182. Шляхов, В.И. Индивидуализация обучения и проблемы созда­ ния самоучителя русск. языка [Текст]: автореф. дис.... канд. пед. наук:

13.00.02/В.И. Шляхов. - М., 1982.-25 с.

183. Штульман, Э.А. Основы эксперимента в методике обучения иностранным языкам [Текст]/Э.А. Штульман. - Воронеж, 1971. - 97 с.

184. Шубин, Э.П. Языковая коммуникация и обучение иностранным языкам [Текст]/Э.П. Шубин. - М. : Просвещение, 1972. - 350 с.

185. Щосева, Е.П. Дифференцированный подход к обучению моно­ логической речи на первом этапе неязыкового вуза (англ. язык) [Текст]/Е.П. Щосева. - М, 1991. - 23 с.

186. Щукина, Г.И. Проблема познавательного интереса в педагогике [Текст]/Г.И. Щукина. - М.: Педагогика, 1971. - 352 с.

187. Якиманская, И.С. Личностно-ориентированное обучение в со­ временной школе [Текст]/И.С. Якиманская. - М.: Сентябрь, 1996. - 96 с.

188. Якобсон, П.М. Психологические проблемы мотивации поведе­ ния человека [Текст]/П.М. Якобсон. - М.: Просвещение, 1969. - 317 с.

189. Alderson, J.Ch., Urquart, А.Н. Reading in a Foreign Language [TextJ/J.Ch. Alderson, A. H. Urquart. - L., N.Y.: Longman, 1984. - 321 p.

190. Altman, H.B. Individualising the Foreign Language Classroom. Per­ spective for Teachers [Text]/H.B. Altman. - Newburry House Publishers, 1972.

- 164 p.

191. Barnett, L. Jordan, G. Self-access facilities: What are they for?

[Text]/L. Barnett, G. Jordan//ELT Journal. - OUP, 1991. - Volume 45/4. - P.

305 -312.

192. Carrol, J.B. Twenty-five years of research on foreign language apti­ tude [Text]/J.B. Carrol//Individual Differences and Universals in Language Learning Aptitude. - London: Newburry House Publishers Inc., 1981. - P. 83 118.

193. Cohen, A.D. Studying learner strategies: How we get the information [Text]/A.D. Cohen//Wenden A. & Rubin J. Learner strategies in language learn ing. - Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1987. - P. 31 - 40.

194. Duke, C. R. Teaching literature today [Text]/C. R. Duke. - Portland, Maine, 1979.-346 p.

195. Eckstrand, L. H. Age and length of residence as variables related to the adjustment of migrant children with special reference to second language learning: Papers presented at A I L A [Text]/L.H. Eckstrand. - Stuttgart: Verlag, 1 9 7 5. - X X I V. - 325 p.

196. Ek, J.A., J.L.M. Trim Threshold level. Council for Cultural Co operation [Texf]/J.A. Ek, Trim J.L.M. - Council of Europe Press, 1993. - P 197. Eysenck, H.J. Check your own I.Q. [Text]/H.J. Eysenck. Harmondsworth Penquin Books, 1970. - 160 p.

198. Gardner, D., Miller, L. Establishing self-access. From theory to prac tice [Text]/D. Gardner, L. Miller. - CUP, 1999. - 276 p.

199. Grenfell, M. Flexible learning: the teacher's friend? [Text]/M. Gren fell. - Modern English Teacher, 1994. - Vol. 3 (4). - P. 7 - 13.

200. Harmer, J. What is Communicative? [Text]/J. Harmer//ELT Journal.

- 1982. - Vol. 36/3. - P. 164 -166.

201. Ideas Plus. A Collection of Practical Teaching Ideas [Text]. - Na tional Council of Teachers of English, 1 9 9 1. - B. 9. - 6 4 p.

202. Krashen, S.D. Aptitude and Attitude in Relation to Second Language Acquisition and Learning [Text]/S.D. Krashen//Individual Differences and Uni versals in Language Learning Aptitude. - London: Newburry House Publishers Inc., 1981.-P. 155-171.

203. Lee, W.R. Language teaching games and contests [Text]/W.R. Lee. L.: OUP, 1965.- 167 p.

204. McCombs, D.L. Motivational skills training: Combining metacogni tive, cognitive, and affective learning strategies [Text]/D.L. McCombs;

Eds.:

C.E. Weinstein, E.T. Goetz, P.A. Alexander//Learning and study strategies: Is­ sues in assessment, instruction, and evaluation. - New York: Academic Press, 1998.- P. 177- 187.

205. Nuttall, C. Teaching Reading Skills in a Foreign Language [Text]/C.

Nuttall. - Macmillan Publishers Limited, 1998. - 282 p.

206. O'Malley, M. J.;

Chamot, A. Url Learning Strategies in Second Lan­ guage Acquisition [Text]/M. J. O'Malley, A. Chamot. - L.: CUP, 1995. - 260 p.

207. Oxford, R. L. Language Learning Strategies: What every teacher should know [Text]/R. L. Oxford. - USA: Heinle & Heinle Publishers, 1990. 344 p.

208. Rivers, W.N. The Psychologist and the Foreign Language Teacher [Text]/W.N. Rivers. - Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1977. - 201 p.

209. Seliger, H.W. Improving Reading Speed and Comprehension in Eng­ lish as a Second Language [Text]/H.W. Seliger//English Language Teaching. 1972.-Vol. 2 7. - № l. - P. 2 7 - 3 2.

210. Ur, P. A Course in Language Teaching: Practice and Theory [Text]/P. Ur. - L.: CUP, 1996. - 380 p.

211. Wesche, M. B. Language Aptitude Measures in Streaming, Matching Students with Methods, and Diagnosis of Learning Problems [Text]/M.B.

Wesche//Individual Differences and Universals in Language Learning Aptitude.

- London: Newburry House Publishers Inc., 1981. - P. 119 - 154.

212. Widdowson, H.G. Aspects of Language Teaching [Text]/H.G.

Widdowson. - Oxford: OUP, 1990. - 290 p.

Список приложений 1. Анкета для преподавателей 2. Результаты анкетирования преподавателей 3. Анкета для студентов 4. Результаты анкетирования студентов 5. Список сокращений для таблиц 6. Материалы разведывательного эксперимента 7. Материалы обучающего эксперимента 8. Инструкции по самостоятельной работе с текстом для инди видуального чтения 9. План-схема для работы с текстом для индивидуального чте ния 10. Образцы текстов для обучения индивидуальному чтению на втором этапе обучения Приложение Анкета для преподавателей 1. Считаете ли Вы необходимым осуществление личностно ориентированного подхода при обучении иностранному языку? (от­ метьте, пожалуйста, то, что Вам подходит) Считаю Не всегда Не считаю 2. Считаете ли Вы необходимым осуществление личностно ориентированного подхода при обучении чтению?

Считаю Не всегда Не считаю 3. Считаете ли Вы необходимым осуществление личностно ориентированного подхода при обучении индивидуальному чтению студентов?

Считаю Не всегда Не считаю 4. Предоставляют ли существующие учебные пособия возможность для учета индивидуальных особенностей студентов при обучении чте­ нию на иностранном языке?

Предоставляют Частично Не предоставляют 5. Используете ли Вы в своей работе приемы индивидуализации обу­ чения при обучении чтению на иностранном языке?

Использую постоянно Использую время от времени Не использую 6. Какие из указанных ниже приемов индивидуализации Вы исполь­ зуете при обучении чтению? (отметьте, пожалуйста, то, что Вы ис­ пользуете) • Варьирование заданий и текстов по уровню сложности включенного в них языкового материала • Использование дополнительных усложненных текстов и заданий для «сильных» студентов и упрощенных - для «слабых»

• Варьирование текстов по содержанию в соответствии с интересами учащихся • Дополнительные опоры /лексические, грамматические «подсказки» для отдельных студентов / • Алгоритмы действий, «памятки» по работе с текстами для отдельных студентов • Варьирование времени выполнения задания для различных групп сту­ дентов • Варьирование объема предлагаемого задания в пределах норм, установ­ ленных Программой • «Свободный» выбор текстов для индивидуального чтения и заданий к ним • Индивидуальные задания, направленные на развитие мышления, памя­ ти, внимания 7. Какие еще приемы и пути индивидуализации Вы видите при обуче­ нии студентов индивидуальному чтению на иностранном языке?

• Обсуждение текстов на русском языке со «слабыми» студентами на на­ чальном этапе работы над индивидуальным чтением 8. Соответствуют ли, на Ваш взгляд, тексты, предлагаемые для инди­ видуального чтения требованиям, предъявляемым к текстам для чте­ ния (информационная насыщенность, познавательная ценность, соот­ ветствие возрастным особенностям и т.д.) Соответствуют Соответствуют частично Не соответствуют 9. Каковы, на Ваш взгляд, достоинства и/или недостатки текстов, предназначенных для индивидуального чтения?

