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1. .., .. - . - .: , 1973. - 576 .

2. . . . - .: , 1985. 183 .

3. .. . - : , 1987. - 159 .

4. .. . - .: , 2006. - 176 .

5. .. . - .: , 1984. 78 .

6. .., .. . .: , 1984. - 151 .

7. .., .. . - .: , 1954. - 2 12 .

8. .. . - .: , 1985. - 352 .

9. .. . - .: , 2004. - 203 .

10. . . . - .: - , 1989. - 158 .

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. , 1986. - 41 .

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, 1996. - 259 .

13. .., .., ., , . - .: , 1983. - 200 .

14. .., .., .. . - .: , 1976. - 204 .

15. ., ., . . - .: , 1958. 566 .

16. .. . - .: , 1974. - 328 .

17. .., . . - .: , 1975. - 318 .

18. .. . - : . , 196 1.- 1 1 9 .

19. .. . - .: , 1969. - 416 .

20. .., .. . - .;

, 1964. 487 .

21. . .1.: . - 260 . . 2: . - 288 . - .: , 1978.

22. .. . - .: . , 1953. - 96 .

23. .. . - ., , 1968. - 532 .

24. .. . - : . , 1962. - 203 .

25. .. . - .: . . 2. - ., 1979, . 101-121.

26. .. . - .: , 1961. 345 .

27. .. . - .: , 1 9 5 7.- 179 .

28. .. . - .: , 1979. - 416 .

29. .. . - .: , 1967 - 599 .

30. . . . - .: , 2000. - 778 .

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32. . - .: , 2003.

- 2 3 4 .

33. . - .: , 1991. - 234 .

34. -. - .: , 1972. - 7 8 .

35. .., . . - .: , 1977. - 343 .

36. .. . - : . , 1979. - 308 .

37. .. . - .: , 1983. - 176 .

38. . . 7. . 2. . - .: , 1985.

104 .

39. .. . - .: , 1979. 311 .

40. ( ). . 1. - . - .: , 1978. 455 .

41. . . 1,2 / . .. .-., , 1 9 8 3.-3 7 1 .,- 2 3 6 .

42. .. . - .: , 1983. - 199 .

43. .., ., .. . - .: . , 1982. - 142 .

44. . ., Ը . ., . . . - .: , 1979. 327 .

45. . - .: , 1979.

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47. . - .: , 1976. - 96 .

48. .. . - .: 1975. - 168 .

49. ( , ). - .: , 1977. - 316 .

50. .. . . .

. - .: . , 2007. - 195 .

51. () / . . . . X. . - .: , 1986. - 751 .

52. . - .: , 1976. - 432 .

53. .. . - .:

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54. . - JL: , 1969. - 83 .

55. ( ). - .: , 1979. 400 .

56. . - . : , 1981. - 208 .

57. .. . - .: , . 1. - 1948. - 432 . . 2. 1 9 5 0.- 4 8 8 .

58. .. . - .: , 1975. 273 .

59. .. . - .:

, 1990. - 120 .

