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..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, ...

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49 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, ,黠㠠., . , ,., ,.   , . . . ࠠ(, ). (. ),. .22 , , .. ., 180, .Ѡ堠: .. , .23 50 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008,  , .,: .,. . , 蠫軠. .24 , , , .  ,,. ""/""." """",.. , 頫頫,.. 蠫Ȼ.,ޠ ӻ. 51 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, .

25 ,8,, .堫,, .蠠. , ,. , , (). .蠫 , . Š Š().. ,.. , 7 , . ..,⠠ ,. 52 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, .26 堫. 蠫. 렠"",. ࠠ頠. .27.28 .",,". "",,(01,10), ໠ : (11), Š (00). , . , :,. , , . . """" ,,( ,). 53 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, " " , , . . . "". , . (). , --Ż , .29. |, ., .,堫. | ;

;

.

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1 . Ƞ() | | .68 (). ,.  堫컠1 | | ,,, ,2 ,2 頫Ż,,. . ("", ,,,. . ࠠ. 54 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, : ,;

2: ,. , + - - = ;

- - : ""","",""". .30.31 ,, . 2.1.3.   55 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, .32 ࠠ().  ,., ,̸.Ƞ 堠.,. ,蠠. , .. .. 56 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, .33   . Ƞ ߠȠ , . . ,꠫廠蠫. , , , +1 = ;

  , , , . . =0+7=7. +1 1 +1 7 = = 1) ;

8) ;

0 7 +1 1 +1 6 = = 2) ;

7) ;

1 6 +1 1 +1 5 = = 3) ;

6) ;

2 5 +1 1 +1 4 = = 4) ;

5) ;

3 4 ,:7.,4 .. 껠. 57 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, .34 , ໠ , , . (), (). . , .

,  ( ) 頫()., ., . 58 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, .35 .36 . 59 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, .37 . 60 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, .38 . ,蠖. 61 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, ,4( ),,. .39 ,,. , ,. .40 . 蠫 ,蠫., , . 堫컠ܻࠫ. 62 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, ࠫͻ. .,,,젫 컠 ͻ, ,ܻܻࠫ . , , ࠫȠ.Ƞ , .41.42 ( ) . "ࠠ"", .   .. 17. Ӡ(), .(, ).(.). 2.1.4. ,, .堠 . ,, 蠠. () ,젠. i,j,k , -i,-j,-k , .

. 63 .

..⠫ : ߠ ՠ ՠ ɻ, 08, . , .

:

i: 0-1-0-1-0-1-0- :

j: 0-0-1-1-0-0-1- :

k 0-0-0-0-1-1-1- k:

. .

( .

.1.5.3, 1.6.4.1).

, .

. 4 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, , . .

. , . .

. , ( ). , 1-3 2-4, 5-6 7-8 .

2.1.5. 2.1.5.1. , , . -, .

65 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, .

. 2 ,

. - .

, .

. ( ), .

2.1.5.2. . .

1. , , , . . , , , |.

, . . ( ).

, | | | | . 50 , .

2. ..

66 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, . , - , (1) (0), , . : . , , .

, , .

, , .

, -. , - -, , , , -. , - . ( ) . , (-) , ( , , .

67 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, . , -, -, , . , , .

, - (, ).

2.1.6. ,, . , 頠 , ,,2020. 68 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, .53 , 黠 ໠ . ,..8. , ⠠頫黠. 3. 3.1. " ", ,. Ƞ蠠, , . ,. 1. (-).

69 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, 2. (-).

+ P = * ;

1 P 3. (-).

+1 P* C = * ;

P C , . (n) . 4堠, . ,頠 蠠"",. , , ,蠠 ,. , , . .  . ,. "","". ().  頠 (), . 70 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, ."","" ,"".

, . | . . |   . , 堫,( )蠠. : 砠( ),, ,  , " , ", ", ". : ,, ޠ,, (頠 ) ,, , , . 3.2. . ". (). "", "", ", "" , ,,,. ,,, ,,. ,蠠 . ,," ". 頠, ,., 蠠 , , ꠠ. 71 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, ,蠠. ., ,堠.... . , . , 蠠蠠..Ƞ . , 頠 ,,堠., 堠. ? 蠠 , ,,?, ,,? , ,. Ѡ. .;

. ,, ,,., ,,. ?? ,,. ʠ,,., .. . :. , :,,,頠. , , , ,. ,., ,,,,: ,,,,, ,,,, ,,,, , , , , ...". .  ,;

, . ࠠ., . , , , . . ,, . 72 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, .,,, , . ., ,...,, , , "" , . ,, .,, . ,,.   . , : , , , . ,,, , . , ,.

