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....:,1984.464... Homo,..:,1980. 328.....:. ., 1987.138.... .:,1991. 256...: ,1982. 560.

CoppensY.Lesinge,1'Afriqueet1'Homme.P.:Fayard,1983.140p.The origins of modern Humans. N.Y.: Academic Press, 1984. 302 p. The humanrevolution.Edinburgh:EdinburghUniversityPress,1989.800p.

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.:,1965.134... ..:,1976.96.KleinR.G.Manandculturein LatePleistocene:acasestudy.Chicago:ChicagoUniversityPress, 1969.384p.

SofferO.TheUpperPaleolithicoftheCentralRussianPlain.N.Y.:AcademicPress,1985. 539p.

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Dereu'ankoA.P.PaleolithicofNorthAsiaandtheproblemofancientmigrations.Novosibirsk: IIFiFSOANSSSR,1990.123p.

ChardCh.NortheastAsiainprehistory.Madison:UniversityofWisconcinPress,1974.214 p.

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堠..: ,1990.191.

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,1990.185.,. (,).:

,1992.131...,..,... ..:,1991. 158.....: ,1979. 158.

....:,1979. 200....:,1986.174.

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184.

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....:,1993.EarlyPaleolithicin SouthandEastAsia.LaHague:Mouton,1978.389p.PaleoanthropologyandPaleolithic archaeologyinthePeople'sRepublicofChina.Washington:

NationalAcademyofSciences,1977.313p.

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N.Y.:AcademicPress,1982.354 p.PaleoecologyofBeringia.N.Y.:AcademicPress,1982.269p.

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.. "..:,1991.341.

SUMMARY Thisbookpresentsthefirst,sincethebookbyP.P.Efimenkolappeared,inRussian archaeologicalscienceattempttocreateamanualandgeneralizingreferencebookonthe PaleolithicPeriod.The specific character ofthebookis conditionedbythe research interestsoftheaudienceitisaddressedto:inthefirstinstancetostudentsandresearchers oftheSiberianPaleolithic.Thusthedescriptionofearlyculturesofnorthernandeastern AsiaandthePacificRimisthemainfocusofinterest.Atthesametime,ageneralidea abouttheclassicalEuropeanschemeofsuccessionintheevolutionofPaleolithiccultures isproposed.TheknowledgeofitisessentialforeveryresearcherengagedinPaleolithic studies whatever territory he works at. The authors tried to combine a classical typologicalapproachontheonehand,andtheresultsobtainedinmoderntrendsofthe science (ethnoarchaeology, geoarchaeology, site catchment analysis, technological analysis,etc.)ontheother.

Thebookconsistsoftwoparts.Thefirstonegivesanideaaboutthesubjectofthe Paleolithicarchaeology,itsplaceinageneralframeworkofarchaeologicalscienceand theHumanities.ThehistoryofinvestigationoftheOldStoneAgerecord,mainmodern trendsandschoolsinPaleolithicscienceareelucidated.TheessentialsofQuaternary geology,geochronologyandpalcogeography,maintypesofsitesandmethodsoftheir studying,technologicalandtypologicalanalysisoflithicandboneindustriesaregiven. TheproblemsofsocialandculturalreconstructionofthePaleolithicsocieties,correlation ofbiologicalandculturalshiftsintheprocessofanthropogenyarealsotouchedupon.

Inthesecondpartofthebookasystematicdescriptionofevolutionofthe PaleolithiccultureswiththeemphasismadeupontheSiberianantiquitiesis' presented.ThebookissupplementedbyalistofreferencestomainRussianand foreignpublicationsapplicable.

Paleolithicstudiesoccupyaspecialplaceamongotherbranchesofarchaeology.It isinthejunctionofnaturalsciencesandtheHumanities.Itisuniquebecauseofthe specialrolegeologicaldatingofsitesandpaleoenvironmentaleventsplaysinit.All mainaspectsofhumansociety(art,religion,socialstructures,etc.)originatedduringthe PaleolithicPeriod.Analysisofconceptionofthesephenomenarousesinterestamong philosophers,historians,ethnologists,anthropologistsforPaleolithic.Anarrownessof sourcebaseavailabledictatestheneedforelaborationofsophisticatedmethodsoffield andlaboratory study,as well as issues oftypologyandtechnology oflithics witha complicated special jargon in use. Another peculiarity of our discipline is an international characterofresearch process conditionedbysimilarityinappearanceof Paleolithicculturesonvastterritories,andurgetowardstracingthecharacterofinitial peoplingandroutesofmigrationsofPaleolithicpeople.

