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, 14. . , , 15. . , , 16. . , 17. , . , , , 18. , 19. , 5, , 1962. ( - . ARTICLES AND TRANSLATIONS IN ENGLISH BRIEF VIEW ON FIZULIS LIFE AND CREATIVE WORK* Muhammad Fuzuli is one of the greatest poets we have had in the course of our Azerbaijani literary history.

During his lifetime and after his death his fame spread from Mesopotamia to other places. He was admired and imitated for centuries. In Azerbaijan and Turkey his life and works have been widely studied and thorough monographs have been published in both countries.

Fuzuli was born (1494) and changed his world (1556) in the area now known as Iraq.

Eminent scholars accept Fuzulis belonging to the tribe of the Bayat one of the Turcoman tribes in the territory of modern Iraq.

It is interesting to note that even now in the north of Iraq, where about one million Turcomans dwell, there are 64 Bayat villages, called Bayat Ashiraty the tribe of the Bayats. The Bayat lived there from ancient times. In fact during the reign of the Turcomans Eldaniz, later the White and Black sheep, Shah Ismail and so on Mesopotamia took the same course as Azerbaijan.

At least this is what one would understand from the lines of Shah Ismail, the founder of the Safavid dynasty in Persia, whose success was in fact due to his Turcoman fol lowers: The Arab villages and dwellings gradually dwindle away, as the Turcomans overrun the land of Baghdad.

We know not so much of the childhood and early youth of Muhammad ibn Suleyman. What is certain from the evi dence he himself provides is that from his early years, throughout a great part of his life and into his old age he * See: Reform magazine. USA, 2, 1996, p.1725.

served in the shrines of Ali at Najaf and Husseyn at Karbala. As one can see Fuzuli was, in his time a lone star.

Though according to some sources he must have gone to Baghdad even served there for a period of time, the city which had been a guiding light to civilization and culture for centuries now was sacked and destroyed and great men like Fuzuli could no longer live within its walls.

We can guess it from poets numerous complaints against the times which brought nothing but ruin, chaos and destitution.

The scientists even now after 500 years of the poets birth dispute about the place where probably the poet was born. Among the cities and towns they mention Baghdad, Hillah, Karbala, Najaf, Kerkik and the Bayat Ashiraty around Kerkik.

Throughout his life Fuzuli never left Mesopotamia. As a young man he dreamt of going to Tabriz: O Fuzuli, it would seam that your heart does not want to hear of Baghdad since you would gaze fondly upon Tabriz, the seat of pleasures.

The poets life came to an end in 1556 as the result of an epidemic of plague and was buried in Karbala near Imam Husseyn Shrine. As he was very famous during his lifetime there was built a mausoleum over his grave in his hounour.

In my book Six years in Mesopotamia (Baku, 1985) I have published the photo of that impressive monument. Unfortu nately, some years ago because of reconstruction of Karbala that historical monument was pulled down and in 1994 be fore celebration of 500-th birth, a new monument with inscription on the tombstone was built for the poet inside Imam Husseyn Shrine.

Fuzuli was a learned man. He felt himself a poet, but he understood that for a poet the wider the field of knowledge in which one soars, the greater and deeper the inspiration, since poetry without science is like a wall without founda tions or a body without a soul. The poet writes himself:

Although I have had little contact with eminent scholars, have not been brought up by famous king and have avoid ed travelling in other lands and towns, when it comes to dis cussing rational arguments my hand always grasps the var ious theories of the philosophers by the collar. The poets pseudonym Fuzuli meaning presumption, but also brings to mind Fuzuli, the plural of fazl meaning virtue.

The poet himself writes that he chose this pseudonym in order not to be confused with others and to be unique. He was sure that because of its meaning nobody eles would adopt it.

The poet complains of the decadence of poetry in Baghdad. Poetry was dying not only in Baghdad but every where, in India, in Persia, in Anatolia and in the Caucasus, and he felt it his duty to bring it back to fashion. He had great talent and did his best. Some scholars in vain seach Fuzulis complaints of poverty, of incomprehension and hostility of others, of adverse fortune, which are spread throughout his works and try to come into conclusions in this connection. As for us it must be remembered that they are due to the poetic tradition to which he belonged, and he cant be blamed for having followed the custom of his time in addressing the powerful in order to have his own merits recognized. External evidence or the contents of his writings present Fuzuli in another light. Fuzulis biographer Ashig Chalabi shows that the poets life, apart from his worries and troubles, was mainly filled with love and poetry.

