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THEORY AND ...

-- [ 6 ] --

ae epepy aay (6.21) paoc aaoo:

C P(ti ) x = 2 k t 2 xi xi 1 + t m m (6.31) x xi sign i F (ti )t.

t 0 = 0;

1 = 0.

Haae yco , o aa oe pee ppaee ypyo eopa e ocyaea copoc aooo ya pa y (caoap poecc).

Paoc aao epeax ypae (6.22) (6.24) ocaec ceye cceo aepaecx ypae:

C C12 C 1i +1 = 2 2nt 1 t 2 11i i + = 22n2n)11 + 1 2 2 2t1 22t1ii1+( 2nt ) i 1 ( t t1i ii-1 t n 1i ( n t ) 1 + =2 2 1 1 C1 M 2 2 C C12 M C M + 1 t 2 + 2nt 211ii+1+= i2t2n2 +1t2 1i1t ( +i +12nttt1i11 + it12t + t + 2 + 21 + ) 2 21+ 2 ++ t 2n tt 2 2 2n + 2 + ;

;

2 2 1 1 1 1 C2 C2 C1M 2 MC1 C2 M C C 2i +1 = 2 1 t 2 + 21+1 t22i +1+= nt 2 221 22i1t2+i +1 +1 ti2;

t 22+1 + 1 1ti t 2 + + 1 i 2 + t+1 t 2 i + ;

2 + i 2 = ;

2 2 t + 1 1 2 i 1 ..2, .. 232 R C ( ) R 2 C R 2 M C ( )( ) ji +1 = 1 a t i2 + = B 2 j2++11 = 2t ;

2ji1+ iC1 B ti +t1+ i2+ ;

t 2 2i +1 2i ;

i C1 I 2 a t += 1 a 2 I B ;

I+ L i +1 L i 2 i L i + 2 L1iL i2 L C C C C I i +1. j = 1 Ra+1t I iMB. i = I i +1.

( );

M i +1 = M i = i + +1 +1 2i +1 2i I 2 i + L 2 L C 1i +1 = 2 2nt 1 t 2 1i ( 2nt ) 1i 1 + 2 C2 M + 1 t + 2nt 21 + 2i +1 t + t 2 ;

1 M C1 C 2i +1 = 2 12 t 2 2i +1 + 12 1i t 2 + t ;

2 2 2 (6.32) C R C ( ) ji +1 = 1 a t I i + B 2i +1 2i ;

2nt 1 t 2 1i ( 2nt ) 1i 1 + = 2 L L C C2 M M i +1 = I i +1. + 1 t 2 + 2nt 21 + 2i +1 t + t 2 ;

2 1 ae oyax apaepo P Mp, xox ypae (6.31) M C2 C2 .

(6.32), paccac a ao peeo opee [tit, t oa 1i t + 2i +1 = 2 1 2 ]. 2i +1 + 1 copoc t 2 ;

2 i+ aa paaec epo pooo ya oopoa o pee 21 = 1. B i i paoco ope oa ee cey : = 1 Ra t I + C B ;

( ) ji +1 i 2i +1 2i L L 1i +1 1 i (6.33) 1 =. C t M i +1 = I i +1.

Opya copoc aa oe pee ti+1 ye paa:

V i +1 = V0 + R1i +1. (6.34) ae paoce aao epeaoo ypae ae ooc eeex poeyax (6.25). epeeo ae k-o e ee:

Ek k i ( ) Vk+1 Vki t.

Tki,+1+1 = Tki, k +1 + (6.35) k l k, k + ae ae pacca o opye:

Ek 1Qk 1 i ( ) Vk Vki1 t.

Tki1, k = Tki1, k + + (6.36) lk 1, k a aae ae epeeo aeo ae pa ae p ycaoec poecce poa aeo oa ooc. Peyppe coooe (6.35), (6.36) aaaec ocpoee paoco cxe pacea apaepo epexooo poecca cae, oopa pecae coo ccey aepaecx ypae. ee pee cooa epao eo. Ha ao ae pee pace oec o e ope, ao paccaa cxea (6.31) (6.36) aaaec oce oo, a oocea 6. paoc ae pooo paoo aecoo apaepa e ye ee eoopo, aepe aao e.

6.2.4. Bcee cepe, cceoa epexooo poecca , o, poa ooc paepo 0,5 x 1015 ca 08 5- 1700. Bop ooc oo cop oycoe e, o o cocae aey o oee pooca oocox cao, a poaa eo ec aoee pyoeo -a poaaeoc capx o.

ax ee caa pee a. 6.2. ocoy oco opo capx o pocxo ocee eeeo poeye ey eepo o e, cceoa o () e caa.

6. 5- 2 , 960 , 10500 , / 4500 L, 7 10 3,24 , Ra, 0,0075 0, 0,043 0,081 0, , , 0,628 0, Cm, ./ 0,61 0, 765 , .. , 186,2 159, .. 12, . 4,15 10 5,2.. (/ ) 9,35.105 6,2. .. , .. B peyae pee cce ypae (6.21) (6.29) oy pe ee pyeo oea aopooe, yc poa, ae ooc, o ooc a xoe e .. Pacee ae apaepo epexooo poecca pee a pc. 6.17.