. . 3.2.1. . ,,, .   . ., ,. ,., 젠,,,,. , ,. . , , ,. 蠠 ()., ,. , .,,., ., "",頫黠( ).Ƞ ,.   . , ,, . ..1927:" ,"., ., . , . , , . 73 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, ,, ,,. .,, ,. .  . , (, ) . , . . , " , , ,,,,, ". ,, . 3.2.2. , . .54 , 蠠. +n n = ;

? (. ), (.).. . Ƞ . , (,). 74 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, " " ( ,). ()( ),"". (): ",,, ....,,." ,: +1 = ;

.   " " . , ( )""(). ., .໠. 3.2.3. , , ,. . ,. ʠ: ,( ). , (). , (). , (). , (,Р). , 蠠 (). CPT, ( ,PT). (). ,, 頖, . (), ()(). , . , , ,,. .ࠠ (). ( ). 75 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, 頠 () () , n +n - * - = * ;

P- - , (,, ) . , ,., n +n - * - = ;

- * - , P- n +n * - - = ;

P- * - 頠 .,, ., ur s u +n n C- - = u r s u - - = ur - s u - = ;


u r s u +n n - - = u r s u - - (Ҡ *), , . :.". . , , ,. ,( ,). (),"". ..Ƞ , ."" ., ,,, .ࠠ"" . 76 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, ,堠 , "", , "". 堠 , . . ,,. ()頠,. ,, " " . " ", ""."". , , ࠠ . 3.2.4. , . . , +1 +1 P* C = * = ;

;

1 P C 9, . , , , . (!!) :(堠 .56),蠠( ).򠠠:,,,. 77 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, ໠(Ҡ蠠), (֠).(),().   () CP, ** (""蠠"").2..  ,蠠(""蠠"").  ,,., ʠ. " " .   ( )堠"""++". ()"++". . 1."++"( )? 2. "++". 堠", . , " "? 3. , "" . ? , " , ?" ?, , ⠠ " , "? , (,) . , 蠠 ,, .57n, ,."" , . (). .. 78 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, (), (). .58.59 45 ( ). . 46().  ,,(), (). , "" . "",,, !!! . ., . 1. ? ("-" "-")?

2. , ("" 蠠 ""), ("""")? , ,.Ƞ . ,. , . , ,. ,,, "",. 79 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, ""堠蠠, ,蠠, . , , .. , 蠠 ( ). . , , ,. , . "" .蠠ࠠ (,). , ,(). ,. .. 젠,. +1 G = ;


1 A   "".""G,"" ""()."", ࠠ +1 G C = ;

U A . ,. ,, ,렠() . .

1. . "", GU= -UC.

,.  . 2. . ..""(). 3..,(.6) 80 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, , .. +1 = ;

,,堠 + = ;

:, ,() .(). 4..頠, ,"". (2/3)., 5. . , . 6... , . , .  , .. ."" ,.Ƞ . ,,..껠 蠠 .,"". ,"". Ƞ"". ., . (). 81 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, ,, . . .60 , ,젠,. .. .61 82 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, , ,  ,ࠠ堠 , ?: 1.. 2.,, .. 3."" ."" :  : ",,堠";

+1 -1 - = ;

-1 - 젠12. . +1 -1 - = ;

-2 -1  "" ."", .. 4. ,,,. 3.4. 3.4.1. .. ().堠, ,.1927. 젠, ,(,,) , . ,,(). . +1 = ;

  . = ;

+ = ;

= ;

83 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, +1 max 1 = ;

min +1 min 1 = ;

max . 1, , .1, ,., , , ",". . , . , ., , , . .   , .堠 젠 젠 . (" ...."). 蠠 , . 頠. " ". Ƞ ,  " " . .  蠠, ,, : " , ".  ࠠ ,⠠ .62". 84 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, ⠠. "". (), 젠.蠠"", , "" ,." ",頠"". ,. , +1 = ;

... ,., +1 = ;

, 堠. () . +1 = ;

"""", +1 = ;

,堠. +1 = ;

.. ( )(,,).堠 ,. . , :",". 젠,?:" ". ,, ? ."" 85 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, ."""".  . + = ;

"" "". ,  "", 頠,砠. "" "". :"Ƞ".Ƞ. ,.. 3.4.2 3.4.2.1. . , ., , . Π . ",,, , , F12, ,F21 ". .,,, "".砠,,,, ,.. , , . +1 + m1 m = ;

V V 1 蠠(!)., (+1). +1 m1 V = ;



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