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Zhe Shoukang, He Tangkun. Studies of ancient Chinese mirrors and other bronze artifacts // Metall Plating and Patination. Cultural, Technical and Historical Developments. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. td., 1993. P. 5062.

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SUMMARY T.G. Gorbunova, A.A. Tishkin, S.V. Khavrin MEDIEVAL DECORATIONS OF HORSE EQUIPMENT IN ALTAI:

MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS, PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY, ALLOY COMPOSITION The monograph is devoted to comprehensive study of different types of medieval decorations of horse equipment discovered on the territory of Mountain and Forest-steppe Altai. Unpublished or less-known findings have been introduced into scientific use.

In the Middle Ages head harness, breast-collar, crupper-piece and other parts of horse ammunition were decorated by metal objects different in form and decoration, most of them belong to toreutics. They were produced with application of moulding technique, as well as stamping, engraving, and other jewellery techniques. Toreutics is an art of manual handling of relief-work metal objects stamping, squeezing, and finishing of cast products. Artistic metalwork can be used as a synonym to the term toreutics. In early and developed Middle Ages in Altai the following kinds of decorations were used: onlay-plates, pendant-plates, belt dividers, sultanchiks (harness decoration, a holder for feathers or horse hair bundle), belt points.

For studying objects of toreutics both archaeological (morphology, classification and typology) and scientific methods (X-ray fluorography analysis carried out in the aboratory of scientific-technological expertise of the Hermitage) have been used. The results of studying the decorations of horse equipment from the Hermitage Fund and the Altai Museum of Archeology and Ethnography have been systematically presented in the form of illustrated catalogue.

The studies of medieval toreutics result in solving such problems as identifying production centers, spreading of imported objects, defining specific .. , .. , .. . ...

features of production technology of decorative metal, etc. More exact dating of the excavated archeological complexes is of great importance.

The analysis of objects from the Altai monuments demonstrated that artistic metal with amalgam comes out of burials dated late IX early XI centuries. A considerable number of the objects with amalgam are made of alloy with silver (Ag) as the basis. In the objects without gold-plating there wasnt silver in such large quantities.

The acquired data give evidence about frequent use of silver in the alloys for making artistic metal. Gold was used for this purpose several times more rarely, and mainly on the territory if the Mountain Altai. The gilt served for creating special decorative effect and was used either for making ceremonial sets of horse ammunition or in the sets of horse ammunition used by most noble and rich nomads.

The publication is addressed to archeologists, museologists, art historians and other specialists who study the culture of the medieval peoples of Western and Southern Siberia. The work is carried out with the assistance of the Russian Humanities Fund as a result of the realization of project 08-01-00355a Comprehensive studying of objects of toreutics for reconstruction of ethno genetic and social-cultural processes on the territory of Southern Siberia in antiquity and the Middle Ages.

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