Fuzuli has left us writings in Azerbaijani, Persian and Arabic.

This trilingualism was not rare among Azerbaijani writ ers and is explainable by their cultural formation, which was based in fact on Arabic religious and scientific tradition and on Persian literary tradition. Fuzuli was not an exception.

Concerning the poets deep knowledge of Arabic, Persian and Azerbaijani he himself wrote in the Preface of his Divan in Persian.

Nevertheless he complains that to write delicate verse in Turkish rather than in Persian was difficult because the Azer baijani language is loath to be put into line. Since the words are mostly without connection and lacking in harmony.

However, his fame rests mainly on his works in his native tongue.

Fuzuli wrote in Azerbaijani not only by the fact that it was his mother tongue, but also by political circumstances.

Shah Ismail, who ruled of Baghdad in the poets time left a Divan in Fuzulis native tongue.

Fuzuli has many writings in Persian and Arabic. What is interesting is that his poetic works in Turkish and Persian are quantatively equivalent and of approximately eight thousand couplets each.

Unfortunately, Alessio Bombaci, professor of Turkish lan guage and literature in his wonderful, scientifically based research work (see: Leyla and Mejnun, London, 1970) writes that Fuzulis writing in Persian is so much because Mesopota mia in those days was part of the Persian cultural environment.

As he writes the poet himself defined his native land as Iran. Professor Alessio Bombaci is far from the truth in coming into such conclusion. Fuzuli didnt mean by Iran the Persians. The truth is that Shah of Iran was Shah Ismail, who was Azerbaijani by nationality and wrote his writings in Azerbaijani. He was from South Azerbaijan Ardabil.

Fuzuli wrote more than four hundred ghazals and about fifty gasidas (odes) in Persian. One of his gasidas is of an exceptional length, of one hundred and thirty four couplets, entitled Anisu-l-Galb The Companion of the heart. It is an exhortation and was composed in imitation of similar works by the Persian poets, who were Fuzulis predecessors.

The gasidas in Persian do not differ in structure and con tent from those in Turkish and require no particular com ments. A notable place is occupied by those gasidas dedicat ed to Ali, to Hasan, to Husseyn and there is an allegorical work of about twenty pages in prose, called variously Sih hat-u-Maraz Health and Sickness, Husn-u-Ashg Beauty and hove, Ruhnama The Book of the Spirit.

Rind-Zaid The drunkard and the pious man is another prose work.

A Saginame in verse is dedicated to wine as a symbol of mystical intoxication.

Lastly, in Persian there are forty enigmas, which are each represented by a couplet.

Eleven gasidas have been preserved of Fuzulis poetic works in Arabic, which probably were much more numer ous. They are not long and are of religious nature.

In Arabic there is also a kind of catechism Matla-al-i tigand. In this philosophical poem the poet gives an analy ses of the teachings of ancient Indian, ancient Greek, ancient Arabic and Azerbaijani philosophers.

As it was mentioned above Fuzulis fame rests mainly on his works in his native tongue. They are the divan of ghaz als, the gasidas and the poem Leyla and Majnun. Most of the ghazals probably belong to his youth. However, there are references to old age in some of the ghazals. Altogether there are about three hundred ghazals mostly composed of seven couplets. Each couplet is often quite separate from what precedes or follow it. The couplets are held together not so much by a theme as by the rhymes, sometimes being complemented by an echo rhyme by the repetition of one or more suffixes or words. Only in rare cases do ghazals show a certain unity of sub ject and inspiration. In the last couplet it was customary to men tion the makhlas, that is the authors pseudonym.

The characteristic feature of the Divan of Fuzuli is that it opens with a ghazal dedicated to love, instead of to God as was usual, but this fact is explained because the love which is dealt with is divine love. This composition is clearly intended by the poet to be the keystone to the whole collection. This love so called Sufism is akin to the Platonic love. This is not certain that Sufic love derives from the Platonic conception of love. However, according to a definition given by Ali Sher Navai Fuzuli mingled metaphoric with true love. And in many ghazals earthly love prevails.

The ending of the Divan is no less significant than the beginning. It is represented by two ghazals where they threshold of old age the poet declares his own faith in love and confesses that he has been entangled in toils of sinful love. he has repented and decided to entrust his own salva tion to the cult which is related directly to God and to the observation of the law of Muhammad.