48 - 8 5, 82 - 3 2 39 - 1 2 7,3 5 - 7 - - 10, 20 - 2 9 - 2 4 1 - 2 4 5 - - 8 - 409 - - 13, 29 - 7 1, 1 2 - 356 - 4 0 - 25 2 6 - 497 2 4 1 - 2 4 - 2 4 - 3 9 - 2 4 1 - 2 4 - 393 2 6 - 37 3 8 - 28 - 3 8 - 14 - 3 8 - 20 3 5 - 17, - 10 21 - 8 - 196 5 6, 3 8 10 7 - 41 - 2 5 14 77, 384 - 3 1 - 77,393 - 3 2 - 77,4 1 0 3 3 ------- 3 3 7 - 3 3 201 - 3 1 98 3 4 37,4 1 6 3 5 - 321 5 - 41 2 2 - 270 7 6, 2 0 400 - 7 413 2 1 321 - 280 1 - 283 3 5 - 3 4, 4 5, 6 242 - 1 2 7, 3 6 196 - 4 5, 2 7 2 5 1,2 5 4 - 4 - 8 4, - 7 - 394 - 84 - - - 395 - - - 9 5,1 7 0 - 46 - - - 78 - - 171 - 353 98 200, 47,2 4 1 15 214, - - 7 6,2 1 - 293 - - - - - 313 - - 4 4 - 4 9 - 47 - 44 - 48 - 22 - 261 - - 46 - 46 263 , 261 - 77 - 82 , - 84 - - 84 - 366 , , 324 , - 121 - 181 - 144 - - 122 - 49 - - 186 - - 324 - 326 - - 126 80 - 80 - - 81 - 210 - 14 - - 261 - 69 - - 70 - 28 - - 27,2 1 5 - - 13,241 - - 13 69, 95 - - 69, - 69 - 69 - 69, 95 373, - 71 197, - 71 6 8,7 5 - - 72, 75 242, - 76 167 - , , 72 - 131 - 68 - 96 - () - () - () - () - 4 ...................................................... ;

.............................................................. .................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... V 1. ............................................................................................................. 1.1. .................................................................................................. 1.2. ................................................................................ 1.3. - ....................................................................................................................... 1.4. ............................... 2. , , , ............................................................................................................... 2.1. ......................................................................... :.. 2.2. ............................................................................ 2.3. ............................... 2.4. ............................................................................. 2.5. .................................. 3. ........................................................ 3.1. . . ...................... 3.2. . ............................. 3.3. ....................................................................... 3.4. ............................ 3.5. .................................. 3.6. .................................................................. 3.7. .................................................... 3.8. .............................. 3.9. ....................................................................................... 3.10. ................................................................................. 3.11. ................................................................................... 3.12. ................................ 3.13. ...................................................................... 3.14. ................................................................................. 4. ....................................................... 4.1. ................................ 4.2. ........................................................................................... 4.3. ........... 4.4. .......................................... 4 4.5. ................................. 5. .................................................... 5.1. . 5.1.1. ......................................................... 5.1.2. .......................................................................................

5.1.3. ...........................................

5.2. ....................................................

5.3. ..................................................... 5.4. ................ 5.5. .......................................... 6. ........................... 6.1. ...................................................................................... 6.2. ....................... 6.3. ( )........ 6.4. ( .. )........................................................................... 6.5. ( )....................................................................................................... 6.6. ..................................... 6.7. - .................... 7. .......................................................................................... 7.1. ........ 7.2. - ......................... 7.3. ............................................................... 7.4. ..................................................... 7.4.1. ....................... 7.4.2. .................................................. 7.5. .......... 8. .............................. 8.1. .


............................................................... 8.2. ............................................................. 8.3. .......................................................................... 8.4. ............................................................................ 8.4.1. ........................................................................... 25 8.4.2. ................................................... 8.5. ..................................................................... 8.6. ........................:................................................. 8.6.1. ..................................... 8.6.2. ................................................ 8.6.3. .... 8.7. .............................................................. 8.7.1. ............................................................................. 8.7.2. , ............................................................................................... 8.7.3. .................. 8.7.4. .... 8.8. 8.9. 8.9.1. ....................... 8.9.2. .................................... 8.9.3. .............. 8.10. , 8.10.1. ................................................................. 8.10.2. ...................................................................... 8.10.3. - . ................................................................................. 8.11. , ........................................................................................... 9. , , ................... 9.1. , ............................................................................................... 9.2. .................................. 9.3. .................................................................................................................. 9.4. .................................................. 9.5. , ..................................................................................................................... 10. .......................................... 10.1. ................. 10.2. ................... 3 10.3. .................................................................................................................... 10.4. ................................... 10.5. .............................................................................. 10.5.1. - , ......................................................................... 10.5.2. ............................... 4 10.5.3. , ....................................................................... 10.6. ....................................................................................... 11. , .............................................................................................................. 11.1. ............................................................................... 11.2. ........................................ 11.3. ........................................................................ 11.4. ............................................................. 11.5. ........................................................................................... 11.6. ........................................................... .............................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................... 4 CONTENTS P re fa c e..........................................................................................................................