Приложение Результаты анкетирования преподавателей Всего в анкетировании приняло участие 50 преподавателей Поморского государственного университета и учителей школ г. Архангельска.

1. Считаете ли Вы необходимым осуществление личностно ориентированного подхода при обучении иностранному языку?

Считаю - 8 2 % Не всегда - 1 8 % Не считаю - 0 % 2. Считаете ли Вы необходимым осуществление личностно ориентированного подхода при обучении чтению?

Считаю - 76%о Не всегда - 2 0 % Не считаю - 4 % 3. Считаете ли Вы необходимым осуществление личностно ориентированного подхода при обучении индивидуальному чтению студентов?

Считаю - 86%о Не всегда - 1 4 % Не считаю - 0 % 4. Предоставляют ли существующие учебные пособия возможность для учета индивидуальных особенностей студентов при обучении чтению на иностранном языке?

Предоставляют - 6 % Частично - 32%о Не предоставляют - 6 2 % 5. Используете ли Вы в своей работе приемы индивидуализации обучения при обучении чтению на иностранном языке?

Использую постоянно - 28% Использую время от времени - 54% Не использую - 18% 6. Какие из указанных ниже приемов индивидуализации Вы используете при обучении чтению?

• Варьирование заданий и текстов по уровню сложности включенного в них языкового материала - 54% • Использование дополнительных усложненных текстов и заданий для «сильных» студентов и упрощенных - для «слабых» - 46% • Варьирование текстов по содержанию в соответствии с интересами учащихся - 22% • Дополнительные опоры (лексические, грамматические «подсказки» для отдельных студентов) - 10% • Алгоритмы действий, «памятки» по работе с текстами для отдельных студентов - 14%) • Варьирование времени выполнения задания для различных групп студентов - 26%) • Варьирование объема предлагаемого задания в пределах норм, установленных Программой - 30% • «Свободный» выбор текстов для индивидуального чтения и заданий к ним - 16%) • Индивидуальные задания, направленные на развитие мышления, памяти, внимания - 0% 7. Какие еще приемы и пути индивидуализации Вы видите при обучении студентов индивидуальному чтению на иностранном языке?

• Обсуждение текстов на русском языке со «слабыми» студентами на начальном этапе работы над индивидуальным чтением - 8% 8. Соответствуют ли, на Ваш взгляд, тексты, предлагаемые для индивидуального чтения требованиям, предъявляемым к текстам для чтения (информационная насыщенность, познавательная ценность, соответствие возрастным особенностям и т.д.) Соответствуют - 6% Соответствуют частично - 22% Не соответствуют - 72% 9. Каковы, на Ваш взгляд, достоинства и/или недостатки текстов, предназначенных для индивидуального чтения?

В ответах преподаватели отметили недостатки таких текстов:

• не связаны с настоящей жизнью студентов • «искусственные» с точки зрения языка • не развивают обучающихся • слишком трудные • нет курса для обучения студентов навыкам и умениям индивидуального чтения • не представляют единого целого для индивидуального чтения • неинтересные Задание: Подчеркните те ответы, которые относятся к Вам.

Если считаете нужным, напишите свой вариант ответа.

1. Как часто Вы читаете дополнительную литературу (периодику, книги) на русском языке?

Регулярно Нерегулярно Очень редко 2. Какая литература представляется Вам наиболее интересной для индивидуального чтения? Выберите интересующие Вас темы:

Астрономия. Исследования космоса Великобритания (традиции, культура, менталитет, история) Возможности получения образования Выбор профессии Жизнь сверстников за рубежом Искусство (виды искусства, знаменитые художники, картинные галереи, музеи) Кино (знаменитые актеры, режиссеры) Мир животных Мода Молодежные проблемы Музыка (современная, классическая, известные музыканты) Научные открытия Отношения между людьми Отношения в семье Охрана окружающей среды Политика Путешествия и приключения Религия Социальные проблемы Спорт (виды спорта, биографии спортсменов) Телевидение и другие средства массовой информации Техника (современные технологии) Юмористические истории 3. Любите ли Вы читать дополнительную литературу на английском языке?

Да Нет Не очень 4. Как часто Вы читаете дополнительную литературу на английском языке?

Каждый день Раз в неделю Редко 5. Что Вы предпочитаете читать индивидуально?

Небольшие по объему тексты Большие произведения 6. Что Вы предпочитаете?

Читать каждый день небольшими порциями Сразу прочитать весь текст 7. Какие трудности Вы испытываете при индивидуальном чтении?

Лексические трудности:

• Неузнавание изученных слов и выражений • Неумение самостоятельно семантизировать слово по контекстуальной догадке • Неумение определить значение слова по словообразовательным элементам Грамматические трудности:

• Неумение разобраться в структуре сложного предложения Трудности, связанные с пониманием структуры и смысловых связей текста:

• Неумение разделить текст на законченные в смысловом отношении отрезки в процессе чтения • Неумение установить смысловые отношения, существующие между отрезком и целым текстом Трудности, связанные со знанием реалий страны изучаемого языка 8. Кто (что) помогает Вам в преодолении трудностей в процессе индивидуального чтения?

• Консультации преподавателя • Консультации студентов (своей группы) • Словари • Справочники • Опускаете трудности 9. С чего Вы начинаете работу с текстом для индивидуального чтения?

• С работы со словарем • С выписывания незнакомых слов • С перевода всех незнакомых слов из текста • С перевода некоторых слов, необходимых для понимания текста • С чтения текста без словаря с целью понять общее содержание текста • С чтения и анализа трудных для понимания языковых явлений текста 10. Что мешает эффективной работе над текстом для индивидуального чтения?

• Неумение организовать себя • Отсутствие промежуточного контроля преподавателя за индивидуальным чтением студента • Отсутствие руководств/инструкций по организации эффективного индивидуального чтения 11. Что помогло бы Вам при индивидуальном чтении текстов?

• Информация о предлагаемых для индивидуального чтения текстах • Возможность выбора текста для индивидуального чтения Дополните ответы, если это необходимо.

На вопросы анкеты отвечали 69 студентов За- Подчеркните, отметьте те ответы, которые отно дание: сятся к Вам. Если считаете нужным, напишите свой вари­ ант ответа.

1. Как часто Вы читаете дополнительную литературу (периоди­ ка, книги) на русском языке?

Регулярно - 73,9 % Не регулярно - 26,1 % Очень редко - 0 % 2. Какая литература представляется Вам наиболее интересной для индивидуального чтения?

Астрономия. Исследования космоса - 42,0 % Великобритания (традиции, культура, менталитет, история) - 82,6 % Возможности получения образования - 73,9 % Выбор профессии - 66,6 % Жизнь сверстников за рубежом - 69,6 % Искусство (виды искусства, знаменитые художники, картинные га­ лереи, музеи) - 13,0 % Кино (знаменитые актеры, режиссеры) - 66,6 % Мир животных - 59,4 % Мода - 69,6 % Молодежные проблемы - 86,9 % Музыка (современная, классическая, известные музыканты) - 47,8 % Научные открытия - 47,8 % Отношения между людьми - 86,9 % Отношения в семье - 66,6 % Охрана окружающей среды - 47,8 % Политика - 13,0 % Путешествия и приключения - 59,4 % Религия - 13,0 % Социальные проблемы - 58,0 % Спорт (виды спорта, биографии спортсменов) - 30,4 % Телевидение и другие средства массовой информации - 43,5 % Техника (современные технологии) - 42,0 % Юмористические истории - 82,6 % 3. Любите ли Вы читать дополнительную литературу на англий­ ском языке?

Да-29,0% Не о ч е н ь - 4 3, 5 % Нет - 27,5 % 4. Как часто Вы читаете дополнительную литературу на англий­ ском языке?

Каждый день - 15,9 % Раз в неделю - 30,4 % Редко - 53,7 % (встретились ответы: только перед тем, как отчитать­ ся о прочитанной книге;

читаю дополнительную литературу перед сдачей, сдаем 1 раз в семестр) 5. Что Вы предпочитаете читать индивидуально?

Небольшие по объему тексты - 72,5 % Большие произведения - 27,5 % 6. Что Вы предпочитаете?

Читать каждый день небольшими порциями - 42,0 % Сразу прочитать весь текст - 58,0 % 7. Какие трудности Вы испытываете при индивидуальном чте­ нии?

Лексические трудности:

• Неузнавание изученных слов и выражений - 43,5 % • Неумение самостоятельно семантизировать слово по контек­ стуальной догадке - 56,5 % • Неумение определить значение слова по словообразователь­ ным элементам - 59,4 % Грамматические трудности:

• Неумение разобраться в структуре сложного предложения 39,1 % • Трудности в понимании видо-временных форм - 29,0 % • Неумение определить значение слова по словообразователь­ ным элементам - 42,0 % Трудности, связанные с пониманием структуры и смысловых связей текста:

• Неумение разделить текст на законченные в смысловом отно­ шении отрезки в процессе чтения - 42,0 % • Неумение установить смысловые отношения, существующие между отрезком и целым текстом - 47,8 % • Непонимание межфразовых связей в тексте - 40,6 % Трудности, связанные со знанием реалий страны изучаемого языка - 66,6% 8. Кто (что) помогает Вам в преодолении трудностей в процессе индивидуального чтения?