. 6.17. 1700 .

: h1 = 0,9 ;

0 = 146 ;

= 1015 ;

h2 = 0,8 ;

1 = 146 ;

= 30,0 ;

h = 1,0 ;

v = 5,0 /;

= 25% Aa epexooo poecca ccee poeooca oaa, o poxoe capoo a epe oa eopa peo ec oepeee S eaa oae eopa, yce P oe poa Mp.

epoe ocoeco po ee copoc xoa ooc eaooo aopa, a opoe ocyae paae oea ao. Pacea ycaoeo, o eee epeeo ae ooc coco ecox cocax: ee ae peyae ocyaex oea aooo ya (cooaco coca), pyx oea cce po-ao (oaco coca), ee oepee copoc ae.

p poae capoo a o oypa (oce ocoo oa poaaec o, coceo capo o ee yoee) epeee aee opacae . o oycoeo e, o o pe axoe capoo a eaoo aope pace yce poa yeaec oa ooc a xoe e. Bce a cap o poaaec ooca ee o, o copooaec ooe yeee oa. B peyae yeaec oepeee, a o ae 6. poc epeeo ae. Ta, p poae capoo a paepo h1 = 0,9 ;

h = 1,0 ;

h2 = 0,8 ;

l = 30 co copoc 5,0 /c epeee aee opacae a 68%. Xapaepo, o acy ooo epeeo ae cooecye ao oe ooc a xoe e. o po ooeoy yee yeoo ae o cee (o 100%). Moepoae epexooo poecca p cyeao ee o ooc coc eoep a oaao, o eee ae ooc o cyae aeo ee cocae ceo 20%.

Ta opao, c oo cpeo oe po a , o cooyoe ece paoooc cyex ooc yoe capoo a po aeoy o paca ae p poxoe capoo ca epe oa e, . , [92].

.. , .. nC2,,=, 2.% %, *,.

! , %" C! !/"%L.% % %L C!%*=2*, C% % poaa xoox aax exoo poa ooc co cap coee Be exooecx apaepo a aee ooc e copoc p paoe opoe caa 7.1. Coee exooecx ocpy opae e ooe e pacpee oa o e epepoo caa, opae yoeope ooe co oaxc py o pya peo. , a aaox caax p cxoo copaee - pe pa. . () , , , .

() :

) :

h0i (7.1) n c = max, i =1 h1i h0i, h1i i- ;

n - ;

) :

(7.2) n = (Ai vi ) max, V i = Ai, Vi 1 i- ;

) :

(7.3) n = i min, i = 7. i i- ;

) :

n K = K i max, (7.4) i = i i- ;

) :

hi (7.5) = const, hi hi, hi i- .

. , , [93]:

Q n n (7.6) F = ki c, F min = n, Q i =1 i Qi n Qc = ;

;

n ;

i =1 ki ki , ;

Qi i- . , .

, i- (i+1)- , K :

Qi Qi n F = (7.7), F min = 0.

ki ki i = .. , .. :

Q1 Q2 Q (7.8) = =... = n.

k1 k2 kn 1 ki [94]. 1- Qi, i, (7.8). .

, :

i Qi =, (7.9) i Qi i, i i- 1- 2- ;

Qi, Qi i , 1- 2- .

i- , 2- , :

ki ai = Qc. (7.10) nQi Qc . Qi Qc ki.

n i :

' = ai.

(7.11) i i k, .. 7. . :

ki = sign {Qi Qi)( i i)};

( ;

(7.12) Qp k i = i1 + ki p i 1, k c (7.13) Qi k ( kp = 0,5);

Q .

, [94], i i Qi. Qi (7.11) (7.13). , (7.6).

. . , , , . , , , .

, [93].

7.2. Copeee epepe ca xooo poa ocae aoa ec ccea peypoa o ae (CAPTH), po op (CAP) ooc. O oa, o e pao ao aecx cce peypoa CAPTH CAP pa op aooo pea (cpae) poa.

Ta, , 6- caa 1400 ycao, o caoc poecca poa oeceaec p .. , .. cox oocex oax (35-40%) . cyeceo o eoc pao aoaecx cce CAPTH CAP , , .

peee cox oa ocee e a oooc pao cxe peypoa ae ooc ocee eeeo poeye a ce ax ycpoc 6- e caa. eoc pao cce CAPTH opee cpae epeaox ooe h1 / T0 T0 / S p pax oa (h1 ;

T0 aee aee ooc, S ee ax o). eee aeo ae Tk, k+1 ooc ec ye copoc e ooc (V0, k+1) a xoe eao aop k+1-o e:

Tk, k +1 Ek Qk (V0, k +1 V1, k ), = (7.14) t Lk, k + e Ek, Qk oy ypyoc oepeoe ceee ooc poeye;

Lk,k+1 paccoe ey e;

V1,k copoc xoa ooc k-o e.

p caoapo poecce V0,k+1 = V1,.

epeeee ax o k+1-o e po ee ooceoo oa k+1, o ee a coo eee xoo copoc V0,k+1:

h + h1 V0, k +1 + V0, k +1 = Vb 1 1 (1 + S + S ).