L eg en d.............................................................................................................................

In tr o d u c tio n....................................................................................................................

C h a p te r 1. M olecular physics o f w a te r in its th re e sta te s..................................

1.1. General inform ation..................................................................................

1.2. Structure o f a w ater m olecule......................................................................

1.3. Concept o f the molecular kinetic theory o f material and water.............

1.4. Structure o f w ater in its three states............................................................

C h ap ter 2. The basic physical properties o f w ater, w ater vapour, ice an d snow 2.1. Physical properties o f w ater.......................................................................

2.2. Abnormal properties o f w ater......................................................................

2.3. Physical properties o f water vapour in the atm osphere...........................

2.4. Physical properties o f ice..............................................................................

2.5. Physical properties o f snow and snow cover.............................................

C h a p te r 3. T h e basic p rinciples o f h e a t exchange.............................................

3.1. Heat. Temperature field. Temperature gradient........................................

3.2. Thermal flux. Thermal conductivity coefficient..................................... 3.3. H eat transfer and em ission............................................................................

3.4. Quantitative estimation o f convection heat transfer................................

3.5. Quantitative estimation o f radiant heat exchange..................................... 3.6. Quantitative estimation o f heat with water state changes.......................

3.7. Quantitative estimation o f heat transfer......................................................

3.8. The differential heat conduction equation................................................

3.9. The differential heat conduction equation w ith a heat source............... 3.10. Single-valuedness conditions.................................................................... 3.11. Methods o f problem solving......................................................................

3.12. Evaluation o f the heat-conductivity coefficient......................................

3.13. Evaluation o f the temperature conductivity coefficient by using the regular regime m ethod.

.............................................................................. 3.14. Evaluation o f the tem perature conductivity coefficient by using field observational data............................................................................... C h a p te r 4. S tatio n ary te m p e ra tu re field................................................................ 4.1. One-dimensional stationary tem perature field......................................... 4.2. One-dimensional stationary temperature field with an internal heat source 4.3. Stationary tem perature field in a cylindrical w all..................................... 4.4. H eat transfer in a cylindrical w all................................................................ 4.5. Two-dimensional stationary tem perature field......................................... C h a p te r 5. N on-stationary te m p e ra tu re field........................................................

5.1. Analytical methods o f solving the heat conductivity equation.............. 5.1.1. The variable separation m ethod o f solving the heat conductivity equation................................................................................................... 5.1.2. A partial example o f non-stationary tem perature field in a wall.. 5.1.3. Solving the heat conductivity equation with various boundary conditions............................................................................................... 5.2. The numerical method o f solving the heat conductivity equation for one-dimensional tem perature field.............................................................. 5.3. The numerical method o f solving the heat conductivity equation for two-dimensional tem perature field........................................................ 5.4. Calculation o f the soil freezing and defrosting velocity......................... 5.5. Studying tem perature fields by using m odels........................................... C h a p te r 6. H y d ro th e rm a l calculation o f w aterbodies an d w a te rc o u rses........ 6.1. The differential equation o f heat conductivity for a turbulent flux........ 6.2. The heat conductivity equation for a lentic w ater body.......................... 6.3. Computation o f the tem perature o f an open waterbody by using the isocline m e th o d...........................................................................................

