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SUMMARY Creation of the Gallic Empire one of debatable, but almost moments of history of the ancient Rome not shined in a domestic historiography. To the middle of III cen tury AD the Roman Empire endured crisis. This crisis is defined in a historiography as the general or system though scientific disputes on its essence dont cease till now. The system Principatus more couldnt exist in new realities of that time. The dissatisfaction of different social classes with a policy spent by the Roman emperors and its adminis tration led to fast change of emperors, and, as consequence, to instability of the central power. Political crisis was the deepest and was reflected in all control system of the Roman Empire, mentioning economic, social and spiritual life of empire. Separatism display in the provinces, which steels to proclaim own emperors, became result of this crisis. In these conditions the new governor who will answer expectations of various social classes was required and can overcome crisis consequences. The militarized lay er of the population has decided to solve independendy this problem, proclaiming em perors at own choice. The epoch of soldier s emperors was that period during which period the system Principatus has definitively been destroyed and bases of absolutely other control system Dominatus were put.

The Gallic Empire the name conditional enough. For fifteen years of the existence geographical borders of this state changed and sometimes it is impossible to establish precisely the fact of an accessory of this or that area, or its relation to Gallic emperors. The term the Gallic Empire began to be used in the French and German historiography from the end of XIX century. However there was it not casually. For a basis were the words of Eutropius taken out of context, Galliarum... imperium

= Imperium Galliarum. The sources written by witnesses of events, in our disposal practically are absent. Remained are fragmentary and isolated, the information given by them, it is sometimes insignificant it is small. As important addition serves epi graphic and numismatic, especially, finds of last years.

In a historiography there are two points of view on character of the Gallic Empire. The first group of researchers A.Alfldi, M.Bouvier-Ajam, I. Knig, E.M.Shtaerman, believes that in 260-270th there was an independent state formation led by the sovereign emperor. The second group is assured that Gallic emperors didnt consider themselves as sovereign governors, and saw itself a part of the Roman Empire (R.MacMallen, T.Kotula, P. Bastien). Last point of view amplifies the theory that the Gallic emperors considered themselves as sovereign Roman lords (J. Drinkwater, I.P.

Sergeev).

Coming to power of the first Gallic emperor of Postumus became result of many factors. First of all, the big place in these events is occupied with those legions, the lifted Postumus on power top. Crisis and constant intrusions of the German tribes forced the population of provinces to search for an exit in more radical means, instead of to wait for charity from the Roman emperor. The person of the action, capable to have control over not only controls over armies, but also possessing administrative abilities was necessary to them. Anybody is better than the deputy with whom they ex isted side by side during long time, didnt approach. Date of declaration of Postumus is enough disputable, as well as duration of its board. However the find new numismatic sources allow asserting that the Gallic emperor correcting during 15 years has been proclaimed in the winter 258-259*.

The Postumus internal policy has been directed on stabilization of position in the regions which were a part the Gallic Empire. Epigraphically finds allow asserting that Postumus was sworn by Gallia, the both Germany, Britain, Spain, Raetia, and also under its control there was a coast of Flanders. As the right during this period operated post factum the Gallic Empire de facto represented independent the states, and de jure its founder in every possible way underlined communication with Rome. It, and also the subsequent actions of Postumus allow asserting that it didnt have claims for the power in the Roman Empire. Existence of protected buffer zones one more acknowledgement told. The Postumus merit consists that it promoted development of regions, having isolated them from Rome and having neutralized thereby negative consequences crisis. Having strengthened defensibility limes and region as a whole, Postumus has provided safety of the Gallic Empire. From the moment of forma tion of the Gallic Empire The Gallic emperors along with the state transformations, carried out active financial to the policy. For economic situation stabilization in the new state it was especially important to adjust financial affairs. The coin should get weight in the market thereby to give the chance to the Gallic Empire to fasten com mercial relations and to restore domestic trade circulation. As separate regions entered under jurisdiction of the new emperor, mints were defined also. The first Gallic em peror minted the coins on official mints of Lugdunum, Narbo, Augusta Treverorum, Colonia Agrippinensium, and from the middle of 60th Mediolanum.


The financial policy of the first Gallic emperor has brought certain improvement to region economy, having allowed to expand craft manufacture and to recover trade in the considerable sizes. Postumus coins differed quality and the raised maintenance of gold and silver. Again there are large bronze coins, their releases become regular.