h Toa Ek Qk Tk, k +1 = V0, k +1 t. (7.15) Lk, k + Tk, k + opeee epeaooo ooe eoxoo cceoa S V ey Ek Qk 0, k +1, pe c e cpaeoo aaa eoc Lk, k +1 S oec yeoo ae a oy ooc p pax oax V0, k +, .. ea Ek Qk = const.

ocaoo paccope ooee S Lk, k + 7. cceoa poecc poa oo 0,25 6- e caa p yx ypox oa: 37,5% 16,7%. Toa ooc epe 6- e h06 V cooeceo paac 0,4 0,3 . pooe oea S 6 S ceo ye eo apoca y P = P(), S = S(P) opecoc h6 = 0,25 0,02 (pc. 7.1).

V06 , V 0, ) ) 17,5 0, 0, 15, 0,25 0, 12,5 0, 0 10, 0,20 0,25 0,30 0,35 0,40 0,20 0,25 0,30 0,35 0, , . 7.1. V () 1400 ().

: 1 ;

, .

V06 V V06 = V h16 epeaooe V ooee p oa 37,5% oe 3 paa, e p oa 16,7%, S .e. peypoae ae ocee eeeo poeye a ce epeee ax ycpoc 6- e aeo eee. V , eee ooe 06 p cyece S .. , .. P P6 = 35 ;

poc . Ta, p = 37,5% = 5, a p = 16,7% h h cooeceo P6 pao 0,50 0,13.

S oo peypoa o ooc a aeo ae ooc ye paccoacoa copoce cex ee.

accop e aeo ae ooc a h16 p pax oax.

Ha pc. 7.2 opae pe yc poa p = 37,5% = 16,7% pex ypoe ye ae: 06 = 200, 150 100 H/2. Be ae 06 a oy ooc h6 opee paec ye. a ao ypoe ae p 06 = 200 H/2.

, 20 , V 0, ) ) 17,5 0, 0, 15, 0,25 0, 12,5 0, 0 10, 0,20 0,25 0,30 0,35 0,40 0,20 0,25 0,30 0,35 0, 0,20 0,25 0,30 0,35 0, , . 7.2. , 1400. , . 7.1. :

1 06 = 100 /2;

2 06 = 150 /2;

3 06 = 200 /2;

4 a oaa, o cee ae o 200 o 150 H/2 p h5 = 0,40 po yee , , , o ooc a xoe 6- e pepo a 0,10 , a p h5 = 0,30 a 0,03 , 7. h .e. epeaooe ooee p cox oax aeo 06 h , e p ax. B opeo cyae ooe coca cooeceo 0,0024 /H/2 0,008 /H/2, .e. p oa 37,5% epeaooe ooee 3,3 paa oe, e p = 16,7%.

cepe, poeee a cae 1400, oep aooepo c. Ta, p oa = 7,0% epeee ax o 6- e a aee aee ooc ooe e yaoc . c ce ocoa oaa, o exa oa ocee e caa a eoc pao CAP o paccopeoy e. eceo, peypoae po ooc pocxo a ce oa ooc o ee pe eaco o oo, a ce aoo oec ocyecec epepacpeeee: cce paecoo a ao (CAPB) cce x oaoo oxae (CAO). Aa pao CAPB oaa, o 6- e epeaooe ooee opa ooc/yce a 10 pa oe, e p ax oax.

, c yeee o poaaex ooc o 1,0 eoc peypoa o a ce ee aeo ae peo caec ( 10 pa o cpae c poao oo 0,25 ). eoc peypoa o ooc ( 0,7 ) cyeceo ac o e oa e. Ta, = 28,6% oa 4 paa e, e = 9,1%.

, eoo yopoa oax cce aoaecoo peypoa o, ae po ooc p xooo poae oae ocee e caa oo ocaoo o, e epeaox oeo aoaecx cceax eoxoo c yeo ypo oa e o poaaeo ooc.

7.3. o exoo pao a e ( , ) acea o epoxoaoc 3,0-4,0 Ra. aa epo x aa yc poa aco peae oyc ypoe, o ee a coo oep , o e ooe oya aay oy ooo ooc. o epe oca epoxoaoc ao yce poa yeaec, pac .. , .. coey oaoy ae, oycoeoy aa peo oa ae.

O pee poe oo c peee e caa () ao. Oao p o yeaec capaeoc pyo o, a a pa ooc aa, ee oepxoc xoooaao ooc.

cooae ocee e aceeoo, oaoo ao e ao pooo pacpocpae pae.

e opeee caa yc poa, o op xoooaao ooc poecce oca cxoo ace ao 4- 1700 1 epoxoaoc paox ao a ey oa yc ocee (eepo) e p poae ooc oyepoco ca oo 0,51-0,54 . Capoa yce poa oey oy ooc ye apaepecoo (popaoo) ee peo oa ae.

Pe aeco epecpo oa poecce oca epoxoa oc aceex ao pacca aeaeco oe epepoo caa xooo poa. eee epoxoaoc oepx oc ao oepoa ye ee oea K, xoeo oee opyy oea pe (6.15).