BornintheXIXcenturyandstimulatedbytheevolutionaryideas,thePaleolithic archaeology has proceeded along the path of changing of theoretical concepts and methodological approaches. The current stage of the world Paleolithic studies is characterizedbyintensiveinteractionandcooperationbetweennationalschools (first and foremost the French and the AngloAmerican ones). Russian archaeology of Paleolithicoccupiesaspecialplace.Duringlastdecades it has been mainly focused on the analysis of spatial patterns of ancient culture from microarias to a comparison in a global scale. The achievementsofSovietprehistoriansofthe1930sinstudyingofPaleolithic dwellings and settlements, and the method of usewear analysis of S.A. Semenov are generally recognized. The history of Paleolithic studies of Siberiaisnowenteringitssecondcentury.Theinvestigationsarepresently carried out by several regional centers coordinated by the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography of the Siberian Branch of the Russian AcademyofSciences(Novosibirsk).

ThearchaeologyofPaleolithicisinseparablylinkedwiththeQuaternarystudies. The book gives general idea about the timing and character of subdivisions of Quaternary, paleoclimatic changes and main stratigraphic schemes. The problem of correlation of the oxygenisotope scale of ShackletonOpdyke with continental paleogeographicaleventsisdiscussed.Successionoffaunalcomplexesispresented,as wellasthemaingeomorphologicalnotionsandprincipalgenetictypesofcontinental sedimentswhicharesignificanttounderstandthecharacterofthePaleolithicrecord. Particular attention has been given to the Quaternary history of Siberia, the paleogeography of which left its mark on the character of the demographics of this territoryinancienttimes.DevelopmentoficesheetsandpondbasinsinWesternSiberia, andalpinevalleyglaciersinmountainregionsofsouthernSiberiahasbeennoted.

Complex paleoenvironmental analysis carried out by the experts in different disciplinesconstitutesanintegralpartofPaleolithicstudy.Thebookcontainsabrief descriptionofthemainmethodsforstudyingtheQuaternarysedimentsandpaleosoils. Basic principles of stratigraphic correlation, fundamentals of paleontology and paleobotany,differenttechniquesofabsolutedatingarealsodiscussed.

Paleolithicsitesvaryincharacterandgeologicalsetting.Therearesites with disturbed cultural horizon (they are especially abundant in arid and semiarid regions), sites with culturebearing strata lying in alluvial and subaerial deposits. Open sites occur in river valleys, where they are associatedeitherwithcoveranddiluvialloamsandloessorwithfluvialsands andsandyloamsformingterracesaboveafloodplain.Sitesofthelattertype are widespread in northern Asia. They are usually characterized by thin culturalhorizonsandarehighlymultilayered.Descriptionofmaintypesof Paleolithic sites in carstic cavities (rockshelters, grottos, caves) is also presented.

TechniquesoffieldstudywithregardtopeculiaritiesofSiberiansitesarestated. Recommendations for reconnaissance survey and some rules of recording of newly discoveredsitesaregiven.Indescriptionofmethodsforstudyingthesiteswithdisturbed culturallayeraspecialemphasishasbeenplacedonplanimetricanalysis.Someproblems of choosing the optimum place for excavation and the form of excavation area are discussed. Peculiarities of excavation of cave sites are pointed out: suspended grid system,orientationofsections,etc.Therearealsosomerecommendationsforlaboratory registrationandtreatmentofartifactsandlineardrawingoflithics.

Asectionconcerningtheanalysisofalithicandboneindustrytakescentralplacein theframeworkofthefirstpartofthebook.Onecanfindheredescriptionofmaintypes ofrawmaterialusedbyprehistoricman,criteriafordistinguishingculturalandnatural stoneknapping,accountofdifferenttechniquesofflaking,etc.Mainvarietiesofcores, flakes, blanks and types of retouch are characterized. Proceeding from the specific features of the Mousterian and Upper Paleolithic lithic assemblages of Siberia, the principalmorphologicalvariantsofthemaintoolcategories(sidescrapers,endscrapers, chisellike tools, burins, borers, points, retouched blades, knives, foliates, backed bladelets,etc.),aswellassomerarevarietiesoflithicimplementsareconsidered.In additiontoRussiandenominations,onecanfindEnglishandFrenchtermsrelevanttothe lithic typology. Main types of tools made of ivory, antler and bone (hafts, points, harpoons,smoothers,awls,needles,etc.)areenumerated.