• Консультации преподавателя - 13,0 % • Консультации студентов (своей группы) - 27,5 % • Словари - 86,9 % • Справочники - 44,9 % • Опускаете трудности - 26,1 % 9. С чего Вы начинаете работу с текстом для индивидуального чтения?

• С работы со словарем - 59,4 % • С выписывания незнакомых слов - 44,9 % • С перевода всех незнакомых слов из текста - 46,4 % • С перевода некоторых слов, необходимых для понимания тек­ ста - 42,0 % • С чтения текста без словаря с целью понять общее содержание текста -40,6 % • с чтения и анализа трудных для понимания языковых явлений текста -37,7 % 10. Что мешает эффективной работе над текстом для индивиду­ ального чтения?

• Неумение организовать себя - 36,23 % • Отсутствие промежуточного контроля преподавателя за инди­ видуальным чтением студента - 73,9 % • Отсутствие руководств/инструкций по организации эффек­ тивного индивидуального чтения - 82,6 % 11. Что помогло бы Вам при индивидуальном чтении текстов?

• Информация о предлагаемых для индивидуального чтения тек­ стах - 88,4 % • Возможность выбора текста для индивидуального чтения 94,2 % ЭГ - экспериментальная группа КГ - контрольная группа ПрС - предэкспериментальный срез ПС - постэкспериментальный срез K(ci) - коэффициент понимания главной мысли (Central Idea) K(ci ср) - средний коэффициент понимания главной мысли (Central Idea) K(r) - коэффициент понимания логико-композиционных связей текста (Relationships) К(г ср) - средний коэффициент понимания логико-композиционных связей текста (Relationships) K(s) - коэффициент распознавания лексико-грамматических явлений (Structure) K(s ср) - средний коэффициент распознавания лексико-грамматических явлений (Structure) K(j) - коэффициент умений делать собственные выводы, вычленять факты и умозаключения (Judgements) С K(j Р) ~ средний коэффициент умений делать собственные выводы, вычленять факты и умозаключения (Judgements) 6.1 Результаты констатирующих срезов Табл. 6.2 Список испытуемых 6.3 Материалы констатирующих срезов Central Idea Relationships Structure Judgements Context Sensory Images Inventory Номер К(г),% K(j),% К(с),% K(i),% K(ci), % K(cp), K(s),% K(si),% испыту­ /о емого 1 4/8 х 7/12 х 19/31 х 5/8 х 100% 8/12 х 7/12 х 7/10 x 61, 100%=50,0 100%=58,3 =62, 5 100%=66,7 100%=58,3 100%= 70, 100%=61, 2 6/8 х 100%= 8/12 х 21/31 х 5/8 х 100% 8/12 х 7/12 х 5/10 x 63, 75,0 100%=66,7 100%=67,7 =62, 5 100%=66,7 100%=58,3 100%= 50, 3 4/8 х 100%= 5/12 х 16/31 х 4/8 5/12 х 4/12 х 4/10 x 44, 50,0 100%=51,6 х100%=50,0 100%=33,3 100%= 40, 100%=41,7 100%=41, 4 5/8 х 100% 6/12 х 17/31 х 4/8 7/12 х 6/12 x 5/10 x 53, =62, 5 100%= 50,0 100%=54,8 х100%=50,0 100%=58,3 100%= 50,0 100%= 50, 5 3/8 х 100% = 4/12 х 11/31 х 3/8 х 100% 5/12 х 4/12 x 3/10 x 35, 37,5 100%=33,3 100%=35,5 = 37,5 100%=33,3 100%= 30, 100%=41, 6 5/8 х 100% 5/12 х 15/31 х 4/8 7/12 х 6/12 x 4/10 x 50, =62, 5 100%=48,4 х100%=50,0 100%=58,3 100%= 50,0 100%= 40, 100%=41, 7 4/8 8/12 х 17/31 х 6/8 х 100%= 7/12 х 7/12 х 5/10 х 59, х100%=50,0 100%=66,7 100%=54,8 75,0 100%=58,3 100%=58,3 100%= 50, 8 3/8 х 100% = 5/12 х 15/31 х 5/8 х 100% 5/12 х 5/12 х 4/10 х 42, 37,5 100%=48,4 =62, 5 100%= 40, 100%=41,7 100%=41,7 100%=41, 9 3/8 х 100% = 5/12 х 10/31 х 3/8 х 100% 5/12 х 4/12 х 3/10 х 36, 37,5 100%=32,2 = 37,5 100%=33,3 100%= 30, 100%=41,7 100%=41, 10 4/8 х 100%= 6/12 х 17/31 х 4/8 6/12 х 5/12 х 5/10 х 49, 50,0 100%= 50,0 100%=54,8 х100%=50,0 100%= 50,0 100%= 50, 100%=41, Среднее K(i ср)=41, K(ci ср)= К(г ср)= K(s ср)= К(с ср)= K(si ср)= K(j ср)= значение 51,25 49,2 50,97 53,75 52,5 45, коэффици ентов Список испытуемых:

1. Катя Б.

Лидия Б.

2.

Оксана Б.

3.

Артем К.

4.

Анна П.

5.

Татьяна Г.

6.

Виктория Н 7.

Никита Ч.

8.

Слава Ш.

9.

10. Людмила Т.

Материалы констатирующего среза.

Central Idea Score: / Name:

DIAGNOSTIC/EVALUATION TEST As you read paragraphs A through С below, look for the central or main idea in each paragraph.

A. (1) Commercial aviation has started to "open up" the continent of Antarctica for tourists. (2) In the past, when the only way to travel there was by icebreaker ship and dogsled, a trip there may have seemed an impossibility.

(3) Only a few commercial airliners have visited Antarctica since a charter Pan American World Airways plane in 1957 became the first one to land at McMurdo Station. (4) Future air routes in the Southern Hemisphere will sure­ ly cross the Antarctic regions, however, just as flights between the United States and northern Europe now zip across the Arctic Circle.

B. (1) Is Antarctica a place you would like to visit someday? (2) Antarc­ tica has already been a tourist attraction for some years. (3) When the Argen tine government first offered Antarctic tourist cruises in 1958, there were hundreds more applications than it could handle. (4) In the mid-1960's a U.S.

travel agency began annual charter cruises to the Antarctic. (5) By the begin­ ning of the 1970's, the continent had been the goal of about twenty tourist cruises, sponsored by three different countries.

С. (1) A man who has read an account of some of the early explorers may have dreamed all his life of seeing the explorers' base as it actually was — and still is. (2) For a photographer, the beauty of Mount Erebus and the Beardmore Glacier are hard to match. (3) There is no other continent where a bird watcher can see emperor penguins in their natural surroundings. (4) The dry cold and magnificent scenery of McMurdo Sound might make it a popular ski area. (5) Many tourists, in fact, seem to have some special interest in Ant­ arctica.

(from THIS IS ANTARCTICA by Joseph M. Dukert.) Each of the paragraphs A through С has one sentence that best states the central idea of that paragraph. For each question which follows, write the letter of the best choice on your answer sheet. You may reread the paragraphs if you need to.

1. The best central idea sentence for paragraph A is:

a)\ b)2 c)3 d) a)\ b)2 c)3 d) e) 3. The best central idea sentence for paragraph С is:

a)\ b)2 c)3 d) e) 4. The central idea of paragraphs A, B, and С taken together is:

a) Thousands of tourists have already visited Antarctica.

b) Airliners can land at McMurdo Station.

c) Antarctica has many interesting features which tourists are just beginning to be able to enjoy.

d) The magnificent continent of Antarctica fascinates everyone.

Do the same for paragraphs D and E and the questions which follow.

D. (1) The gradual increase in tourists has already cut fares to Antarcti­ ca a little, but an American who goes there on a U.S. operated commercial cruise can expect to pay about $5,000 for this "trip of a lifetime." (2) The Ant­ arctic is a wonderful place to visit, but a stranger shouldn't go far without an escort. (3) In the long run, tourist groups will probably have to supply their own guides. (4) This would make trips even more costly, but representatives of all the Antarctic Treaty nations may insist on it. (5) All of these facts will probably make Antarctica for some time to come one of the most expensive places in the world to visit.

E. (1) Not everybody is enthusiastic about the growing tourist trade.

(2) Scientists worry that even well-meaning visitors will pollute the Antarctic environment. (3) Station commanders are concerned about the safety of the tourists, who range from children to grandmothers. (4) Still others point out that a small Antarctic base, established mainly for scientific and military pur poses, can't keep operating at all if its residents are surrounded by curious outsiders.