Aop pacea pea oa opaoa a opao, o o epe oca epoxoaoc paox ao 4- e, a ceoaeo, cooecye ee oea pe, e ey ooceoo oa 4 oecee ocooo yc poa P4.

Oae epo e caa ca oco, pa 30%, a ocayc ac cyapoo oa epepacpee ey 2 3- e.

Peya pacea oaa (pc. 7.3), o oecee ocooo yc poa 13,5 M 4-o e poay aa epo aa eoxoo ec c a oae (2-4%).

o ecop a cyeceoe eee oocex oa o 2 3- ex yce poa x eec eaeo (a 1 M). Xapaepo, o c yeee oa x ex ae yc opaca. o ocec e, o p ocox aex ooc yee ae o opo pee eeex poeyax yeac.

.. , .., .. 7. . 7.3. ( ) ( ) 1700 2,5/0,511000 . Ta opao, oepae ocooo yc o ooc p poae aceex aax oo oece ye aeco epecpo pea oa o e caa o epe oca ace ao.

7.4. poaa xoox aax Paoe a ycaaa poay e p x eepaype, pao, a pao, eepaype opyae cpe. B poecce epepo xooo poa paope pepo o 70 C cepee o. Paoc eepayp ey cpee ac pa o ao ocae 10-30 C. o po opaoa eoo yoc a a o 0,1-0,2 . Ka pao, paope ao c 0,5 1,0 .

apacae eoo yoc ao pocxo oceeo . o oy ooc coo ooc aae aa ao. a c yeeo cxoo yoc, aae aa ao ooc op. p paopee ao , oepa yeoo ae a poax ooc yeae epooc opa ey e. op ooc, oycoee ecaoc po ao, o cpo, , pooeoc caa, yxya .. , .. aeco ooo poy. ooy pee, oope oecpoa eee eoo yoc paox ao .

po ao opaye paox ao, opee opy eaooo aopa poaao ooc, ec a ce aoe cxooo (oooo) po, ypyoo poa a x eooo po. ooy apacae eooo po ao oo oecpoa yeee ypyoo poa ao. py po ao po ac o yc poa, a oceee ec ye oa ae ooc. pep, yee eeeoo ae ooc po yee yc poa , , poa ao.

, eoe aee ooc poecce ee poa yea o epe yee acc poaaeoo eaa :

e kG = 0 (1 + a kG )., (7.21) ae e 0 eyee cxooe ae yex ae ooc, H/2;

a k oe, ac o copaea :

0,008 k 0,035;

0,5 a 3,0;

G acca eaa, poaaoo aax c oea x e, .

oce e ooo oea paox ao p poae epo ooc yeoe eeeoe aee ycaaa a, o eo aee peao aooe aee 0 (1+a) pa. oce poa epoo pyoa acco G1 opee ooe aee eeeoo ae p G = G1. Aaoo epeca ooe aee ae oce opoo, pyoa .. ocoy c yeee acc poaaoo eaa ea acoec p aec aooy ae 0, yeee ae pepa, oa oocea paoc ey 0 ca ee 10%.

4- 1700 10 . a pyo ypae, a c oo cpec aoaa, ocaex ccea opeee aeco acc poaaoo eaa.

7. 7.5. exoo poa ooc co cap coee poxoee capx co ooc epe oa eopa p poae a epepo cae copooaec apyee caoc poecca.

Boya aopa cya oea exaecx coc eaa ooc capoo a, pae o oo cocoax ooc yaca a (. 7.4).

. 7.4. , axa pao a a capoo a peo ec apaep yce poa, oepeee py oe a aax. cceoa o ooc capoo a, a 1200 (pc. 7.5), epa oce poa capoo .

cceoa eoep capoo a oce xooo poa oaa, o paoooc cyex ooc paoe capoo a coxpaec.

Peya aepo poooo po capx o o oce xooo poa a eeo cae 1200 pee a pc. 7.6.

.. , .. 0, h1, 0,44 0, 0, 0, 0, 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 , . 7.5. 1200 :

1 ;

2 ;

3 2, ) 2, , 2, 0, ) 0, 0, 120 0 360 480 600 , . 7.6. , () (): ;

;

7. Ceye oe, o cxoa oocea paoooc ca paex oo oce xooo poa opacae 2-3 .

cceoa poecca poa capx o c oo ae aeco oe eoxoo peapeo aac pacpeeee o peea eyec a yace capoo a aoo eopaooo ypoe eaa ooc . capx cax a oe ooc o xoy xooo poa (h1), a pao, oe epeeo (h2). 0,20 , 20%.

p cape ooc eepaypa eaa ooooo oac e ec o eepayp ae o cxoo eepayp eaa.

o y pocpyyp a oac paeec a oy coceo a (oy ae) a o epecoo . oa coceo a ee y cpee 5-6 , a o epecoo o 15-16 . B cooec c pae pocpyyp coca eaa capoo coee oac o coc eaa cyex ooc. B oac apoo ca epoc pee eyec eaa (pace) oooo opaca o cxooo ae o acax e epe capoo a, a aee oceeo oac o cxox coc pyo cyeo ooc. p epoc ooc 60-70 e. HRB epoc pee eyec eaa a 25-30% e.

ae o pacpeee exaecx coc eaa, acoc, eo epoc paoe capoo a o oce xooo poa pee a. 7.1.

