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..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, ...

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() * 2 Q1Q ** R 164 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, ,堫.ࠠ , (","). ? , 젠 蠠젠ࠠ : " . ࠠ ". , . , 젠 . , , ,蠠,. "" . , , 堠,"". "",. ,ࠠ. ""("""" "").. .. ,( ), . , (). .. 䠠., . . . . .,. "" .. , , . ),젠 . 165 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, , ,, . (), (). . , , . , : ,. . , ɠ., ,. Ƞ ,. .Ƞ.,, .󠠠 , . ,堠 ,. 6.4.6. ,.. (..,"",.,,2001.). ", .,, .,". ... " . ,, . , ,.  ., .堠., ., ". ,..,堠 . (. resonance, . resono,), , ,.   Ѡ , ,. . ࠠ, 166 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, :,m,, F=F0coswt,, L,,R ,   , Ѡ L,Ѡ,Ѡ ,Ѡ ,,蠠  Ѡ, ,(). Ѡ LC, , , .

  Ѡ 젠., , , ( ) ,. ,堠, .ߠ. ..,, . ()(). ,,() . ,,젠 .. Π .. ? , Š Πܠߠ Šՠՠˠ(). ꠠ, .. , , Π,ŠŠߠՠˠ().   Π ̠ , .. ɠ ˠ .   ՠ .  Πߠ ՠ. , , ?   Š Π , ()., .ŠȠߠߠ.Ƞߠ ՠҠ. Π.Р .ȠߠŠŠǠΠ.. ,,.堠 +1 = ;

,蠠 .,.,,. ,. 167 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, 堠蠠"",, . ,ޠ,. Π Π ߠ ,ΠҠŠ. 6.5. , , ,. ,,""(). . . , . ,ࠠ. , ,,(). "". (""),. ,,"", . ""," ". ,堠頠, . ,, ,11,22,33, ,1,2,31,2,3. , (), ., "",. 堠 . , ., ,., , ()., 168 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, , . . . , ,.. . , (). , ,,,, (=1), "", .,,, ,""" "."""". ,,,.

7. - 蠠 ..   (). 蠠,젠 , 堠 , 젠(!) ,. 169 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, .96 170 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, 蠠 1 T +m = ;

L+n = ;

-m L-m T +1 L+n T +m = -n ;

-m T L : .., .. , ., . [5](..,..," : ", 2002).   , , .廠. ,.,.. . ,,,,( ) () , .

. 頠 (), (),.. .,⠠ , () () . .(, ).  ,,ࠫ軠, 頠렠,.., 頠. ,,ࠖ蠠 ࠠ. . 7.1. , , , . 堠,,ࠠ. 頠, ,,(,,, ..),. ,, . ,,, ,.., ,. .堖. , ..,蠠(,,, ,,,.). ,  , ,.Ƞ⠠ "". 171 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, , ,.Ƞ. Ƞ.: " .Ƞ, ". ,. 蠠,.  , , "" "", , . "". ,젠, ̠."",, . ,, (): "... , , , . ,...., ,.....". , .. , .. , .. . " ", ., , 1996) , , ,. . "",,. ., ,. , .Ѡ, 頠,. : ,(), ,, . . , , , , ,,. ..⠠ (.,,1999). 1920 ,.ʠ , , , ., . ,. ,, ,. ,, , , 頠. . 172 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, ʠ,,.., . , , , , ,, .Ԡ (...), .Ѡ . ,, ., . ,,堠 .蠫軠,, , .

蠠., ,, ,!!,,堠. ,ࠫ!, 堠,, ,. ,. ,, ,... ..., , , , ,頠 . , ,. ,? ? ,.,9 (,.,..).Ƞ .,,9. Ƞ"".Ƞ, , "" , ,Π.. , ,,, ,,.... ,...堠 , . , , .   , ,.. ... , , "",. ,,,, ,, . : ,,. 173 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, 7.2. : " ".⠠,,: 堠;

堠;

렠 ."":" ,". ,(,,,..) ,ࠠ .,, ,,.  堠, .   . , (), . . ,. , , . ( ) . (), ,. , , ., ,.? , ,(,Ѡ.), .. , . ,, .蠠, , , , "". ,堠. ?, . , ,,,. 174 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, ,,,, (..)! ,,., ,.  ..ࠠ, ,, ,;

, . ?, () ? ,,. 蠠 ? ,, . . , . ( , Ѡ ).,, .,, , . 堠ࠠ(), LT(),. L1 L0 L1 L4 L5 L2 L3 T ? T ? T0 () T1 ? T2 ? div蠠rot () T3 T4 T5 (" "// // (. ,1966, .1).  (). 蠠,젠 , 堠 , 젠(!) ,. 蠠 :..,..,.,. , , . , 蠠 ""? ,?? , ,,(, 175 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, ). (L0T0). ,,, ,. ..,L3T1, ..  , ..., . , .Ƞ, , . . ..,, . :, ,,, . ,, .. 7.3. ,( ),.47( ,Ѡ,,). . , . , ., , . . () (L1T1). 堠. , .Ƞ,. , . ,젠," ". 176 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, .97 , . "", . , ., . Ƞ , ( )頠(Р).蠠 ( ), , 軠 ,(""),("")"".  ..堠 LT(). ,,M=L3T2. ,,ɠˠ. 砠. 1,젠 177 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, Ѡ,. , .