5. The best central idea sentence for paragraph D is:

a)\ b)2 c)3 d)4 e) 6. The best central idea sentence for paragraph E is:

a) I b)2 c)3 d) 7. The central idea of paragraphs D and E taken together is:

a) Tourists to Antarctica have all kinds of problems.

b) High travel costs and objections of scientists and others might limit the tourist trade to Antarctica.

c) Travelers to Antarctica expose themselves to considerable danger and re quire special guides to protect them.

d) For the present, travel in Antarctica would be a welcome relief from over crowded tourist spots around the world.

8. The central idea of all five paragraphs A through E taken together is:

a) Antarctica is the last great tourist attraction on this planet.

b) Only wealthy people will be able to travel to Antarctica in the near future.

c) Improved transportation is modernizing Antarctica.

d) Despite the many problems, the attractions of Antarctica are becoming more available to tourists.

Материалы констатирующего среза.

Relationships Score: / Name:

DIAGNOSTIC / E V A L U A T I O N TEST Read the article, then answer the questions.

Ever since primitive men and women discovered how to make and use a fire, we have burned fuel for warmth, and to cook food. About 6,000 years ago we began to burn fuel to smelt ore and form metal, to make glass and bake clay. About 200 years ago we began to burn fuel to boil water to run steam en­ gines. About 100 years ago we began to burn fuel to run the internal com­ bustion engines that would power our airplanes and automobiles and to gen­ erate the electricity that would give us light, radio, television, telephones, clocks, refrigerators, sewing machines, and electric toothbrushes.

To make all this possible, something was needed that would burn. First wood was used, but near the centers of civilization the forests began to disap­ pear. So we turned to coal and, still later, for greater convenience, to oil and natural gas. Every year we have burned more and more of this fuel. In 1970, enough was burned to produce some 20 billion billion calories of energy. That is the same as burning nearly three billion tons of coal. Further, each year there are more people on earth, more machines, more fuel-consuming devices, so that we are doubling our use of energy about every 15 years. By 1985, the world will need all the energy that could be produced by burning nearly six billion tons of coal.

Already many people are deeply concerned about our energy supply.

When the weather gets too hot for too long, electric companies in heavily pop ulated areas have to begin rationing electricity. In the winter, we can look for ward to a shortage in fuel oil and natural gas. Is our fuel supply running out?

Not just yet. The trouble right now is that tension in the Middle East is reducing oil supplies from there, and that difficulties in transportation in the United States and the necessity of clearing pollution agents out of fuel are lim iting the supply we can use. But someday, in the not-too-distant future, the fuels we ordinarily use will begin to run out.

At our present rate of energy use, there is enough gas, oil, and coal in the earth to keep us going for 7,500 years. Unfortunately, some of this fuel is so deep, or spread out so thin, that it would take more energy to dig or drill the fuel out of the earth than the fuel would yield when burned. Gas and oil are present in much smaller quantities than coal and would be used up much fast er, in perhaps a hundred years. If our needs continue to double every 15 years, all the gas and oil and coal will be gone in 135 years. We need to find some al ternate sources of fuel that will produce no pollution and will be plentiful enough to supply all our needs even if our population continues to increase.

One new energy source that became practical only 30 years ago is atom ic fission, but uranium, the element used to produce this energy, is hard to get — and the radioactive waste products from atomic fission are a far more dan gerous form of pollution than anything produced by the burning of coal or oil.

There is energy produced by moving water (waterfalls or river currents) and moving air (winds), or by the tides as they come and go, or by the heat in side the earth, or by the heat of the sun itself. There is no possibility of pollu tion here and such energy can never run out. It is difficult to control these forces, though, and they are not always convenient or reliable. Moreover, all these forms of energy are not enough. They would serve to stretch the supply, but we could not depend on them alone, (from, "The Power Crisis That Threat ens The World" by Isaac Asimov.) Write the letter of the best answer on your answer sheet. You may refer back to the article if you need to.

1. Which of the following uses of burning fuel came first?

a) powering automobiles c) running steam engines d) smelting ore and forming metal 2. If you were to construct a time chart of the kinds of fuel used throughout history, which of these would come first?

a) coal b) oil c) gas d) wood 3. For what reason did we turn to coal for fuel?

a) for greater convenience b) forests began to disappear c) to boil water to run steam engines d) something was needed that would burn 4. What amount of coal would have to be burned to provide the en ergy needed in 1985 — in comparison with 1970?

a) one-half the amount b) the same amount d) fifteen times the amount 5. In what kind of order are telephones, clocks, refrigerators, sewing machines, and electric toothbrushes mentioned?

a) in a simple listing of inventions using electricity b) in order of their usefulness c) in order of the amount of electricity they use d) in the order in which they were invented 6. As a fuel, how does coal compare to oil and natural gas?

a) coal is more convenient b) coal is in shorter supply c) coal provides less electricity d) coal is less convenient 7. Tension in the Middle East, difficulties in transportation, and pol lution control are all causes of which of the following?

a) the present limited fuel supply b) doubling the use of energy c) the switch to using oil and natural gas 8. Why is some of the fuel in the earth not usable?

a) We have no means of getting it out of the earth.

b) It would take too much energy to get it out.

c) It would contribute to the pollution of the environment.

d) It will begin to run out in the not-too-distant future.

9. According to the article, which of these sources of energy produces the worst form of pollution?

a) wood and coal b) oil and natural gas c) atomic fission d) can't tell from the article 10. Three of the following are reasons why we don't make more use of wind, water, sun, etc. Which one is not a reason?

a) too much pollution b) inconvenient c) unreliable d) not enough by themselves 11. According to the article, which of these sources of energy offers the most likely possibilities for use in the future?

a) moving water or air b) heat of the earth or sun c) atomic fission d) can't tell from the article 12. When the internal combustion engine and electrical generators were first developed, why was atomic fission not used? (Use evidence from the article to figure out the answer.) a) Atomic fission was far too powerful and dangerous.

b) There were shortages of all kinds of fuel.

c) Atomic fission only became practical 30 years ago.

d) There were billions of tons of coal to get rid of.

Приложение Score: / Name:

DIAGNOSTIC/EVALUATION TEST Write the correct answer on your answer sheet.

1. Displeasure means "a feeling of being annoyed, not satisfied." The root word of displeasure is:

a) lease b) ease c) plea d) please e) none of these 2. Unmarketable means "cannot be sold". The root word of unmar ketable is:

a) market b) table d) able e) none of these 3. Interchanging means "switching places" or "giving and taking."

The root word of interchanging is:

a) change b) hang c) in d) changing e) none of these 4. Outspread means "stretched" or "opened out." The root word of outspread is:

a) out b) spree c) press d) read e) none of these 5. Legendary means "like a story coming down from the past." The root word of legendary is:

a) leg b) end c) legend d) dare e) none of these 6. Overcharged means "asked too high a price." The root word of overcharged is:

a) over b) char c) charged d) hare e) none of these 7. Supersensitive means "seeing, hearing, feeling, etc., more than normal." The root word of supersensitive is:

a) super b) person c) sense e) none of these 8. The prefix mis- means "not;

badly;

etc." Mis- is not a prefix in which one of these words?

a) misspell b) misunderstand c) misty d) misuse 9. The prefix re- means "again;

once more." In which word is re- not a prefix?

a) regular b) remeasure c) refill d) reopen 10. The prefix со- means "with, together." In which word is со- not a prefix?

a) copilot b) coeducational d) colorful 11. The suffix -or means "a person who does (something)." -Or is not a suffix in which one of these words?

a) interior b) governor c) sailor d) supervisor 12. The suffix -ish means "like a _." Thus, childish means "like a child." In which word is -ish not a suffix?

a) sheepish b) devilish c) goldfish d) clownish 13. The suffix -en means "to make or cause to be _." Thus, darken means "to make dark or cause to be dark." In which word is -en not a suffix?

a) sadden b) awaken d) shorten Read the paragraphs;

then follow the directions.

Touristsflockedto Catania as soon as they heard about Mount Etna's eruption. Standing on the slopes with the mountaintop in the background, they watchedflaminglava shoot a thousand feet into the air.

The top of the volcano is a wasteland. But below, in the foothills, is a belt remarkable for its fertile farmland and vineyards. There are chestnut trees, lemon groves, and many beautiful flowers. All this lushness is the result of the deposits of rich volcanic ash.

The tourists saw this marvelous view. They also sawflamesattack the supports of a cable railway whose top station was completely covered by lava.

They saw scientists collecting samples of volcanic gases, and watched the lava's movement as it crept toward the villages. But the volcano's nightly fireworks display was the most spectacular sight of all.