In territory of the Gallic Empire active monetary circulation has been renewed.

Postumus coins were highly enough appreciated in the trading reference. In it specify numerous treasures of coins in which find out considerable number of coins of the first Gallic emperor. We also can speak about intensive international relations in area of a policy, economy and culture. An attempt to conclude the unions with other risen deputies tells about perception Postumus of the state, as complete independent struc ture. It is possible to say with confidence that the Gallic emperor tried to conclude the alliance with east usurpers Quietius, Macrianus and the Ballista, and also with Illy rian Regallianus. The respect and the Postumus recognition was so is great that af ter its destruction successors didnt manage to keep integrity of the created state. One for other areas gradually passed under the power of the Roman emperors, obviously, having seen in stabilization of the central power the big benefit for the development and safety. Spain, at least, it some areas after death of Postumus have passed under s the power of the Roman emperor Claudius. Raetia, probably, still any time remained in structure the Gallic Empire. It is known that by the time of submission Tetrici Raetia already left its structure. Gallia and Britain after liquidation of the Gallic Em pire have put forward own emperors. Territorial losses, and, as consequence, losses in military forces, were negatively reflected in defensibility of region. Gallic emperors continued to use the defensive system created by Postumus, but without due control and it began to fall. The German intrusions have become frequent again.

Has started to fade and the financial policy of the Gallic Empire. The mainte nance of quantity of precious metals in coins gradually decreases;

there are irregular releases of bronze coins. And though the basic mints continue the work, the consider able part of coins of Gallic emperors is minted on time mints. Circulation of coins in 2nd half III century carried, generally, regional character. Coins of the Gallic emperors were in use in all territory of the Gallic Empire, on either side of the Rhine border and in Northern Italy. Thus bodies fisc the Gallic Empire had to undertake mea sures for revealing of the centers of stamping of imitations of coins. After destruction of Postumus fiscal actions, as well as many other things, have been almost curtailed.

The death of the first Gallic emperor under walls of the risen Mogontiacum hasnt brought support to rebel Lelianus neither from armies, nor from local population, and he has been killed. Marius has been proclaimed by the emperor in absence Victorinus, but it didnt manage to take over the control of all region and military forces. Gallic aristocrat Victorinus has raised at the head the Gallic Empire and has tried to con tinue a policy of Postumus. It was talented enough, that with success to put into prac tice the plans, but hasnt justified hopes of the citizens. The destiny the Victorinus has been solved by army.

Tetricus was, according to Victoria, with the best candidate to occupy a throne.

Victoria was the person rather ambiguous. We know about it a little, but, probably, it was the initiator of negotiations about political and, probably, a military alliance with the Palmira kingdom. Having bribed generous monetary distributions legions, Victo ria promoted declaration of Tetricus as the emperor. However the senator, having re ceived the power, has realized the inability to consult with a current situation, includ ing, and because of aversion from citizens. Legions refused to submit to it, attacks of the German tribes caused a considerable loss to the population, causing their discon tent with a policy of this emperor. Tetricus has addressed for the help to Aurelianus and, according to their arrangement, having disengaged armies against the Roman em peror, has openly come over to his side. The Gallic Empire has ceased to exist. Re Earlier was considered that is direct after capitulation of Tetricus Domitianus has risen. Its coin with legend Concordia militum has been found out in the south of France, on Loire. The new find of a coin forces us to look narrowly more attentively at existence of the Gallic Empire and to remember earlier rejected hypotheses. So, A.Blanchet on the basis of similarity of the first found coin of Domitianus to coins the Quietus, dated it 268, including Domitianus one of commanders of Aureolus. Re volt of Domitianus in board Aurelianus mentions also Zosimus, saying that together with those who has been suspected of aspiration to revolution, has been seized and condemned. Similarity of a coin to coins the Qmetus, instead of E.M. Shtaerman sug gested to explain Tetricus to that Domitianus didnt wish to imitate a coin of capitulat ing Tetricus. We dont know about this emperor. To last find was considered that its board was very short-term, as, however, earlier was and with Marius. Now it is possible to assume much longer term of board. To speak about duration of its board it is pos sible conditionally: probably 270-271th, Domitianus has subordinated to itself some areas of Gallia, probably, and separate areas of Spain, but we of anything dont know about Britain. We dont know also about the one who had been proclaimed Domi tianus, about the politician of this emperor.


