«СЕКЦИЯ «ГЛОБАЛИСТИКА» ПОДСЕКЦИЯ «ГЛОБАЛЬНАЯ ЭКОНОМИКА И МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫЕ ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИЕ ОТНОШЕНИЯ» Энергетическое сотрудничество российского Дальнего ...»
“Marshall Plan”: Lessons to Learn Motili Natalia PhD student Moldova State University, International Economic Relations, Chisinau, Moldova E–mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Sixty years ago, in April 1948, the Foreign Assistance Act was signed by the US President Harry S.Truman, which launched the European Recovery Program (EPR), widely known as the “Marshall Plan” that lasted four years. During this period more than $13 billion USD (which would be the equivalent of $110 billion USD in 2007) was channeled into sixteen European countries covered by the Program. The Program proved to be a success in providing assistance to the ruined and demoralized post-war Europe. Which are the principles that helped to achieve sound results of the “Marshall Plan”?
First of all, public support. Before committing financial and human resources, the “Marshall Plan” was widely presented to public, first of all in the USA and also abroad, and won the bipartisan support, achieved with citizens, mass-media, and authorities. Between 1949 and 1951 popular approval of the Program in the United States ranged from 61% to 79%.
Efficiency was achieved through forming a new agency - Economic Cooperation Administration (ECA), without bureaucratic templates of the existing structures. Hiring process was based on meritocracy, attracting extremely professional and talented people. Widely applied concept of the Program was “theater command” that meant decentralizing of decision-making.
General Marshall in his famous speech insisted that the European nations should take responsibility for preparing themselves a program for recovery, with United States approval and later assistance. Each country drafted its national program based on real and urgent needs.
In the frames of the European Recovery Program sharing of experience and know-how took place: managers and experts from the USA were coming to Europe to share their experience in different areas, while over 3,000 European managers and civil servants traveled to the USA to learn advanced techniques used in the US industry and agriculture.
The “Marshall Plan” is considered as a model of incorruptibility in the practice of the foreign aid. The countries receiving aid were supposed to administer it transparently, with rigorous accounting controls.
European Recovery Program laid a foundation of strong structures, such as Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OCED) that are active till today on the international arena.
Principles that guided the “Marshall Plan” design and implementation proved to be practical, and can be applied by the international donor organizations today.
*** The research demonstrated that even sixty years after implementation of the European Recovery Program, individual leaders and entire organizations willing to bring peace and prosperity to different parts of the world can learn from the principles of the “Marshall Plan”.
Bibliography 1. Crawley, V., Marshall Plan Seen as Model for Well-Run, Short-lived Program, May 23, 2007;
http://useu.usmission.gov 2. Machado, Barry F., In Search of a Usable Past: The Marshall Plan and Postwar Reconstruction Today, George C. Marshall Foundation, 2007, p. 27, 34, 42;
http://marshallfoundation.org/library/documents 3. Marshall, G., speech, Harvard University, June 5,