Some words from the selection are listed below. If a word is a compound, write С in the blank, and draw a slanting line (/) between the two words that form the compound. If a word is a derivative, write D on the line, and circle the suffix.

1. tourists 2. eruption 3. moutaintop 12. lushness 4. background 13. volcanic 5. wasteland 14. marvelous 6. foothills 15. railway 7. remarkable 16. completely 8. farmland 17. movement 9. vineyards 18. fireworks 0. chestnut 1. beautiful Материалы констатирующего среза.

Judgements Score: / Name:

DIAGNOSTIC/EVALUATION TEST Read the story. Make careful inferences about what is really going on in this story, and then answer the questions on the next page. Write your answers in the blanks on your answer sheet.

"Hello. That you, Mom?" He glanced at his watch. The game had been over for a half-hour, and the gang would be coming down the street any mi­ nute now. "Hello, Mom. This is Jerry. Sure, I'm all right. I'm fine. And you?

Mom —" and his voice seemed to falter for a fraction of a second — "How is he? Is there any change?" There was a tiny silence. "Oh." His voice was a lit­ tle duller when he spoke again. "I see. Yeah. And that other specialist, he said the same thing? Oh, sure, sure. No, of course there's nothing to worry about.

No, I'm not worried;

I only just called to find out if there was any change, that was all. Did they say if he could ever — I mean, can he move his arms yet?" He gulped. "Well, that doesn't mean anything, really. All those things take time. Sure, a year, or maybe even less — What? What money? Oh, you mean I sent you last week? Now, Mom, I told you all about that already, didn't I?

Sure, it's a scholarship. I got it for playing football. I didn't need all that mon ey you and Pop had been saving up for me to go to college, and so I just thought maybe, with Pop being laid up now for a while and all—Who, me?

Homesick? Not so you'd notice it." He laughed. "I'm having the time of my life. I know practically everybody here already, and everybody knows me.

Every night we all sit around and talk, or else we go down to Semple's Drug store for a milk shake —" He opened the folding door a little. In the distance he could hear the sound of a band approaching.

"Well, Mom, I gotta hang up now. The gang'U be here in a minute.

We're having a celebration after the game today. Sure, I did, the whole game;

you oughta seen me in there. I made two touchdowns. Everybody's going down to Semple's after the game, and they'll all want me to be there, too. Listen, Mom. One other thing before they get here. I'm going to be sending you a little money each week from now on until Pop is better. No, Mom, heck, I got plen ty. Here they are now. Hear them?" The band had halted outside. Someone led a cheer.

"That's for me. Mom. Sure! Didn't I practically win the game for them today? Hear that?" He kicked open the door of the phone booth and held up the receiver. The crowd was calling, "Jerry! Hey, Jerry, come on!" "Hear that, Mom? Now goodbye. Tell Pop everything's okay, see? Now don't worry. Bye."

He stepped out of the booth, adjusting his white cap with "Semple's" printed in red letters. The crowd was lined along the soda fountain, shouting, "Jerry! Milk shake. Jerry!" (from "Snake Dance" by Corey Ford) 1. Jerry is calling his mother from.

a) his college dormitory b) Semple's Drugstore c) the school gymnasium 2. When he asks, "How is he?" Jerry is referring to.

a) his father b) his brother c) his best friend 3. When he asks, "Is there any change?" his mother's reply is probably a) "No" b) "Yes" c) "I don't know" 4. In the football game, Jerry actually.

a) got two touchdowns c) played, but not as well as he claims 5. Jerry says, "Everybody knows me." This is.

a) false, but makes him feel more important b) true, just as he claims c) true, but for a different reason than he suggests 6. He lets his mother hear the gang calling his name a) as an excuse to ha«g up b) because she doesn't believe him c) as evidence of his success 7. Jerry really gets the money he sends home from a) his football scholarship b) working at the drugstore c) borrowing from friends 8. The crowd calls, "Hey, Jerry, come on!" because a) they want him to go with them to Semple's b) someone else needs to use the phone c) they want him to wait on them Материалы констатирующего среза.

Context Score: / Name:

DIAGNOSTIC/EVALUATION TEST Use context clues to figure out the meaning for each italicized and numbered word in the article. On your answer sheet, write the letter of the best meaning for each word.

The earth's oceans are colossal (1), so much bigger than the land area that they cover 70 percent of the surface of the earth. They give us food and minerals and play a major part in shaping our weather. The extremes of tem­ perature on the earth would be much greater, and many places would be too hot or too cold without the oceans which act as the earth's thermostat (2).

1. a) interesting b) huge c) important d) useful b) weather forecaster c) device for regulating temperature d) fuel supply In some ways we know more about the stars millions of miles away than about the contiguous (3) sea. This is true partly because oceanography (4) is a comparatively new science. Only since World War II have scientists begun carefully to probe (5) the deep parts of the sea to find out what is there.

3. a) far-off b) deep blue c) stormy d) nearby 4. a) program of water safety b) study of the sea c) plan to create new rivers and lakes d) method of getting power from water 5. a) dream about b) describe c) examine As our supply of fresh water becomes more and more scarce, we have naturally looked to the oceans, the greatest source of water on earth. But there is so much salt in sea water that it is not fit for human consumption (6). Scien tists have been trying to find ways to turn this saline (7) water into fresh wa ter. Machines for this conversion (8) of water are already at work in certain parts of the world, but their cost is still exorbitant (9). Scientists will have to find much cheaper ways to do the job.

6. a) medicine b) use c) study d) waste 7. a) salty b) dirty c) very cold d) unneeded 8. a) use b) change c) drying up 9. a) cheap b) unknown c) sensible d) much too high Possibilities for food abound (10) in the ocean. In addition to the hun dreds of varieties of fish, some kinds of seaweed can be eaten. Or plankton, a floating mass of microscopic plants and animals, could easily be nurtured (11) and harvested as a crop. So far, though, plankton is pretty much inedible (12) because no one has yet been able to figure out how to disguise its awful flavor.

10. a) are few b) do not exist c) are many d) are killed off or destroyed 11. a) discovered b) raised c) examined d) washed b) nourishing c) popular d) impossible to grow Материалы констатирующего среза.

Sensory Images Score: / Name:

DIAGNOSTIC/EVALUATION TEST Form sensory images as you read this story episode. Then answer the ques­ tions. Write your answers in the blanks on your answer sheet.

(Dave is just waking up from a dream in which he has met his double — a boy who looks just like him except for long, shaggy hair and a crooked white scar all along one cheekbone.) The warm darkness closed safely around him. Dave let out a soft sigh of relief and drew his knees up against his chest. The movement was answered by a low whimper, a cold nose, and a warm, snuggling shape.

"Brownie? How'd you get in here? He spoke in a whisper and reached out a hand to give the terrier's ears a rub. Then he stopped, startled, his hand on the dog's head. "Brownie?" The hair on the broad forehead bristled under his hand. The ears stiff­ ened. The whispered name hung in the darkness.

A faint rasp rose at the back of the dog's throat, a trembling, undecided sound that might become either growl or whine. Dave felt and heard the dog move nervously backward. Not down from the bed, but backward until there was a sound that might have been the scraping of a large dog's toenails against stone.


Rising up in surprise, Dave struck his elbow a sharp crack on what should have been his soft mattress. He lay back in alarm. His first thought was that he was not in his own bed but still moving in the shifting dream. Yet noth ing happened. And dreams do not stand still.

As minutes dragged on, the darkness was more and more a blindfold, less and less a comfort. Dave held his breath and felt his heartbeat ease. His senses sharpened with a straining to hear and see. He could not be awake! The elbow throbbed, but though his fingers ached to rub it, he kept still. By not moving, he was able to keep from being sure whether he was in his own bed or — The scratchy wool of an unfamiliar blanket, the missing sheet, the damp, and the stink of dog and mildew could almost be reasoned away with tumbled bedclothes, a window left open to the rain, and one of Brownie's unhappy ac cidents... but not the sounds that his sharpened hearing caught. Not the thump of a long tail, soft breathing everywhere, and a sigh from somewhere behind his back that was scarcely doglike. A wisp of hair slipped across his cheek to rest along his nose, and in a sudden terror that he might sneeze, Dave raised a hand to press his upper lip hard against his teeth.

Hair. His own hair? His own and not his own. His fingers found the scar and followed it in slow unbelief along the cheekbone to twine themselves in a tangle of matted curls (From OVER THE SEA'S EDGE by Jane Louise Curry.) 1. Which two senses react most strongly to this passage?

a) sight and hearing b) hearing and touch c) smell and taste 2. As Dave wakes up, what does he hear first?

a) a dog whimpering b) someone snoring c) rain 3. As Dave wakes up, what does he see?

a) a dog b) rain at the window c) darkness 4. When he reaches out his hand, what does he touch?

a) Brownie b) a strange dog c) his mattress 5. What kind of dog do you imagine?

a) a terrier b) a hound c) a toy poodle 6. Against what kind of surface does Dave hit his elbow?

a) soft b) hard c) scratchy 7. What does Dave seem to be lying on?

a) his mattress b) a sandy beach c) a stone floor 8. What detail finally convinces Dave he is not at home?

a) scratchy wool b) dampness c) a human sigh 9. At the end, what has Dave begun to suspect has happened?

b) He has gone back to sleep.

c) He has changed into his double.