7. epoc HRB ca 08 paoe capoo a o oce xooo eopa - 1 63 71 64 6 94 96 2 70 77 66 7 94 95 3 69 79 60 8 94 93 4 64 75 67 9 92 95 5 62 72 65 10 94 92 .. , .. ae oop o o, o p oce cyapoo oa 60-70 % exaece coca eaa ooc a paec paac. Ha ocoa oo oa opee oca a b, xoe opyy (6.2). o ca 08 o oyac pa cey ae: a = 17;

b = 0,7.

a eoep exaecx coc paoe capoo a oaae ae oyax aopo aeo paoooc ooc pooo apae, oopa ooceo ee yeaec poecce poa, pa exaecx cocax, yeae o epe eopa ooc. Ceye ae opa a e a xapaep ee o paoe capoo coee apae poa. a ooceo oc yaco eaa epee ooc ceye ee oee oc o, a ae o yaco oceye ooc.

7.5.1. Be exooecx apaepo a aee ooc yee opoc capx o pe poa ceye pa a opao, o oy aee aece apy poaaeo ooce. Be pax aopo a eeeoe aee ooc oea c oo oea aoc K, paoo ooe acaoo ae ae max eo aaoy ae :

max (7.22) =.

K Kpeca ea ae , p oopo pocxo op ooc ocex eeex poeyax, a opeeea cepea ye p poae ooc paepo 0,5 x 1015 a 1700. Oa oaaac pao 0,4 . coe caoc poecca poa capx o oo aca cey opao:

max = . (7.23) acoc oea K o paoooc capoo ca, o a e, o ypo ae copoc poa cceoa c oo , 6 [92].

7. h1 , h2 20%. . 7.7 : h1 = 0,9 ;

h = 1 ;

l =30 ;

0 = 145,2 ;

1 = 78,5 ;

5,0 /.

1max/ 1 2, . 7.7. 1, 5 10 15 , yeee paoooc ca aya oea epeeo ae ooc pace c opaca paeo (. 7.7).

Xapaep ao acoc oc e e oa cxoo o poaaeo ooc a oepeee eaa. C yeee paoooc capoo ca ye oepee ooc, a ceoaeo, opaca epee ae. Ta, ec p poae capoo a, oyeoo coo ooc oaoo o (h1 = h2 = 0,9 ), oe aoc cocae 1,25, o p poae capoo a c paoooc 15% K pae 2,05. p paoooc capoo ca oee 17-18% aeca apya ooce peae peeo aee , o oe oe op ooc o capoy y.

cepeae cceoa poecca poa capx o a epepo cae 1700 , o , paoooc coax ooc e peaa 10% (0,1 ), .

. 18,5% (0,25 ) , .

.. , .. p pacpeee cyapoo oa o epepo ca eoxoo ya e oa e a eee ae ooc . a pc. 7.8 oaaa acoc oea aoc epeeo ae o e oa p poae paoooo capoo a, oopa , o c yeee oa e ae ooc peo yeaec.

1max/ 1 2, . 7.8. 1, . , 1,0 . 7. 0 10 20 30 40 , % Taa acoc ocec e, o c poco oa e yeaec cee oaoo yoe coceo capoo a a yce poa. ooy ee ypyo eopa e, oa, oepee ae ooc ae yeac. p ax oax, ppaee ae a a o capoo a yce poa aeo oa ooc. B o c oocee ae apae po ec oee cyeceo, o po yee aecx apyo ooce. ocex ex caa p poae ox o oc eecoopao aaa ocaoo coe (20-25 %) oocee oa.

ee oaae ooe e a caoc poecca poa capex c ooc. Pace (pc. 7.9), o yeee ypo eeex ae po yee ay oocex oea ooce. To ec, poecc poa capx o p oex eeex aex oee yco aeco ooe.

Oao c yeee ypo eeex ae acae ae pa peeoy ae ~300 H/2 (pc. 7.9). o 7. ocoeco yaae a o, o xooy poay capex c ooc a epepx caax eecoopao ocyec c ao oo eee ae.

. 7.9. 1max/T1c 1max.

, . 7. Ha pc. 7.10,a oaaa acoc oea aoc epeeo ae o copoc poa ooc, cyea yeee o . Coaco peyaa pacea c yeee copoc epeee aee opacae. p copoc poa pao 1 /c K coca 1,05, p 10 /c o opoc o 1,32, .e. p yee copoc 10 pa acaoe epeee aee yeoc a 27%.

