авторефераты диссертаций БЕСПЛАТНАЯ БИБЛИОТЕКА РОССИИ



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«Федеральное агентство по образованию Архангельский государственный технический университет Ольга Борисовна Бессерт Обучение индивидуальному чтению ...»

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Institutions that are British Council-accredited have the option of joining a number of associations of language providers, provided they can meet the additional criteria set by these bodies. Private language schools can join Arels (Association of Recognised English Language Services) or FIRST (or both), while state sector colleges may opt for membership of Baselt (British Association of State English -Teaching).

Ireland's accreditation system is similar to that of Britain's. A gov ernment organization called Accis (Advisory Council for English Lan guage Schools) is responsible for the regular monitoring and inspecting of English language providers. To qualify for accreditation status, institutions must have been operating for at least two years, and they must meet mini mum standards with regard to teacher qualifications, courses and school premises. Accredited institutions may apply to become members of Relsa (Recognized English Language Schools Association of Ireland).

Australia Australian language providers are accredited by Neas (National Elicos Accreditation Service). Institutions can apply for accreditation at any time and, although it is not compulsory, the government may refuse study visas to students who will not be attending an accredited institution. Institu tions can apply to join the Elicos association once they are accredited.

New Zealand New Zealand has an accreditation system specifically designed or the English Teaching sector, run by a body called but it is only available to pri vate language schools. Accreditation is voluntary but again, students who are not attending an accredited school may be refused a study visa. Fiels NZ is the association schools may join, once they are accredited.

This tiny island in the Mediterranean is the only English-speaking country in the world where it is compulsory for all language institutions to submit to inspections and meet minimum standards. Accreditation in Malta takes the form of a licence to operate, which is issued by the Ministry of Education. Maltese English providers may join a joint standards and mar keting association, called Feltom.

North America In the US and Canada, all educational institutions must be accredited, but there is no scheme specifically for language providers. Schools, colleges and universities offering English courses have, therefore, formed associa tions which ensure that high standards of English tuition are maintained. In the US, these include Nafsa (which also accepts members abroad), and AAIEP and UCIEP, which only accept universities as members. However, the enormous US teachers' organization, Tesol, is preparing to launch its own accreditation scheme and it's likely that most US institutions will seek the endorsement of this body.

In Canada, there are two associations: one for private language schools - Pelsa - and other for the higher education sector called the Council for Second Language Programmes.

Write the letter of the best answer on your answer sheet.

1). A. Select from this list the best central idea for each paragraph above.

1. Most industries have some regulatory body. It is going to improve the stand ards 2. Associations of language providers have different aims 3. There are associations of language providers beyond the shemes 4. Many English language schools claim to belong to some organizations 5. The schemes are causing a great deal of confusion B. Which of the following best expresses the central idea of the whole selec tion?

a) Accreditation schemes help to provide high quality tuition b) Accreditation schemes are very complicated c) Many English language schools claim to be affiliated to the British Council d) The guide is compiled to help the reader through the accreditation maze 2). Complete the statements:

1. The British system is.

a) accreditated b) voluntary c) free d) complicated 2. Ireland's accredited institutions may apply to become members of a) Baselt b) FIRST c) Relsa d) Neas 3. When applying to a language school you must check a) the quality of tuition b) its accreditation status c) whether it has the courses you intend to take 4. Tesol is going to work on its own accreditation scheme for a) the US and Canada b) the US c) all English-speaking countries 3). Some words from the selection are listed below. If a word is a com­ pound, write С in the blank, and draw a slanting line (/) between the words that form the compound. If a word is a derivative, write D on the line, and circle the prefix.

1. reassure 6. background 2. additional 7. remarkable 3. membership 8. distrustful 4. qualifications 9. actionless 5. unmarketable 10. highways 4). Use the K E Y above the group of statements to mark those statements.

Write your answer in the blanks on your answer sheet.

KEY: V O =valid opinion supported by fact or authority N = not a valid opinion a) Australian Institutions can be accredited at any time b) New Zealand's accreditation is compulsory c) The English Teaching sector is run by N Z Q A d) Universities must not be accredited in the US and Canada e) The name of college is your only guarantee of quality tuition f) The accreditation covers accommodation and social activities Reading strategies. Instructions Before reading the text look at the following reading strategies. Decide:

a) Which strategies you have used before. Put a tick (V) next to them.

b) Which strategies you have not used before. Put a cross next to them.

c) Underline two or three strategies you would like to use today.

Discuss your decisions with a teacher/partner.

You will be asked to reflect on your choice of reading strategies.

Strategies to use before reading • Relaxing for a moment before reading the text.

• Thinking about the topic, e.g. what do you already know about this topic?

• Looking at the headings and sub-headings, e.g. what do they tell you about the text?