10. Which sensory image suggests what has happened?

a) fingers touching scar b) sound of soft breathing c) lip being pressed against teeth 11. How does Dave feel at the beginning of this episode?

a) secure b) frightened c) angry 12. How does Dave feel by the end of the episode?

a) secure b) frightened c) angry Материалы констатирующего среза.

Inventory Score: / Name:

DIAGNOSTIC/EVALUATION TEST Use your inventory skills to read this article. Then go on to the questions on the next page.

What will our cities be like in 30 years? If the present sprawl of cities continues, places such as Boston and Washington, Chicago and Pittsburgh will be replaced by almost uninterrupted stretches of buildings that may be called Boswash, or Chipitts. The word "Megalopolis" is already being used to de­ scribe this trend (from mega, meaning large or giant-sized, and polls, meaning city). Rut maybe Megasprawl will be more like it.

There are two major answers to this problem. One is to build new cities in thinly populated areas. The other is to make our present cities more livable — to create "new cities in cities." This is really what urban renewal is all about.

One approach to urban renewal, called the Stratasystem, proposes build ing cities in several strata, or layers. For example:

Ground Level: Regular streets remain, though some are closed off to or dinary traffic and used to help service the buildings above. This level would include some parking area, police and fire stations, loading and warehouse fa cilities.

Parking Level: Parking for the residents.

Support Facilities Level: Schools, playgrounds, medical clinics, church es, recreational areas.

Mechanical Level: Electrical and telephone lines and other necessary mechanical utilities;

mail, laundry, and supply rooms.

The Upper Concourse: The "downtown" level, containing shops, thea ters, playgrounds, swimming pools, and broad walks.

Housing Level: Where people actually live. There would be many differ ent types of housing units — some large, some small, some expensive, some not so expensive.

One advantage of the Stratasystem is that the levels themselves can be changed and stacked in different ways. Further, if a huge platform were con structed over an existing neighborhood, and new housing built on top of that, urban renewal could take place without leaving people homeless while it was done.

(from "City of the Future"JUNIOR SCHOLASTIC, October 18, 1997) Answer the following questions without looking back at the article. Write your answers in the blanks on your answer sheet.

1. The word "Megalopolis" means.

a) giant city b) urban renewal c) layered city 2. One answer to the problem of sprawl is to build a) new cities in thinly populated areas b) buildings as tall as possible c) no more buildings within existing cities 3. Strata means.

a) cities b) facilities c) layers 4. "Boswash" refers to.

a) a megalopolis including Boston and Washington.

b) the laundry facility on the mechanical level c) the name of one approach to urban renewal 5. In the article, the "downtown" level is called.

b) Chipitts c) the Upper Concourse 6. Housing would be built on.

a) the ground level b) the top level c) all the levels 7. Housing units would be.

a) all the same b) of many different types c) very costly 8. Parking would be allowed.

a) on a certain level b) not at all c) only for certain people 9. What does the article say about changing levels and stacking them in different ways?

a) It is one advantage of the strata system.

c) It would ruin existing cities.

10. What does the article say about building a huge platform over an ex isting neighborhood?

a) People would have to move out so that the area could be rebuilt.

b) New building could take place without leaving people homeless.

c) It cannot be done.

7.1 Результаты пред-(табл.2, 4, 6) и постэкспериментальных срезов (табл. 3,5,7) 7.2 Списки испытуемых 7.3 Материалы предэкспериментального среза 7.4 Материалы постэкспериментального среза К(г),% Резуль Номер K(ci),% K(j),% испыту­ тат, % емого 1 3/бх 2/4х 4/10 х 3/бх 47, 100%=50,0 100%=50,0 100%=40,0 100%=50, 2 2/6х 3/10 х 2/6х 28, 1/4х 100%=30,0 100%=25,0 100%=30,0 100%=30, 3 2/6х 3/4х 7/10 х 4/6х 60, 100%=30,0 100%=75,0 100%= 70,0 100%=66, 4 2/6х 4/10 х 2/6х 31, 1/4х 100%=30,0 100%=25,0 100%=40,0 100%=30, 5 3/8 х 100% 2/4х 4/10 х 3/бх 44, =37,5 100%=50,0 100%=40,0 100%=50, 6 4/6х 3/4х 5/10 х 4/6х 64, 100%=66,0 100%=75,0 100%=50,0 100%=66, 7 4/6х 2/4х 7/10 х 3/бх 59, 100%=66,0 100%=50,0 100%= 70,0 100%=50, 8 3/6 х 100% 2/4х 2/10 х 2/6х 34, =37,5 100%=50,0 100%=20,0 100%=30, 9 3/6 х 100% 2/4х 4/10 х 2/6х 39, =37,5 100%=50,0 100%=40,0 100%=30, 10 2/6х 4/10 х 2/6х 31, 1/4х 100%=30,0 100%=25,0 100%=40,0 100%=30, fr сд)= Среднее K(ci ср)= K(s ср)= КО ср)= значени 40,0 47,5 44,0 45, е К(Ы), % Щг), % K(s), % Резуль Номер Кф, % тат, % испыту емого 1 5/6 х 4/4 х 7/10 х 6/6 X 88, 100%=83,3 100%= 100 100%=70,0 100%= 2 4/6 х 2/4 х 5/10 х 3/6 х 49, 100%=66,0 100%=50,0 100%=50,0 50%=30, 3 4/6 х 4/4 х 8/10 х 5/6 х 82, 100%=66,0 100%= 100 100%=80,0 100%=83, 4 3/6 х 2/4 х 5/10 х 3/6 х 50, 100%=50,0 100%=50,0 100%=50,0 100%=50, 5 4/6 х 3/4х 4/10 х 5/6 х 44, 100%=66,0 100%=75,0 100%=40,0 100%=83, 6 5/6 х 4/4 х 5/10 х 5/6 х 79, 100%=83,3 100%= 100 100%=50,0 100%=83, 7 5/6 х 2/4 х 7/10 х 4/6 х 67, 100%=83,3 100%=50,0 100%=70,0 100%=66, 8 3/6 х 2/4 х 5/10 х 2/6 х 49, 100%=37,5 100%=50,0 100%=50,0 100%=30, 9 4/6 х 2/4 х 5/10 х 2/6 х 49, 100%=66,0 100%=50,0 100%=50,0 100%=30, 10 4/6 х 2/4 х 6/10 х 3/6 х 56, 100%=66,0 100%=50,0 100%=60,0 100%=50, К(г ср) = K(s ср)= K(jcp)= Среднее K(ci ср)= 68,3 67,5 66,0 66, значени е К(Ы), % Щг), % K(s), % Резуль Номер Кф, % тат, % испыту емого 1 4/6 х 2/4 х 7/10 х 3/6 х 59, 100%=66,6 100%=50,0 100%=70,0 100%=50, 2 4/6 х 2/4 х 7/10 х 3/6 х 59, 100%=66,6 100%=50,0 100%=70,0 100%=50, 3 3/6 х 3/4х 7/10 х 3/6 х 61, 100%=50,0 100%=75,0 100%=70,0 100%=50, 4 3/6 х 2/4 х 4/10 х 2/6 х 43, 100%=50,0 100%=50,0 100%=40,0 100%=33, 5 2/6 х 2/10 х 2/6 х 27, 1/4х 100%=33,3 100%=25,0 100%=20,0 100%=33, 6 3/6 х 2/4 х 3/10 х 3/6 х 45, 100%=50,0 100%=50,0 100%=30,0 100%=50, 7 4/6 х 3/4х 5/10 х 3/6 х 60, 100%=66,6 100%=75,0 100%=50,0 100%=50, 8 3/6 х 2/4 х 4/10 х 2/6 х 43, 100%=50,0 100%=50,0 100%=40,0 100%=33, 9 3/6 х 2/4 х 4/10 х 2/6 х 43, 100%=50,0 100%=50,0 100%=40,0 100%=33, 10 4/6 х 3/4х 5/10 х 64, 100%=66,6 100%=75,0 100%=50, К(г ср)= K(s ср)= Среднее K(ci ср)= КО ср)= 54,9 55,0 48,0 45, значени е Номер К(Ы), % К(г), % K(s), % Резуль K(j), % испыту тат, % емого 1 5/6 х 4/4 х 9/10 х 4/6 х 84, 100%=83,3 100%= 100 100%=90,0 100%=66, 2 5/6 х 3/4х 8/10 х 5/6 х 80, 100%=83,3 100%=75,0 100%= 80,0 100%=83, 3 5/6 х 4/4 х 10/10 х 6/6 X 95, 100%=83,3 100%= 100 100%= 100 100%= 4 4/6 х 3/4х 5/10 х 4/6 х 64, 100%=66,6 100%=75,0 100%=50,0 100%=66, 5 4/6 х 2/4 х 4/10 х 3/бх 51, 100%=66,6 100%=50,0 100%=40,0 100%=50, 6 4/6 х 2/4 х 4/10 х 4/6 х 55, 100%=66,6 100%=50,0 100%=40,0 100%=66, 7 5/6 х 3/4х 7/10 х 5/6 х 77, 100%=83,3 100%=75,0 100%=70,0 100%=83, 8 4/6 х 3/4х 7/10 х 4/6 х 52, 100%=66,6 100%=75,0 100%=70,0 100%=66, 9 4/6 х 3/4х 7/10 х 5/6 х 73, 100%=66,6 100%=75,0 100%=70,0 100%=83, 10 6/6 X 4/4 х 9/10 х 5/6 х 93, 100%= 100 100%= 100 100%=90,0 100%=83, К(гср) = K(s ср)= K(jcp) = Средне K(ci ср)= е 76,6 77,5 70,0 74, значен ие К(Ы), % K(s), % Результат Номер Щг),% Кф, % испыту % емого 1 2/6 х 3/4х 4/10 х 2/6 х 43, 100%=30,0 100%=75,0 100%=40,0 100%=30, 2 3/6 х 3/4х 5/10 х 3/6 х 56, 100%=50,0 100%=75,0 100%=50,0 100%=50, 3 3/6 х 2/4 х 4/10 х 3/6 х 47, 100%=50,0 100%=50,0 100%=40,0 100%=50, 4 3/6 х 2/4 х 6/10 х 4/6 х 56, 100%=50,0 100%=50,0 100%=60,0 100%=66, 5 2/6 х 1/4х 4/10 х 2/6 х 31, 100%=30,0 100%=25,0 100%=40,0 100%=30, 6 4/6 х 3/4х 6/10 х 4/6 х 66, 100%=66,0 100%=75,0 100%=60,0 100%=66, 7 4/6 х 2/4 х 7/10 х 3/6 х 59, 100%=66,0 100%=50,0 100%=70,0 100%=50, 8 3/6 х 3/4х 4/10 х 4/6 х 54, 100%=50,0 100%=75,0 100%=40,0 100%=66, 9 3/6 х 2/4 х 4/10 х 2/6 х 48, 100%=50,0 100%=50,0 100%=40,0 100%=66, 10 3/6 х 4/4 х 4/10 х 4/6 х 51, 100%=50,0 100%=50,0 100%=40,0 100%=66, К(г ср)= Среднее K(ci ср)= K(s ср)= КО ср)= значени 50,0 62,5 48,0 51, е К(Ы), % К(г), % K(s), % Номер Результа K(j), % испыту т,% емого 1 3/бх 3/4х 5/10 х 3/бх 56, 100%=50,0 100%=75,0 100%=50,0 100%=50, 2 4/6 х 3/4х 5/10 х 3/бх 60, 100%=66,0 100%=75,0 100%=50,0 100%=50, 3 3/бх 3/4х 5/10 х 3/бх 56, 100%=50,0 100%=75,0 100%=50,0 100%=50, 4 4/6 х 3/4х 6/10 х 4/6 х 66, 100%=66,0 100%=75,0 100%=60,0 100%=66, 5 2/6 х 2/4 х 4/10 х 3/бх 42, 100%=30,0 100%=50,0 100%=40,0 100%=50, 6 4/6 х 3/4х 6/10 х 4/6 х 66, 100%=66,0 100%=75,0 100%=60,0 100%=66, 7 4/6 х 2/4 х 7/10 х 3/бх 59, 100%=66,0 100%=50,0 100%=70,0 100%=50, 8 4/6 х 3/4х 5/10 х 4/6 х 64, 100%=66,0 100%=75,0 100%=50,0 100%=66, 9 4/6 х 2/4 х 5/10 х 2/6 х 58, 100%=66,0 100%=50,0 100%=50,0 100%=66, 10 4/6 х 2/4 х 5/10 х 4/6 х 58, 100%=66,0 100%=50,0 100%=50,0 100%=66, К(г ср)= K(scp) = Среднее K(ci ср)= КО ср)= значени 60,0 70,0 53,0 55, е Экспериментальная группа ЭГ- Экспериментальная группа ЭГ- 1. Ольга В.