. 7.10. ( ) ( ) :

) h1= 0,9 ;

h= 0,9 ;

h2= 0,8 ;

) h1= 0,9 ;

h= 1,0 ;

h2= 0,9 ;

) h1= 0,9 ;

h= 1,0 ;

h2= 0,8 .. , .. Ba aopo, opee e copoc poa a apaep epexooo poecca, ec pe oec a a coceo capoo a. Pacea ycaoeo, o acaoe ooee ae ooc, aoe cap o, aaec p copoc poa 6,0 /c cocae 20% (pc. 7.10,). p aee yee copoc poa oe aoc ae . Ta, p copoc 15,0 /c o cocae 1,08. .e., yeee epeeo ae pao 8%. Kaeceo y acoc oo oc e, o c yeee copoc oec capoo a a a caoc ee oyepoa cocex poox oea e.

ooy a e ycea cpeapoa a oyee eao aop, oepeee, copoc ooc aee ec eaeo.

Ta opao, coceo capo o e po cyece ee ae ooc. pe, c yeee copoc poa ea oea aoc ae yeaec. Oao aa epexooo poecca ccee poeooca p poae peaoo capoo a, eeo oaoe yoee paoooc cyex ooc, oaa, o cooyoc a aopa a aee oea epeeo ae ooc (pc. 7.10,). Hapep, ec p poae co copoc 6 /c K = 1, (pc. 7.10,), p poae coceo capoo a K = 1,20 (pc. 7.10,), o p poae capoo c pao oo K = 1,65 (pc. 7.10,).

Xapaep acoc epeeo ae ooc o copoc poa (pc. 7.10, ) oo oc coecoo aaa px a pc. 7.10,,). copoc poa 6,0 /c paoooc oaoo yoe capoo a e oao xapaep.

ooy po peoy yee ae. p copoc poa e 6,0 /c yaae acoc e pooooe pae, o yeee ae.

Ceye opa ae a o ocoeco, o p poae capoo a c oa yoee paoooc cyex ooc poo oea aooo ya e ae ay. o po opaoa paoooc ooc a ocae cee ooc (c. pc. 7.5).

Ha pc. 7.11 acoc ao o ooc h1min e o copoc poa capoo a, oopa oaae, o aaoe copoce 1 5 /c h1min ee aee.

, . 7.10.

7. . 7.11. ;

, . 7.10;

1 oee cap po ooeoy pocy yex pacax ape x ceex ye epooc opa ooc. acoc yex ae o copoc poa capx o oaa pxo p a pc. 7.10. B aoe epe oa yee ae ooc ec p poae paoooo capoo a c oa yoee (pc. 7.10 pc. 7.11). B o cyae yeee yeoo ae p copoc poa 6,0 /c ocae 100% paec pecoy ae.

ae, o yaae e peya oye opex yco poa, oa oae ooc o a cocao 25%, a ee ooc T0 = 143,2 T1 = 78,5 . Oeo, o c eee oa e ypo eeex ae e copoc a ae ce apy ooce ec (. pc. 7.8 pc. 7.9). Ta, c yeee oa o 40% aeca cocaa ae ooc yeaec oee e a paa, .e. poay capoo a paepo h1 = 0,9 ;

h = 1,0 ;

h2 = 0,8 ;

l = 30 oo ocyec a paoe copoc. Oao, ec paoooc capoo ca ye pea 17-18%, o aece apy ooce o pc pee ae (. pc. 7.7).

peee apy ooce, co oepe, ac o epaoepoc eopa o pe poaaeo ooc, o opa opeee py pacax ape. ae o oppepoa c yeo ceecx yco opeoo caa. Oao ocae e aeceo e ec.

Ta opao, ce cepea oaao, o capo o ae aee aece apy ooce, oope p opeeex ycox poa oy oca peex ae po opy ooc. Oco coa oye c paoooc capoo ca oaoe yoee coceo capoo .. , .. a. Be aoo oeoc aopa a aece apy ooce eaeo, o pe a x coecoe ece po cyece pa ae.

, - .

, . 7.12-7.13. 8 2,5/0,51015 1700 . : 0,9 ;

0,8 ;

1 ;

30 . ( ) 25%. 5 /. :

146 ;

80 . . k . (. 7.12-7.13) 0,8 ( k = 1), Ra = 0,451,20 (k 0,81,2).

. 7.12. , () n () . Ra, 7. (. 7.12,), ( 0,75 ) ( 1,5-2,15 ) .

(. 7.12,). 0,45 k T k 1,38, 1,2 1,77 (. 7.13). , , .

k T k kT , .. k = /.

. 7.13. k k = / T Ra, ( ), k ( , . 7.12) 1 , , .

, , . , .. , .. , .. , .. , .. , .. .


.. , .. , , . . , , ( ) , .

, , .

, , , , , ( ). 20%. - . . , . , , . , . .

. , , , , . , , , . , , , , , 7. , ( ). , , , , , , .

[92].

7.5.2. e copoc p paoe opoe caa p opoe paoe caa, apep, p poyce capoo a cyeceo ec oa ooc, eeeoe aee pye apaep poa. K pa yaax e oo ooc e copoc poa a ey oea pe oy acoo co oax ocoo pe (T) oopx ao ee caa. Ta, paoe [95] aopaop cepe ycaoeo, o p poae ooc e ca c yeee copoc oa ooc yce poa opaca, o pe a p poae co cao oa ooc yce poa yeac. Oao ecx paoax o oepoa poecca epepo poa e aec oe cee oeoc aoo copocx aopo a eee o ooc ex caa, o ec a oeo p papaoe cce aoaecoo peypoa eaooo aopa p epeeo copoc poa.

ocao ycoe caoc poecca poa a epepo cae a p ocoo, a p epeeo copoc poa, ec oee o e caa ceyeo coooe:

h Vi = i = 1 i 1, (7.24) Vi 1 h1 i e i a i-o e (ocoa ea);

Vi copoc poa i-o e;

h1i oa ooc a xoe i-o e.