• Looking at any pictures, diagrams, charts, e.g. how do they help you?

• Looking at the length of the text, e.g. how long do you expect to spend reading it?

how does this help you make sense of the text?

• Trying to guess the meaning of new vocabulary, e.g. look at the sentence structure to help you understand the vocabulary.

• Ignoring new vocabulary, e.g. try to understand the text as a whole unit.

• Reading each paragraph carefully, e.g. try to get a main point from each paragraph.

• Looking at the pictures, diagrams, charts while reading the text.

• Highlighting the main points in the text as you read.

• Looking for vocabulary specifically related to the topic.

Strategies to use after reading • Considering how the text made you feel. Happy, sad, annoyed, amused?

• Writing a one paragraph summary of the main points of the text.

• Considering any new information you gained by reading the text and how the relates to what you already know.

• Attempting to draw some diagrams or charts if there are none in the text.

• Checking some of the difficult vocabulary with another student/ teacher/ in the dictionary.

• Discussing what you have read with someone.

Reflections Now think about the reading strategies you have just used.

Why did you choose these strategies?

Were they helpful? Why / why not?

If you had to read a similar text, which strategies would you choose?


How to Read English Texts Faster and More Effectively (Please work through all tasks in the sequence given!) 1. Read only the title of the chosen text. What do you already know about the topic? In note form write down pieces of information you expect to find in the text.

(Mother tongue or English).

2. Write down at least 5 (key) words you expect to find in the text.

3. Is the text (tick the right answer) a) an extract from a book?

b) a newspaper article?

c) a magazine article?

d) a scientific article?

e) 4. When was it published?

5. Read through the whole text as quickly as possible. Don't worry about the words you don't understand. Now write down, in not more than 15 words, the main theme of the text.

6. Ask yourself i f the text may suit the needs that made you choose it as a source of information.

7. Read through the text again trying to understand as much as you can.

When you come across a word which you don't know and which you think is important for the text write it down and beside it write your idea of what it probably means. {Mother tongue or English). Use the dictionary only if absolutely necessary!

8. Divide the text into sections. Name the sections according to their function (e.g. introduction, main part(s), conclusion etc.) and give one content related keyword for each.

9. Write down the main idea of each paragraph using one sentence only.

10. Draw a diagram or a flowchart to show how the information in the text is organized.

11. Which of the expectations/anticipations you listed in task 1 does the text meet?

a) b) c) d) e) 12. On a separate sheet write a summary of the text. Not more than words! Make use of the results of tasks 8, 9, and 10.

13. What do you think of the text? Evaluate it in the light of your reading purpose. Give reasons for your evaluation.

Приложение Образцы текстов для обучения индивидуальному чтению на втором этапе обучения WAYS OF STOPPING AN ACTIVITY Paul Sanderson Paul Sanderson is a teacher trainer in Paris, France. A recent experience during a training session led him and the teachers he was working with, to think about ways of bringing an activity to an end.

To an outsider, a large group of learners involved in a rather noisy activity in which they are all milling around, can look like chaos. To the experienced teacher, however, who has carefully set up the activity with the class, and is fully in control of the situation, the noise level and a certain degree of movement are very much par for the course in the communicative classroom:

Unfortunately, many activities which start off well and are extremely enjoyable and productive come to a somewhat ragged end when the teacher actually tries to stop the activity. Quite simply, everyone is speaking and no one can hear. After several vain attempts in a normal voice to get everyone's attention, the exasperated teacher may then resort to shouting in a final desperate bid to be heard. Some teachers (often mistakenly) even think that their learners are disregarding their instruction to stop, in an attempt to challenge their authority, or are purposely being disobedient or disruptive.

It is quite clear that how we stop an activity is an important part of class management, and the way we intend to do this must be included as part of the instructions we give our learners when setting up an activity.

This point came home to me during a training session with a large group of teachers when I experienced great difficulty in bringing an activity to an end.

We discussed this problem and the list which follows is the fruit of our brainstorming all the possible ways we could think of to stop an activity without resorting to shouting.

• Clap out the rhythm of a song using your hands.

• Ring a small bell or shake a tambourine.

• Flick the lights on and off.

• Draw or open the curtains or blinds.

• Write the word STOP on the board in large letters and stand in the middle of the room pointing to the board.

• Begin to whistle or hum a song.

• Wave a flag.

• Stand on a chair with your hands in the air in the middle of the room.

• Blow bubbles in the air.

• Blow a whistle or begin to play a harmonica.

• Open up an umbrella.

• Set off an alarm clock.

• Throw a balloon into the centre of the room.

• Play a quick blast of music.

their arm, and continue this chain.

A l l of the ideas above are designed to stop an activity either quickly, or, in some cases, quite gradually. None of them risk you losing your voice — or your patience.

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