6.4. Computation o f the waterbody surface temperature by using B raslavskys m ethod...................................................................................... 6.5. Computation o f the depthwise w ater temperature profile for a reservoir by using the method o f superposition..................................... 6.6. Computation o f the open stream tem perature........................................... 6.7. Computation o f a cooling reservoir............................................................ C h a p te r 7. M otion o f la n d w a te rs.............................................................................. 7.1. General information on gravitational motion o f water in a channel..... 7.2. Analysis o f the hydrodynamic Saint-Venant equation............................. 7.3. Convective currents in a water body........................................................... 7.4. Convective water exchange in a river estuary............................................ 7.4.1. Computation o f a stationary salty water wedge in a river estuary w ith open water surface..................................................... 7.4.2. Computation o f a stationary salty water wedge in the ice-covered estuary 7.5. M olecular and convective material transportation in a stream.............. C h a p te r 8. C o m pu tatio n o f th e ice ch aracteristics o f w ate r bodies an d s tre a m s........................................................................................................ 8.1. Ice cover form ation........................................................................................ 8.2. Computation o f ice cover thickness............................................................ 8.3. Computation o f the ice opening area in the hydro-power station tailwater and its part where sludge ice is form ed...................................... 8.4. Hanging ice dams in rivers........................................................................... 8.4.1. Computation o f sludge ice discharge............................................. 8.4.2. Computation o f ice depth in hanging ice dam s............................ 8.5. Ice cover destruction..................................................................................... 8.6. Ice jam m ing in rivers..................................................................................... 8.6.1. Power conditions o f ice jam form ation......................................... 8.6.2. Computation o f ice depth in an ice jam 8.6.3. Methods o f prevention and mitigation o f ice jam ming in rivers 8.7. Static ice-cover load on hydraulic engineering constructions................ 8.7.1. The static load caused by ice tem perature expansion 8.7.2. The static load caused by floating ice........................................... 8.7.3. The static load caused by the ice cover frozen to a engineering construction, w ith changing w ater levels...................................... 8.7.4. The static load caused by broken ice ja m s.................................... 8.8. Dynamic ice load on hydraulic engineering constructions..................... 8.9. Ice piling on banks and slopes o f engineering constructions.................. 8.9.1. Hydraulic load on ice c o v e r........................................................... 29 8.9.2. W ind load on ice cover.................................................................... 8.9.3. Computation o f the ice dumping on bank slopes...................... 8.10. Aufeis and physics o f its formation and destruction.............................. 8.10.1. Formation o f aufeis......................................................................... 8.10.2. Destruction o f aufeis...................................................................... 8.10.3. Aufeis as a hazardous natural phenomenon. Methods o f m itigation.......................................................................................... 8.11. Estimation o f the temporal ice resistance to compression, bending and stretching................................................................................................ C h a p te r 9. E v ap o ratio n from w ater, snow, ice an d soil su rfaces..................... 9.1. Physics o f evaporation from a water surface and its governing factors 9.2. Methods o f calculation o f evaporation from water surfaces.................. 9.3. Calculation o f evaporation from ice and snow surfaces......................... 9.4. Calculation o f evaporation from soil surfaces.......................................... 9.5. M easurement o f evaporation from water surfaces, ice cover and soil... C h a p te r 10. W a te r in soils a n d snow c o v er............................................................. 10.1. Basic concepts and types o f soil moisture m o tio n s...;

...................... 10.2. The differential equations o f soil moisture transportation..................... 10.3. Some methods o f solving the soil moisture transportation equation 10.4. Frost heaving in certain types o f frozen so ils.......................................... 10.5. Snow-cover m elting...................................................................................... 10.5.1. Physical and mechanical processes occurring in snow cover 10.5.2. Calculation o f snow-cover temperature.................................... 10.5.3. Calculation o f snow-melted water layer thickness................. 10.6. Role o f snow cover thermal regime in avalanche form ation................ C h a p te r 11. A coustic, o ptical an d electrom agnetic p henom ena in w ater 11.1. General information on sound.................................................................... 11.2. Ultrasound and its application in hydrology............................................. 11.3. Optical properties o fw a te r........................................................................... 11.4. Optical research m ethods............................................................................. 11.5. Magnetic w ater............................................................................................. 11.6. Electromagnetic phenomena in w ater........................................................ R eferences..................................................................................................................... S ubject in d ex................................................................................................................... .. .. 020309 30.19.96.

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