1. Ольга Б.

2. Наташа П.

Мария Б.

2.

3. Полина Ш 3. Марина Б.

4. Анна П.

4. Анжела А.

5. Оксана Ч.

Александр В 5.

Виталий Р 6.

6. Светлана М.

7. Данил К.

Мария М.

7.

8. Марина С.

8. Людмила Д.

Настя Я.

9.

9. Анна У.

Настя Л.

10.

10. Денис К.

Контрольная группа КГ:

6. Надежда Г 1. Анна Б.

7. Ольга Е.

2. Надежда Г.

8. Ирина К.

3. Ольга Е.

9. Мария Л.

4. Ирина К.

10. Юля Н.

5. Мария Л.

Read the article;

then answer the questions.

THE FUTURE OF ENGLISH A. Have you ever wondered how many people there are who speak English? It's quite a number! The exact figure is impossible to tell, but it is around 400 million people. Geographically, English is the most widespread language on earth, and it is second only to Chinese in the number of people who speak it. It is spoken in the British Isles, the USA, Australia, New Zea land and much of Canada and South Africa.

English is also a second language of another 300 million people living in more than 60 countries. If you add to this the enormous number of peo ple who learn to understand and speak English (like yourself), you will real ise that English is indeed a world language.

DID YOU KNOW?

About 5,000 languages and dialects are still spoken in the world today. About 845 come from India.

After English and Chinese, the next commonly spoken language is Spanish.

Sixty-five different alphabets are used in the world today.

The language with most letters is Cambodian. It has 72 letters!

The language with the most vowels is Sedang, a Vietnamese language, with vowel sounds.

The language with the least vowels is Abkhazian. It has only 2 vowel sounds!

Chippewa, the North American Indian language of Minnesota, has 6,000 verb forms!

No language is known without the vowel a.

SOME FACTS ABOUT ENGLISH There were only 30,000 words in Old English. Modern English has the largest vocabulary in the world, more than 600,000 words.

There are about 60,000 words in common use.

About 450-500 words are added to the English vocabulary every year.

70 per cent of the English vocabulary are loan words and only 30 per cent of the words are native.

The most frequently used words in written English are: the, of and, to, a, in, that, is, I, it, for and as.

The most frequently used word in conversation is /.

The longest word in the English language is pneumonoultamicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis (a lung disease), with 45 letters.

The longest words in common use are disproportionableness and incomprehen sibilities (21 letters) The commonest letter is e. More words begin with the letter s than any other.

The most overworked word in English is the word set. It has 126 verbal uses and 58 noun uses.

The newest letters added to the English alphabet are j and v, which are of post Shakespearean use.

The largest English-language dictionary is the 20-volume Oxford English Dic tionary, with 21,728 pages.

The commonest English name is Smith. There are about 800,000 people called Smith in England and Wales, and about 1,7000,000 in the USA.

B. In Shakespeare's time only a few million people spoke English. All of them lived in what is now Great Britain. Through the centuries, as a re sult of various historical events, English spread throughout the world. Five hundred years ago English was not spoken in North America: the American Indians had their own languages. So did the Eskimos in Canada, the abo rigines in Australia, and the Maoris in New Zealand. The English arrived and set up their colonies...

C. Today, English is represented in every continent and in the three main oceans - the Atlantic, the Indian and the Pacific. English is mixing with and marrying other languages around the world. It is probably the most insatiable borrower. Words newly coined or in vogue in one language are very often added to English as well. There are words from 120 lan guages in its vocabulary, including Arabic, French, German, Greek, Italian, Russian, and Spanish.

D. Other languages absorb English words too, often giving them new forms and new meanings. So many Japanese, French and Germans mix English words with their mother tongues that the resulting hybrids are called Japlish, Franglais and Denglish. In Japanese, for example, there is a verb Makudonaru, to eat at McDonald s.

E. Switching to other Englishes is a strange thing to do, but some times it is necessary. If you want to communicate successfully in Japan, you have to adjust your English, speak slowly and constantly check if your mes sage gets through. Mimicking Japlish is probably a stupid thing to do, but you have to come near to that if you want to achieve anything.

EURO-ENGLISH?

One of the many Englishes spoken and written today is Euro-English. Euro English has its origins in the political arena of the European community. Here is a humorous article about the future of Euro-English published in a Canadian newspaper.

The European Union has announced that an agreement has been reached to adopt English as the preferred language for European communications. As part of the negotiations, Her Majesty's Government conceded that English spelling had some room for improvement and has accepted afive-yearplan for what will be known as Euro-English ('Euro "for short).