Coee eoo paeca pae (7.24) ec ye ypa e a poo caa. oecee paoo paeca pae (7.24) eoxoo oppepoa ycaoy ax o ao e caa.

.. , .. oy ooc a xoe e opee coec peee ypae poa ypae paoooc :

(7.25) P = P(h0, h1, T, R, f, T0, T1, V, B, ), P (7.26) h1 = S + 2S , Ck e S aop ey aa e eaa (ycaoa o);

S oa aco e T.

Peee cce ypae (7.25) (7.26) cao c opeee py oc, oycoe e, o poco epao poecc poex ca xooo poa pacxoc.

B o c a opo epaoo ae ypaee (7.25) peoeyec oca aee xoo o, ceoe o ceye opye [89]:

h1( 2 ) = h1( 0 ) + [h1( 0 ) h1(1) ]. (7.27) = C / ;

, ;

h1( 0 ) aaoe C pee o;

h1(1) aee o ooc, oyeoe a epo ae epaooo poecca.

pacea epao cocae epeee e oopoo aa S T pe pecy acoc, peoey paoe [96]:

S = ak V / P, (7.28) e ak pec oe, pa 75 H..c1/2 /1/2.

opya (7.28) pea e, o, o-epx, e apocpoa ae, oyee aaoe yc copoce, cooecye pea yco poa a epepo cae;

o-opx, oa oyea T, oope pec a oce cao xooo poa;

-pex, opyy eo peaoa aeaeco oe.

poecc poa oepoa epep 5- ca ( ) 1200. cceoa poay ooc ca 08 oo 0,25 oaa oo 2,2 . oaa, o ooee ax o ocaec oco p ee copoc poa, .e. pacopa ao (S = const).

7. opeee paeoo oea pe c

ee oopx ao T a oy poaaeo ooc oceoaeo oepoa poecc poa co cao e ca, c yeo ee o aco e T e yea ee ee (S = 0), o cooecye pee a cae oo ae oopx ao.

caoeo (. 7.14,), o p poae co cao yee copoc o 0,5 o 20 /c oa ooc a xoe 1- e c 1,67 o 1,59 , a yce poa o 7,3 o 6,9 .

. 7.14. h1, , (h0 = 2,2 ) () () p poae e ca aa opay apy: yce poa opacae c 7,9 o 8,3 MH, a oa ooc c 1,51 o 1,59 . oc e, o p poae ooc e ca poec e aeco cocae peea eyec, oopoe p poae co cao oec pyec eee oea pe. Xapaep pacex acoce o ooc ae eaa a a o copoc poa xopoo coacyec c a, apep, Baa oa [95].

.. , .. Peya oepoa yc poa o ooc epo e caa c yeo ee o aco e T oopx ao a pc. 7.15. p coocae x ax c peyao oeoo cepea, poeeoo e yea T, , o poaec e T opeee opao a oy poaao ooc a xapaep ee yc poa. Ta, p poae co cao aaoe copoce o 0,5 o 20 /c eee xoo o a 0,08 oe, e cyae poa e T. p poae e ca, a oaa pace, copoc cao e a eee o ooc. o ocec e, o yeee ypyo eopa e a ce opaca copoe eopa oecpyec yeee o aco e T. , p yee copoc poa o 0 o 20 /c yeaec 1,60 o 1,59 . ce poa p o opacae c 7,60 o 8,30 MH.

. 7.15. h1 (h0 = 2,2 ) () () (S) , S ( ) .

,

p aae poecca epepo poa c cooae oyex peyao eoxoo ya o ocoeco, o copoc poa epo e caa peo ocae 5 /c, a oee e cceoa poee epae o 0 o 20 /c.


7. Pacee acoc yc poa xoo o ooc o copoc o e caa pee a pc. 7.16. poecc poa co cao oepoa c yeo e yea T. Coaco peyaa x cceoa p yee copoc poa o 0 o 15 /c xoa oa ooc yeaec c 0,39 o 0,32 cyae poa c T, c 0, o 0,33 p poae c oa ae .

. 7.16. h1, ( 82%, h0 = 0,40 ) () () Oeo, o pa xapaepe ee ee o o oc oox cyax poa o e aaec. o ocoeco ocec e, o eee o aco e T oopx ao oecpyec oe ac a ce ypyo eopa e, ocoy ecoc ooc ocex ex caa aeo peae ecoc cao e.

Ta opao, eee o aco e T ocex ee caa paec e e a oy poaaeo ooc. e ee o ooc pocxo, ocoo, a ce copoc po a a oe pe.

.. , .. ooee ax o e oecee ocoo o ooc p epeex ycox poa opee ypae (7.26):

P (7.29) S = h1 + 2 S.