: " ". .   ,. ,. " ,. , ".  , ,,.. , . ,, . , , ..., ,... ࠠ, ,۠Π. ,Π " "(L3T2), , ̠ . ,"""". , . ,. Ƞ,. ,,"",. ,," ",,(), 2.. ,()(). , , . ࠠ. ,, ,. ,,,, ,L1T3. , , 178 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, .,,, .,堠.,..⠠ ,젠(L+3T2): .,, .,,,.  L, MT LM. " ", "" ,頠MLT,MT,L,LM .,Π.. ,. LTҠΠ T4,LML6M2. , .頠, , . " " .   , . . ܠ , , , ,..().Ƞ , , , ..L0T0=1. . , , , .. , 頠L0T0=1.  ,.:" , . ." ,蠠 , .,,., 堠 () , (). 7.4. - ,. , , ., .Ƞ,, ,. . , , , T0L0. .   ,, , . ().,(3,7770,033), 堠(0,1181,059). 179 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, .98 ࠠ. T4 T3 T2 T1 T0 T1 T2 T3 T4 * T4L8 T3L7 T2L6 T1L5 T0L4 T1L3 T2L2 T3L1 T4L0 T4L7 T3L6 T2L5 T1L4 T0L3 T1L2 T2L1 T3L0 T4L1 T4L6 T3L5 T2L4 T1L3 T0L2 T1L1 T2L0 T3L1 T4L2 T4L5 T3L4 T2L3 T1L2 T0L1 T1L0 T2L1 T3L2 T4L3 T4L4 T3L3 T2L2 T1L1 T0L0 T1L1 T2L2 T3L3 T4L4 T4L3 T3L2 T2L1 T1L0 T0L1 T1L2 T2L3 T3L4 T4L5 T4L2 T3L1 T2L0 T1L1 T0L2 T1L3 T2L4 T3L5 T4L6 T4L1 T3L0 T2L1 T1L2 T0L3 T1L4 T2L5 T3L6 T4L7 T4L0 T3L1 T2L2 T1L3 T0L4 T1L5 T2L6 T3L7 T4L8 T4 T3 T2L3 T1 T0 T1 T2 T3 T4 *   (!) , " " , " ", 33.

180 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, . ,, .., ࠠ, ,"". , "". .99 " " . , , " " , , . 181 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, , , (). .100 , ,. 182 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, .101 183 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, . ࠠ 堠,,: [172](..,..,": ",,,2002.), [75](..,""",.,,1999.),. " " , , : 젠 蠠 . (,). ,( ..),c( ,Ѡ,,). . , . ,. 7(1)⠠ .   ( ) (L1T1). 堠ࠠ 頠 LT . ,䠠 . 蠠. ,, 頠 , , . , , . , . .蠠 . . , , .   젠 (, ., ). ,,., 184 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, ,,:"ߠ ,"., .Ƞ .. ʠ , , . .. , ,,". ..: " ໠ , 1975 ໠ .. .?" C,, , ,,""""," ""","""",,, ,. . Ƞ ,,,蠠. 8. 頠 " ". "",. """"." " ," " , . . " ". . ,, :"ߠ,". 185 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, ,, ,. ,( ). " " 堠"", ,. ,⠠, ࠠ: , ;

"", (,), ;

"";

. 8.1. , "", . .. ʠ, ., , ,.,, an=a0,a1,a2,a3,...(1) ࠓ (2) ..(1). ,..n1,2,3,..., . . (2).,,, ,. , , .,.. ,,,, . 186 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, ,,,, ,, . . , , =1+,,, Wn=n(W)=(1+x)n(W) an= a0, a1, a2, a3,...

,, ,. 8.2. , , 锠. , ,,. ,. . ,(+x)r , (1)r ""(),, . Ƞ, ,. ,..m n,砠 (3) . (3) ,蠠n(m).  , . ,, .. 187 ..⠫:ߠՠՠɻ,2008, (4) k=0,r,r.  (4),..r .,(4)r,蠠 , =1 , (5) r=0,1,2,..., . ., ,(6). , . , 1,2,4,8,16,32,.... , . , ( ) , . 8.2.1. ,,, P1(x)=(1x)+1=1+;

P2(x)=(1x)+2=12+2;



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