Gasidas. Usulally the divans of the Persian and Turkish poets are composed of ghazals and gasidas together. The latter are as a rule much longer composition than the former and prin cipally of a religious, or philosophic, and more over encomiastic.

Fuzuli instead compiled a separate divan for his gasidas in Turkish, Arabic and Persian after he had already collect ed the ghazals. The reason the poet explains himself and he declares that while many gasidas had been lost, others had been hidden because it was not opportune (namunasib) for then to be known. The poet goes on:

Having wakend from the sleep of unwareness, I thought that it might be right to put together the remains of my writ ing, which have been badly treated by fate so that saving them from the danger of being lost they might be known.

Since they (the gasidas) are a valuable kind of poetry it would be a pity if they were lost and did not bring pleasure to future generations.

Fuzuli does not tell us the seasons for the concealing of some of the gasidas, but we may easily guess. It is not far from the truth to suppose that the clandestine gasidas were dedicated to important figures of the Safavid regime and were also those with a strong shiit colouring.

There are (except three in Leyla and Majnun) in all forty Turkish gasidas.

Another writing of Fuzuli in native tongue is Bang u bade Nepenthe and Wine a youthful work composed in the time of Shah Ismail is about eight hundred couplets in length and belongs to the genre of the dialogue poem which was current in Persian and also in Turkish literature. One of these dialogue poems had already been written about a cen tury earlier by the Central Asiatic Turkish poet Yusif Amiri.

But in Fuzulis poem the matter is treated more extensively and it is distinguishable by the insertion of two anecdotes.

Nepenthe and Wine are shown as two sovereigns contend ing for supremacy, boasting of their superiorities and sup ported by the respective followers: Araq (aquavita), Boza (a kind of milletwine), Nebbur (date-wine), Opium, etc.

Wine is aggressive and impetuous while Nepenthe is calm. Boza, who is sent as a messenger by Wine to Nepen the, goes over to the enemy. In a skirmish between the two parties Wine gets to worst, but having sworn to spare his adversary, he finds favour with God and wins. He pardons Nepenthe and brings back peace to the world. Nepenthe, however, dare not be seen when Wine is present. Azerbaija ni scientist, academician Hamid Arasli sees in this poem an allegorical representation of the struggle between Safavid and Ottoman and a satire of the court environment.

Abother poem of Fuzuli Sohbatu-l-asmar Con versation of the Fruits, consisting of two hundred couplets is considered by the same scholar as social satire. It is one of the first prose works in Azerbaijani. Owing to the simplicity of the language one can think that the work was written for the children.

The various fruits (apple, pear, grapes, orange, cherry, date, plum, almond, pistachio, nut, fig etc.) are introduced to sing their own praises and criticize the others. For exam ple, the cherry boasts like this:

That day in which God put me into the world, he dressed me in a splendid coat. No gem is equal to my dress.

No jewel is equal to my body. Sometimes I am the planet of Venus, sometimes Jupiter, sometimes an angel, sometimes a fairy. Each of my branches is like a cypress tree. The beau tiful ones long ardently for me.

The plum replies. It praises itself to the heavens and crit icizes the cherry using bad language.

Another of Fuzulis poetic work is the translation from Persian of forty quartrains, which in turn are a translation in verse by Jami of forty sayings of the Prophet. In prose we have five letters of Fuzuli which are essays in an extremely artificial style.

Four of them are not very long and addressed to people.

But the fifth and most famous is Shikayatname Comp laint. It is also one of the first prose works in Azerbaijani.

It is addressed to the Ottoman Secretary of State. In this let ter Fuzuli complains because he has not received the pen sion allocated to him. The subtle irony used is most unusu al in satiric writing of the time. He greets those who delay his pension. But they do not answer him. He becomes deeply offended and says: I gave them a greeting. They did nt accept it because it was not a bribe. For bribe-takers greetings bring no comfort the poet comes into conclu sion. Fuzuli is as well the author of Hadigatus-suada The Garden of the Blessed, a free translation in Turkish, with the addition of lines and information from other sources, of a vast prose work of the Persian Husseyn Vaiz Kashifi, devoted to the tragedy of Karbala. Perhaps this is the important work to which he makes reference in the Preface of the Divan of Turkish ghazals, excusing himself because cannot wait to write a new one.

With pleasure I would mention that the critical edition of the work and full analysis which throws light upon the contribution of the poem appeared in Baku in 1993.