Ck ce P pacca o ypae (7.25). Maeaec aaa P S (7.25) (7.29) eaec ooceo poco, a a oa eecx apaepa pae opao.

Peya paceo e eaooo aopa (ycao ax o) pyx apaepo poa ec epo o ex caa 1200 MMK, , pee a pc. 7.17,.

. 7.17. : ) ( 2,2/0,25730 );

) 1700 ( 2,5/0,51015 ). ocoy peaa copoc poa epo e caa e peae 4 /c, o coaco oye a, eee eaooo aopa o e . pe yce poa p peypoa aopa paec e eec. B o e caa, e poaaec aeaa oa ooca, eoxoo aeoe eee e eaooo 7. aopa oecee ocoo o ooc. Ta, p yee copoc poa o 0,5 o 20 /c ae eoxoo paec c ooe -1,70 o -0,96 , .e. a 0,74 . Opaee ae ooe S oaa, o a e eaa o axoc aoe.

Hecop a o, o oe pe o acoo ee 5- e eec (o 0,027 p V = 0,5 /c o 0,018 p V = 20 /c) yce poa cyeceo o 8,70 o 6,50 . aaoe ee xapaepo ocex ee epepx cao xooo poa , epoo, eo o apye peypoae e eaooo aopa p poae ox ooc [97].

.. , .. C2=K, % 2.% %,,.% % %L !%*=2*, % % C 8.1. , , . , . . , , , .

, , , . , , , , . , . . .

, ( , ) ( ), , , ( , .). , , , , .

, , 8. , . 4 . .

, , . , .

[98] , :

T ( ) = T + 33,5 0, 6+0, 005 d (8.1) 0, 3, =81+53[]+93[Mn]+16,2d -0,5, /2;

[] [n] , %;

d , .

[], [Mn] d (). d 2,0-2,5 08, , ( , ,;

, /2;

62 2,0-2,2 60 2,4-2,5 ):

2,0-2,2 2,4-2,5 0,015/250 0,015/ 0,036/325 0,031/ 0,0204/276,6 0,02043/276, 0,00614/18,1 0,00523/13, 0,30/0,64 0,256/0, .. , .. , . 2,0-2,2 , 2,4-2,5 .

, (8.1) , , () 110 /2 = 70% 120 /2 = 90 %. .

70 90% pc. 8.1.

. 8.1. () 08 70 () 90% () 2,0-2,2 . () = 70% = 90% (.8.1) , , () 0 d, . 70% () 774,5 /2 () 18,45 /2. 90% 860,6 18,6 /2.

6 - :

8. f = 0,1(1 + Ran )[1 + 0,25 ( R 0,85 )][0,8 + 0,2 exp(0,6 C )] R ) a[ 5a 0,2 Ra 0,8 5 0,65 ) 5 ] (8.2) 0, 3939,8 h / R +0.0007 T +0, 0193V exp(3,5 ), Ra Ra , ;

, %, h , ;

R , ;

V , /.

, , V, , Ra, Ran h , , -, , , -, , , . , . , (8.2) .

5- 1700, - 1 , , V, , Ra, Ran h . 8.2. . 8.1 1700 .

, , = 4% S = 0,3%, = 0,08%, S = 0,01%;

= 0,35%, S = 0,05%, = 0,026 , S = 0,005 .

300 .

. 8.2. f 1-5 1700 2,5/0,51015 08. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 .. , .. , .., .. .. , .. 8. 1700 2,50,51015 ( ) 4,52,01415 ( ) 08 1 2 Ra, 2,5/0,3 0,8/0,1 0,8/0, Ra, 1,5/0,15 1,5/0,15 1/0, 0,325/0,025 0,317/0,035 0,268/0,, .

0,168/0,028 0,119/0,019 0,102/0, 3,64/0,325 5,34/0,455 7,3/0, V, / 6,41/0,35 7,3/0,24 8,15/0, . 8. 4 Ra, 0,8/0,1 1/0, Ra, 1/0,05 1/0, 0,263/0,09 0,24/0,, .

0,162/0,05 0,229/0, 9,9/1,17 13/3, V, / 9,7/0,63 12,6/0, (. 8.2), . 1,5 . , . (0,5 ), (2,0 ) (. 8.1). , 0,5 10 . (. 8.1).

. ;

S 8. , , . f , (8.2) . f 9,6%. f (. 8.2).

, 20% , , .

8.2. , , -, . , , , . (.

7.1) , , , . . , . , . , 1700.

. .. , .. ( , , ), , . . , , . . .

5- 1700 600 , 4- 500 . 15 /. 1700 1000 0,5-2,0 2,0-5,0 . h = 0,5 Sh = 0,0035 ;

h = 2,0 Sh = 0,035 , 19904 . , 2 5 , SH 0,06 0,12 . = 230 /2 S = 20 /2. ( ) 50 /2, 150 /2. , h fi .

1-5 :

1 2 3 4 fi 0,08 0,06 0,05 0,05 0, Sf 0,0058 0,0044 0,0037 0,0037 0, 4- , , .

8. . 8.2 8.3. , .3.

. , . , , , (0,5 ) . .



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