In addition to the typological method, modern lithic studies attach im portancetothetechnologicalanalysis,i.e.thereconstructionofthesocalled operationalchains:successiveoperationsofprehistoricmanintheprocessof making,usingandremodifyingofartifacts.Asitwasestablished,stonetools were often morphologically altered while passing through the reduction sequence.Forthereconstructionofthemanufacturingprocessandtoolfunctions theusewearanalysisandexperimentscouldserveasanauxiliarymeans.Pla nigraphic analysis of spatial distribution of lithics, bones and features with refitting and tracing the relations between conjoinable pieces is vital for the reconstruction of sites. Various statistical techniques from easily counted indicestosophisticatedmethodsofmultivariatestatistics(cluster,factor,prin cipalcomponentsanalyses)arewidelyusedforexaminingandcomparative analysisofsizablecollections.Inmodernforeignarchaeologyanemphasisis shifting from statistical classification to wide introduction of computerbased informationstorageandretrievaltechniquesinfieldandlaboratorystudiesof differentkinds.

SomegeneralissuesofreconstructionandinterpretationofPaleolithicarediscussed further. The main point of the Paleolithic science is considered as identification of different factors (cultural, functional, research) influenced variability of lithic assemblages. Several functional types of sites (workshops, hunting camps, killand butcheringsites,basecamps)couldbeisolated.Forinterpretationofspatialtemporal groupsofsimilarmonumentssuchtheoreticalnotionsasanarchaeologicalculture,way ofdevelopment,entity,culturalarea,zone,etc.areused.Onthebaseofcomparisonof prehistoric evidence with ethnographic data concerning regularities in structure of huntinggatheringcommunities,itisconceivabletoisolatesomegeneralcharacteristics ofsocialstructureandsubsistenceeconomyoftheLatePaleolithichuntersinnorthern Eurasia.


DuringPaleolithictheformationofanatomicallymodernhumansproceeded.The bookcontainsabriefdiscussionofprincipalproblemsofanthropogeny,mainlinesand stages of the evolution of hominidae (Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, Homosapienssapiens).Humanbiological types arecorrelated with lithic complexes. The hypotheses about the brain evolution and the development of modern human behavioral traits are mentioned. The Neanderthal remains are known fromtheSiberianPaleolithicrecord(teethfromtheDenisovaandOkladnikovcaves),as wellastheonesoftheUpperPaleolithicHomosapiens(thedoublechildrenburialfrom MaltaandtheskullfragmentfromAfontovaGoraII).

TheearliestevidenceofhumanactivitywasidentifiedintheEastAfrican Rift Zone (the localities of West Gona, dated at 22.5 mln. yr). The eponymic sites of the Olduvai Gorge are principal for understanding the evolution of the earliest industries. There the development of the Oldowan industrieslateronparalleledtheEarlyAcheulianonescanbetraced.Thebook gives a brief description of main varieties of the European Early Paleolithic cultures:Acheulianwithbifaces,flakeandpebbletoolindustries.

ThoughthemajorityoftheconjecturalpreMousteriansitesknowninSiberiaare questionable (Ulalinka, Filimoshki), evidence of the initial human colonization of northern Asia starting with Middle Pleistocene is revealed in different regions (the MokhovoIsiteintheKuzbassisattributedtotheMindelRissInterglacial).Pebbletool industries(Diring)appeartocoexistwiththeAcheulian(Torgalyk).

PresentlytheEarlyPaleolithicsitesarewellknownindifferentregionsofeastern andcentralAsia.TheAcheulianlocalitiescontainingbifacesandpebbleindustrieshave been discovered in Mongolia. There are some occurrences of bifaces of distinctive morphologyinChinaandKorea(Koehe,Tingtsun,Chongokniandothers),thoughthe pebbletoolindustriesseemtodominateineasternAsia.TheearliestsitesinJapanalso datebacktotheAcheulianepoch.