Lastly, we would like to mention Fuzulis best work Leyla and Majnun. The poem which is really his master piece was written in 1535/36. Though it has long enjoyed a place of honour in Turkish literature, up till 1970 no trans lation had been readily available in Western Europe except in German. But in 1970 George Allen and Unwin LTD pub lished in London Leyla and Majnun sponsored by Unesco and the Turkish Comission for Unesco.

The poem has been translated into English by Sofi Huri - a writer in both English and Tirkish and an expert transla tor. The book is made of two parts. The first part consists of five chapters. The first chapter The life of Fuzuli and the second The works of Fuzuli have been written by Alessio Bombaci professor of Turkish Language and Literature in the instituto Universitario in Naples. The rest chapters are devoted to the analysis of the poem in Comparison with Leyla and Majnun by Nizami of Ganja. The second part of the book is devoted to the translation of Leyla and Majnun.

At the end of this wonderful book, covering more than pages one can get use of notes.

In the Islamic world the love story of Leyla and Majnun is as famous as Romeo and Juliet in the English speaking world. Every major Islamic literature has a celebrated ver sion of the Leyla and Majnun story of its own, including Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Azerbaijani etc. It is worth to say that the theme was elaborated by many poets prior to Fuzuli. But Fuzulis Leyla and Majnun is considered by eminent scholars to be the best.

At the basic of the poem Leyla and Majnun stand the concepts of the fatality of love, of absolute and complete dedication to the beloved, of total sacrifice to him, of pleas ure in suffering, of love as liberation. All this are accentuat ed idealization of love, which perhaps no one uses so impressively as Fuzuli. Majnun is not only the hero of pathetic love story, but is above all the symbol of love car ried by passion to the bounds of madness as the only rea son for and interest of life-pure to the point that it is consid ered by the mystics as the love of God.

As it was above said Fuzuli wrote in thee languages and used all the genres and artistic forms known in Medieval Oriental literature. He was famous as one of the major poets of his time for his wonderful ghazals, charming romantic poem Leyla and Majnun and other works.

Even now we never cease to marvel at the depth of understanding in his love ghazals, at their melodiousness, perfection of form and charity of thought. Many of them have been set to Music in Azerbaijan and Turkey.

The 400-th anniversary of Fuzulis death was marked widely in the former Soviet Union and in 1958 a marvelous monument to him was unveiled in Baku. There are many districts, streets, schools bearing the poets name in Azerbaijan Republic.

The 500-th anniversary of the poets birth also been widely celebrated in many countries such as Azerbaijan, Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Russia, Sweden, England and so on.

Though five centuries passed from the poets birth his works are still famous with the readers, publishing houses and scholars.

GAZANFAR PASHAYEV Professor of Baku State University BRIEF VIEW ON HISTORY, DIALECT AND FOLKLORE OF IRAQI TURKMANS* Folklore is the most prestigious heritage of a nation. In its true sense, folklore is a nations spirits, psychology, and history. It is an invaluable treasure, the reflector of a nations wishes and desires, imagination and thinking, and the inner world. To add up more, The folklore gifted such * See: Folklore and Ethnography. Baku, 1, 2004, p.17-37;

Kar dalik (Brotherhood) magazine. Istanbul, 2004, 22 and 23, pages 52-56;


wisdom to the geniuses of the East that in one hand it amazes the people and on the other hand earns respect for its accuracy and preciseness (2, 131).

It becomes difficult to understand, perceive a nations psychology, true history, its specific place in the history of humanity, the stages of development, lifestyle, outlook, believes and faith, customs and traditions without being aware of its folklore.

Folklore is the main force, which provides a nations integrity in its spirits, mind and conscience, doesnt let a nation apart into pieces, forget its own roots, ancestors, which are immortalized and turned to live memories in epics, tales, bayatis and legends (7, 3-4).

From this point, the folklore of an Azerbaijani-speaking elat (a part of nation living as a group. The term can be applied to place and people) which had to separate from its roots for certain social-political reasons and later on set tled down amongst Arabs and Kurds, in the North of Iraq, mainly in Kirkuk region and numbered 600 thousands in the 60s of the 20th century, but now totals up to 2,5 millions is an essential issue to study (30, 8;

83, 36, 53;

25, 13) We dont use the term Azerbaijani-speaking country

coincidentally. Including The Great Soviet Encyclopedia

(21, 277), The Soviet Encyclopedic Dictionary (67, 26), and the foreign sources show that there are Azerbaijanis liv ing in Iraq.

