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( ) 2003 122.16+1(091)+00 ... ...

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80. . . ., 1991.

81. .. . ., 1989.

82. .. . ., 1983.

83. .., .. . ., 1986.

84. . . ., 1993.

85. . . ., 1977.

86. .. : .

. . .: , 1981.

87. .. . / .

...-.. 14-15 1989 . , 1989.

88. / : .., .. ., 1996.

89. . . ., 1970.

90. .. .

., 1991.

91. .. . ., 1982.

92. . . . 6:. ., 1983.

93. .. . ., 1984.

93. .. . . 4. .: 1967.

94. . -. / ., . . 2- . . 20.

., 1961.

95. . . / ., . . 2- .

. ). ., 1961.

96. . . / ., . . 2- . . 21. ., 97. . . . ., 1995.

98. .. . ., 1994.

99. Abel R. Man is the Measure. NY., 1976.

100. Hospers J. An Introduction to Philosophical Analysis. L., 1987.

101. Yaroshevsky M. A History of Psychology. M., 1990.

SUMMERY:

This research is devoted to a discussion of the question of a sphera of investigation the cognition itself, which is termed here as "metacognition". It is substantiated the hypothesis about transformation this sphere into a special kind of cognition, side by side with the natural and socio-humanitarian sciences.

There is a discussion on main principles of metaconition: objectivity, causality, reflextion, systematics, activities and value approaches.

It is grounded here the necessity of introduction a new category into the theory of knowledge "type of cognition". The type of cognition is understood as an integral systemic quality, in which there is an original combination of the subject-cognition and metacognition levels, named as "subject basis" and "metacognition superstructure".

We try to prove an idea of the necessity to distinguish pre-scientific and scientific periods in the development of the human cognition. We give the description of main pre-scientific cognition types: magic, mythological, natural philosophy and scholastic. The appearance of some elements of the future types of cognition is considered here. We examine here the descriptions of the basic historical scientific types of cognition, indicated in the title. An early-scientific type of cognition is understood as opening the scientific phase which is considered as uninterrupted tradition. Classic science is the cognition which developes on it`s own ground. It is marked that the most important sign of morden science is multilevelness of the theoretical knowledge. The artical settles a hypothesis about some future synthetic scientific type of cognitin.

Philosophy, and mainly the ancient one, was the general system-forming element for the natural philosophy type and for all following next scientific types of cognition. There is an analysis of the philosophy as a part of the scientific types of cognition. Here we lay the ground for a thesis about philosophical reflection as a necessary condition for assimilation of the new bounderies of the human existence and cognition, scientific to begin with.

There is an explication of the cognition culture through the unerstanding one as a apecific human mode of assimilation reality, based on the three main components: nomological (knowledge), technological (modes of activities) and value (including the spiritual values). It is grounded the understanding of the civilization as a sum of the technological and nomological aspects of every culture. The leading part of the autoreflection of cognition (metacognition) in the cognition culture formation is pointed out.

The principal thesis of this issue is a proposition about inseparability of the humanistic and value aspect from the cognition generally, and from the scientific cognition types in particular. The specific internal cognitional values are considered. It is substantiated that the obgective and authentic knowledge is the main internal value of the science. The article raises a question about the scientists responsibility for the purity of sciece from pseudo-science set-backs, and a question about the possibility of civilic prohibition for some sorts of investigations, particularly for the most dangerous modern sciences researches.

There exists an actual theme of the correlation between the knowledge and ignorance, first one and socis institutions. It is given a description of different historical types of cognition rationality. There is the analysis of the questions on relationships between rationality, from one side, and understanding, purposefulness, conseptionness, sence, subjectivity and spirituality, from the others.

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