MiddlePaleolithicischaracterizedbyfurtherdiversificationofindustriesbasedon manufacturingofstandardblanks.Thebookscontainsadescriptionofthemainvarieties of the classical Mousterian of southwestern France, some industries of Central and EasternEurope.Complicationofsitestructure,whereevidenceofartificialconstructions couldsometimesbeidentified,appearanceofthefirstburialsandscarcenonutilitarian objectswasobserved.

TheMousterianindustriesofSiberiafallwithinthetimespanbetween theKazantsevianInterglacialandtheKarginianperiod(ca.3300044000 yrB.P.).Dataaccumulatedduringtheexplorationofthecavesitesinthe Altaiallowtoputforwardthehypothesisaboutthecoexistenceofseveral variants of the Mousterian: the LevalloisMousterian (Strashnaya and Dvuglazka caves), the Typical Mousterian (Denisova Cave), the Special TypicalMousterian enriched with cantedsidescrapers (OkladnikovCave). There are also some obscure variants of nonLevallois Mousterian (KaminnayaCave,TiumechinII),andtheMousteroidindustrieswithfoliated bifaces(UstKarakolI,MokhovoII).

TheSiberianMousterianisapartoftheMousterianCultureofnorthern Eurasia.TheLevalloisMousteriansites,includingthestratifiedones,have been reported from Mongolia (Orkhon I, VII;


TsaganAgui). The Middle PaleolithicofChina,KoreaandJapanshowsadistinctpatternandcouldnot beassignedtoMousteriansensustricto.

The MiddletoUpper Paleolithic transitionis considered as the most significant boundaryinprehistory,associatedwiththedispersalofanatomicallymodernhumans (thoughtheirorigininAfricacouldprobablybeassignedtoamuchearlierperiod).The bookgivesadescriptionofthekeysuccessionoftheUpperPaleolithicculturesinsouth western France and the most striking episodes of the complicated Upper Paleolithic historyofnorthern,centralandeasternEurope.TheUpperPaleolithicresidentialsites yieldedstructural features ofdifferent kinds (hearths, pits,concentrations ofchipped stones, dwellingstructures and burials of manytypes). Diversity of adornments and ornamentalpatternsreflectsacomplicatedspirituallifeoftheUpperPaleolithicman. Thisepochevidencedthefirstexperimentswithearthenwarewhichcanbealsotracedin Siberia(theMaininskayasite).Aphenomenonoftheearliestartisthemostremarkable developmentofUpperPaleolithic.Itisrepresentedbybothtransportableartobjectsand cavepaintings.

The beginning of Upper Paleolithic in Siberia was associated to the dispersaloftheEpiLevalloisbladeindustriesgeneticallyrelatedtothelocal Mousterian(thesitesofKaraBom,Tolbaga,Arembovsky,etc.).Thedates fallbetween27000and34000..,thoughtherecentdatesfromKara BomcouldindicateeventheearlierbeginningforUpperPaleolithic.During theLateKarginianEarlySartaniantimespan(18000to27000yrB.P.) theseindustrieswerereplacedbytheMiddleUpperPaleolithictraditionsof smallblades(Malta,Buret,Tarachikha,andothers)wellcomparablewiththe EuropeanUpperPaleolithicpattern.FinalPaleolithicischaracterizedbythe cooccurrence of archaic and Upper Paleolithic components and wide distributionofraicrobladetechnology(theAfontovaandKokorevocultures in the Yenisei Basin, the Diuktai Culture in Yakutia, the Badai and VerholenskayaculturesontheAngara,etc.).

TheUpperPaleolithicculturesofMongolia,northernChinaandnorthern JapansharesomefeatureswiththeSiberianarchaeologicalremains.Firstof allthisconcernsthemicrobladetechnologyinitsdifferentmanifestations. TheFinalPaleolithicofJapanshowsadistinctivepattern,characterizedby anearlyappearanceofgeometricmicroliths,arrowheads,polishedaxes,and ceramics(from12000yrB.P.on).DuringLatePaleolithictheAmerican Continent was colonized through Beringia. Presently several sites (the NenanaComplex,Bluefishcaves,MeadowcroftRockshelter)suggestthatthe New World was settled starting from 13 00014 000 yr B.P. In Final PleistocenethePaleoindiancultures(Clovis,Folsom),characterizedbythe flutedpoints,dominatedinNorthAmerica.Synchronousassemblagesfrom Alaska demonstrate a close resemblance to the Siberian Final Paleolithic Period and can be united with the former within the boundaries of the PaleoarcticTradition.

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