Karl Menges, a famous Turkologist writes in his book Turkic languages and Turkic nations: Azerbaijanis also At the end the quoted sources have been given in an alphabetical order. As seen we have used code. The first figure indicates the source, the second indicates the page. Between them there is a comma. Sources have been separated by semicolon.

live in the north of Iraq. They are more than 100 thou sands. (41, 12-13).

Professor Jalal Ertuq, a Turkish researcher writes on this issue: 2,5 million Turkman-Azerbaijanis live in Arbil and Kirkuk regions nowadays (30, 8). It should be noted that they inhabited compact mainly in Kirkuk county: Kirkuk city, Tuz Khurmatu (gaza), Altun Korpu (nahiya), Taze Khurmartu (nahiya), Bashir, Boyuk Hasar, Bilava Garabu laq, Gizilyar, Yayji, Yarvali, Yengija, Kerkuz, Kumbatlar, Leylan, Omar Mandan, Tarjil, Gokteppe, Tisin, Tokhma khli, Turkalan, Chardakhli,), as well as Bayat koylari

(Bayat villages), and Kifri (gaza), which includes 64 regions;

Garateppe (nahiyya), Daquq (nahiyya), Abud, Jambur, Bi rauchili, Bastamli, Galkhanli, Garanaz, Amirli, Aski Kifri, Zangili, Yeshilteppe, Kahriz, Kingirban, Kotaburun, La gum, Ashtokan, Pirahmad, Sayyad, Suleyman beg (Murat li), Tel Manzil, Ushtepe, Khasadarli, Hasarli, Jabarli and other city, region and villages. Besides, they also live in Khanagin (gaza), Shahraban (gaza), Dalli Abbas (nahiya), Mandali (nahiya), Garaghan, Gizliarbat, Gizilja, Susuzbu lag villages, the regions Dilaya county, in Arbil city, the cen ter of Arbil county, Tilafar gaza of Mosul county, Mosul city and also in Baghdad, the capital city of the country.

It should be noted that frequent changes are introduced to the administrative-territorial divisions of the country.

For example, Tuz Khurmatu gaza, which was a part of Kir kuk county, now belongs to Salahaddin county, and Kifri gaza became adjacent to Diyala county. Some villages were either totally eliminated or adhered to some other villages.

Some researchers consider that uniting the Turkman inhabited territories with Arab inhabited territories carry political reasons (22, 17).

As in the past, they still call both themselves and us Azerbaijanis Turkman (18;





It is important to point out that the notion Turkman

which was widely used during the State of Atabeys, the Sta te of Garagoyunlus, The State of Aghgoyunlus, The State of Safavid carried a different meaning from what it means today. Therefore Professor A. Damirchizade writes in his book The History of Azerbaijani Literary Language: At that time the notion Turkman carried a different meaning from what it does today. This is the reason why the Azer baijanis living around Baghdad are called Turkman (11, 72).

The conclusion of the study of the other sources complete ly affirms Professor A. Damirchizades opinion on this issue.

V.Bartold writes that Kitabi-Dada Gorgud (Book of My Grandfather Gorgud) belongs to Caucasian Turk mans Azerbaijanis (32, 6).

According to the history after Shamsaddin Eldaniz con quered Azerbaijan and Iraq he overcame all the great lead ers and subordinated most of them. He wiped out all the rebellious Turkman leaders (10, 45).

This term can be come across in the works of our poets Nasimi and Khatai:

rbin nitqi baland dilindn Sni kimdir deyn kim, trkmansan?

() How could the Arab dare to doubt you, To overlook you, cause you are Turkman?

() Getdikc tknir rbin kuhi-mskni Badad ir hr nec kim trkman qonar.

() The Arabs lose their space, As Turkmans make Baghdad home.

(Khatai) S.Longrig, an English historian writes that after taking control over Shirvan, Shah Ismayil Khatai smashed Turk mans at the battle near Nakhichevan (35, 16).

The term Turkman is widely used in a Kirkuk researcher Ata Tarzibashis researches as well. This well known folklore scholar shows that the khoyrat (bayati) first emerged in the Turkman inhabited areas of Iraq, during the period of the State of Aghgoyunlu and the State of Garagoyunlu it gained fame and spread to Turkey, to the north of Iran, especially to Tabriz, where mostly Turkmans lived, and to the territory which used to be called Azeri or Azerbaijan and was inhabited by Turkmans (19, 8;

64, 203).