Whether it is possible to speak about such phenomenon, how Celtic Renais sance? The Celtic culture, the Celtic traditions have been put and remained among agricultural population. Destruction of the religious organization of druids meant spiri tual destruction of the whole nation, many customs and traditions have been lost and gradually forgotten. Religious searches of the population, especially, to Gallia inevitably should lead to return to old gods and old religion. As between continental and island Celts close contacts again have been come into. It occurrence of names of the Celtic gods in inscriptions, renewal of festivals in Postumus board speaks. But thus in Gal lia honoring of Roman gods remained. The Roman formation should affect mentality and ideology of the population, widespread in these regions. Thus will speak about re vival of the Celtic culture in its pure kind extremely incorrectly. Though Postumus im ages on coins have characteristic Celtic lines, and glorifications of the Celtic gods in the Gallic Empire can be found out in inscriptions and on coins of the Gallic emperors, nevertheless it only preservation of disappearing traditions. Influence of the next re gions, the German tribes, a Romanization all these factors together taken, dont let us speak about full the Celtic renaissance. A number of researchers assert what to speak about the Celtic renaissance it is possible only in relation to less Romanized Britain and after its outright release from under the power of the Roman Empire.

In 274 the Gallic Empire has finished the existence. Regions, there is no time making it, have been returned under jurisdiction of the Roman emperors. But as the Roman official propagation tried to erase any reminder on times of the Gallic emper ors, it wasnt possible. As effective methods interdictions and a policy of administra tion and literal deleting of inscriptions with names of the Gallic emperors were used as official historiographers at court of the Roman emperor. Mille stones were used for construction and strengthening of defensive strengthening s, or simply thrown out and replaced on similar, but already with names of the Roman masters. Acts of the Gallic emperors registered in merits of the emperors of Rome so already after a while many historians almost had no information on the Gallic Empire.

The idea the Gallic Empire has started up deep roots, but the official policy of the Roman emperors and their administration has been directed on utter annihilation of any certificate of separatism of the middle of III century the population of the west ern provinces continued struggle against the Roman masters, again proclaiming own emperors, over and over again organizing new mutinies. Lugdunum became the center of following mutiny, pushed Proculus to revolt nobody. It was supported by Spain and Britain;

however Proculus has soon been broken. After wreck of the Gallic Empire

Britain which has put forward the emperor ventures branch from Rome. The separate military divisions which have earlier sworn the Gallic emperors, have come over to the side of other usurpers and especially Carausius who has taken over the control also of fleet classis Britannica and, on-example Postumus, has employed barbarians.

Representations about the Gallic Empire constantly extend. Interest to a prob lematic increases in process of detection all the new and new facts which in the end of a XIX century was only assumptions, in XX - the first decade of XXI century have received weighty proofs or the given reason refutation. In particular, earlier territorial structure the Gallic Empire was limited only to Gallia and both Germany, then has been established and has found acknowledgement that Postumus was sworn by Britain and Spain. Now it is known that the province of Raetia also was a part of the Gallic Empire, and that Postumus supervised a part of coast of Flanders. Besides, it is possible to assert that two buffer zones have been created and while only to assume military operations of Postumus around Agri Decumates.

The new archaeological data has allowed asserting that the first Gallic emperor not only owned fleet, but, super vising coast and the large rivers, actively resisted to pirates. In more details it became known about military forces of the Gallic emperors, and, the main thing, the chronol ogy of their board is specified. The sequence of the Gallic emperors became clearer, but there were new questions after a find of a coin of Domitianus. We know neither about its politician, nor about the regions which have recognized its power. Repre sentations about mutual relations of the risen deputies as antique authors inform on declaration of emperors in provinces and their short board, as about events rather lo cal, not overstepping the bounds of separately taken region extend. And after all about some proclaimed emperors it is known very little, as well as about social and economic development of the regions which were a part of the Gallic Empire.

Thus to put an end too early. Still there are white stains, there is without the an swer some question, some aspects of existence of the Gallic Empire are debatable.

However constandy replenishing the foundation of sources can expand with only one find our representations about events of second half III century and, the main thing, about the Gallic Empire.

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