In thefirstyear, "s" will be used instead of the soft "c". Sertainly sivil servants will reseive this news with joy. Also, the hard "c" will be replaced with "k".

Not only this should klear up konfusion, but typewriters кап have one less letter.

There will be growing publik enthusiasm in the sekond year, when the trouble­ some "ph " will be replaced with the "f". This will make words like "fotograf" 20 per cent shorter.

In the third year, publik akseptance of the new spelling кап be expekted to reach the state where more komplikated changes are possible.

Governments will enkorage the removal of double letters, which have always ben a deterent to akurate speling. Also, al wil agre that the horible mes of the silent "e"s in the languag is disgrasful, and they would.

By they fourth у or, people wil be reseptiv to steps such as replasing "th" by "z" and "w" with "v".

During ze fifz year, ze unesesary "о" кап be dropd from vords kontaining "ou", and similar changes vud ofkors be aplid to ozer kombinations ofleters.

After zis fifzycr, ve vil hav a reli sensibl riten sty I. Zer vil be no mor trubls or difikultis and evrivun vil find it ezi tu understand ech ozer.

ZE DREM VIL FINALI KUM TRU!

A century ago, some linguists predicted that one day England, Ameri­ ca, Australia and Canada would be speaking different languages. Noah Webster, for example, said that American English would be as different from the future language of England, as the modern Dutch, Swedish are from the German, or from one another. With the advent of records, cinema, radio, and television, the two brands of English have even begun to draw back together again. Britons and Americans probably speak more alike to day than they did 50 or 60 years ago. (In the 1930s and 1940s, for example, Americanfilmswere dubbed in England. It's no longer the practice today).

Canadian English, Australian English, South African English, and the many other Englishes scattered around the world are coming increas ingly to resemble one another. Within the United States, for example, the speech of Northerners and Southerners is becoming more and more uni form.

People have long been interested in having one language that could be spoken throughout the world. Such a language would help to increase cul tural and economic ties and simplify communication between people.

Through the years, at least 600 universal languages have been proposed, in cluding Esperanto. About 10 million people have learned Esperanto since its creation in 1887, but English, according to specialists, has better chances to become a global language. So why not learn it?

DO YOU SPEAK COCKNEY?

It is strange that the differences in Britain itself are greater than those between Britain and other English-speaking countries. For a London er, it is easier to understand an American than a Cockney.

Cockney has a pronunciation, accent and vocabulary unlike any other dialect. Cockneys pronounce wait, late, tray, etc. wait for me. Dave! be comes, Wite for me, Dive!, and they drop their aitches: have becomes ave, etc.

Cockney speech is famous for its rhyming slang. For example, wife is referred to as trouble and strife, stairs as apples and pears, and loaf of bread as head.

Write the letter of the best answer on your answer sheet.

1). Select from this list the best central idea for each paragraph above.

A. 1. English is the most widespread language on earth.

2. The enormous number of people prefer to learn English to Chinese.

3. English is a world language.

B. 1. Not so many people spoke English in North America.

2. English spread throuout the world.

3. The American Indians had their own languages.

C. I.English borrows words from Russian and German.

2. New words appear in the English language.

3. English is mixing with other languages.

D. 1. German absorbs English words too.

2. Japanese mix English words with their mother tongue.

3. Other languages borrow English words.

E. 1. Ajust your English to communicate in other countries.

2. Mimicking is necessary for successful communication.

3. Speak slowly if you want to achieve anything.

Which of the following best expresses the central idea of the whole selec tion?

1. The history of English is very interesting.

2. English has chances to become a global language.

3. One day England, America, Australia and Canada would be speaking differ ent languages.

4. Today, English is represented in every continent.

2). Write the letter of the best answer on your answer sheet 1. The most commonly spoken language is a) Russian b) Chinese c) English 2. As a result of various historical events a) Esperanto was created to become the universal language b) English spread throughout the world c) English spelling is planned to be improved 3. The most frequently used word in conversation is a) I b) set c) the 4. Long ago English was not spoken in North America:

a) the American Indians didn't know English b) the American Indians had their own language c) the aborigines in Australia had their own language 3). Some words from the selection are listed below. If a word is a com­ pound, write С in the blank, and draw a slanting line (/) between the words that form the compound. If a word is a derivative, write D on the line, and circle the prefix.

1. commonest 4. increasingly 2. overworked 5. disproportionableness 3. borrower 6. incomprehensibilities 7. insatiable 9. typewriters 8.improvement 10. troublesome 4). Use the K E Y above the group of statements to mark those statements.

Write your answer in the blanks on your answer sheet.

KEY: VO =valid opinion supported by fact or authority N = not a valid opinion a) The commonest English name is Smith.

b) The largest English-language dictionary is the 20-volume Oxford English Dictionary c) English is mixing with Russian d) Soon "S" will be used instead of the soft "c" e) Her Majesty's Government accepted a five-year plan for the improvement of English f) For a Londoner it is easier to understand an American than a Cockney Read the article;

then answer the questions.

MYSTERIOUS GUARANTEES Accreditation schemes exist to ensure that English language providers of fer high quality tuition and value for money. But most schemes are so compli cated that few students understand them. BBC English Magazine has compiled this brief guide to help you through the accreditation maze A. If you ever look at advertisements for English language schools, you will have noticed that many claim to be affiliated to certain organiza tions. British schools, for example, might boast that they are "Recognized by the British Council", and claim to be "A member of Arels - English in Britain". Australian schools, on the other hand, might call themselves "Neas Accredited" or say they are an "Elicos Association member".

B. This information is there to reassure you - the learner - that you will receive high-quality tuition, if you choose to study at one of these schools. There is nothing unusual in this;

indeed most industries have some sort or regulatory body. Moreover, the sheer quantity of accreditation schemes is likely to be good for the industry as a whole in the long term.

The increased regulation will raise standards of tuition for students, and it will result in better terms and conditions for school staff.

C. In the short-term, however, these disparate schemes are causing a great deal of confusion. Their objectives may be the same - to improve standards - but very often their methods of operating are completely differ ent. In some countries, they are run by the government, in others by gov ernment-sponsored organizations. In others still, they are privately operated. Some fall under regulation schemes for educational establish ments as a whole, others are accredited by schemes specifically designed for language schools.

D. In recent years, there have been attempts to simplify the systems in various countries, but for many students, and teachers, they remain al most impossible to understand.

E. Beyond the schemes themselves, there are associations of language providers. Most provide additional quality assurance by running their own inspection schemes and setting higher standards than those expected by the accrediting bodies. Others are there merely to co-ordinate marketing cam paigns and represent schools in capacities ranging from exhibitions and fairs to dealings with the government.

Yet in spite of all these schemes, certain types of courses - particularly newer ones - cannot be accredited or approved at all because they do not fall into the categories of course types laid down by the accrediting bodies.

One example is live-in-a-teacher's-home programmes. In the UK, the Brit ish Council has only recently included these in its accreditation scheme.

As yet, no other country accredits these programmes. This highlights an other potential difficulty faced by students: a school may be accredited, but some of the programmes it offers may not.

Fortunately, for the purposes of selecting a language course, students do not need a detailed understanding of how the various accreditation schemes work. What they do need to know is whether the scheme is run by a reputable organization, whether it covers the courses they intend to take, and what areas the scheme covers. The following is a brief country by coun try guide to accreditation in the English- speaking world.

Questions about Accreditation When applying to a language school, college or university, you must check its accreditation status. This is your only guarantee of quality tuition.

Find out:

• if the institution is accredited for the course you intend to take.

Many institutions, particularly those offering courses in other disciplines, are accredited simply as educational institutions. Others may be accredited for certain courses only;

• who the accrediting body is. Write down the name of the organisa tion and, if you have never heard of it, check its credentials. Always be very wary of institutions which are not accredited by the bodies mentioned in the main article;

• what areas the accreditation covers. Most schemes demand certain teacher qualifications and minimum class sizes and facilities. Others, such as that run by the British Council, also cover accommodation, welfare and social activities.

United Kingdom In recent years, Britain has simplified its accreditation system and, today, there is just one scheme for all institutions offering English language course... ifs run by the British Council which operate, an inspection proce dure to ensure that schools, colleges and the English language departments of universities meet certain minimum standards.

As in most countries, the British system is voluntary, so is up to insti tutions to decide whether they wish to apply for accreditation.

They have to have been operating for at least two years before they can do so.



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 3 | 4 || 6 |
 





 
© 2013 www.libed.ru - «Бесплатная библиотека научно-практических конференций»

Материалы этого сайта размещены для ознакомления, все права принадлежат их авторам.
Если Вы не согласны с тем, что Ваш материал размещён на этом сайте, пожалуйста, напишите нам, мы в течении 1-2 рабочих дней удалим его.