Ziya Bunyadovs book The State of Azerbaijan Atabeys includes some significant information about the notion Turkman. The book tells that Toghrul III goes against his uncle Gizil Arslan. Gizil Arslan ruins the troop of Toghrul III and Izaddin Hasan, which was composed of Turkman. They run from the battlefield to Izzadin Hasans fortress Karkhin, which was near Kirkuk (10, 84).

Hidayat Kamal Bayatli, Kirkuk scholar also discloses his own attitude to the issue: And a part of Iraq Turkmans, who are originally Azeri Turks, were immigrated to Iraq by Shah Ismayil Khatai in 15051524, the Christian calendar (22, 20).

There is no doubt that under the term Turkmans, these scholars meant Azeris and Iraqi Turkmans. It isnt surprising that in his interview to Qardashliq magazine (Brotherhood), Heydar Aliyev, the ex-President of Azerbaijan Republic stated his opinion on this issue: Exploring the history, I came to believe that Southern Azerbaijan, Northern Azerbaijan and Iraqi-Turkmans are the parts of a whole (20, 4).

An important point should be noted out here. The mat ter is that some researchers used the term Turkman and some Turkmen. While Ata Tarzibashi, Shakir Sabir Zabit, Ibrahim Daquqi, Rza Damirchi, Sinan Said, Movlud Taha Gayachi and some other well-known Iraqi scholars used the term Turkman, lately A. Benderoghlu prefers the term Turkmen. This notion was referred as Turkmen in the books published by The Department of Turkmen Culture and in the newspaper Yurd (Motherland) both of which lead by him. Although before the researcher used the term Turkman in his books A Step in the Iraqi Turkman Literature, and Turkmans in Revolutionary Iraq, while editing our book Iraqi-Turkman Folklore

(56), he explained that since Arabs also use Turkman, he prefers the term Turkamen for the sake of differentiation.

True, Arabs also spell this term as Turkman, howev er A. Benderoghlus point is wrong and harmful. Because modifying the term Turkman, which was originated at the period of Kitabi-Dada Gorgud (The Book of My Grandfather Gorgud), this way is not acceptable.

In the meantime, F. Zeynalov and S.Alizade, the resear chers of Dada Gorgud write: It is an important fact that in the Drezden version this word includes alif, which is eas ily distinguished, and the word is pronounced as Turkman.

It is obvious that Turkmans, the Azerbaijanis living in Iraq are the population inhabited in Kirkuk (32, 250).

Mahir Nagib, a researcher from Kirkuk paid a special attention to this issue in his article A work for a Devotee, which was translated into Ottoman Turkish and addressed to our book Iraqi-Turkman Folklore, published in Tur key: A reader will notice that honored G. Pashayev is dif ferentiating Turkmen from Turkman. Even the Azeri ver sion of the book is called Iraqi-Turkman Folklore. G. Pa shayevs conclusion, which benefited from various sources should be supported. But the term Turkman is out of use in Turkey and Iraqi Turks are referred as Turkmen, thats why we had to use the term Turkmen (57, 12).

One can see, Professor Mahir Nagib also supports the idea of using the term Turkman.

Fortunately, A.Benderoghlu realized his mistake and starting from 2003 he is using the term Turkman in his newspaper Yurd and other publications.

Note that there is a dispute among the researchers over the etymology of the term Turkman. Since the 11th cen tury this term was referred as Turkmanand in the Persian and Tajic sources, which is translated into Turkish as Turk and Manand alike (in Persian), so it means Turkishlike (1, 76;

71, 176-177;

29, 24). For Abulgazi, as common people couldnt pronounce Turkmanand, they used the term Turkman (1,76).

Some other sources show that since they were interpret ing between the Arabs and Turks, who didnt know Arabic, they were referred as tarjuman (translator), and as the time went on, the word was used as Turkman (24, 9).

Some other researchers believe that Turk+man, Turk+ men means Turkic person, Turkic soldier (16, 18-19).

As known, semi-nomadic Turkman used to be called Tarakama. Since the notions of Oghuz and Turkman

fall into the same ethnic category, Abulgazi Bahadir Khan Khivali, one of the first few experts, who talked about Dada Gorgud boys (chapters), brought this issue onto the table in his work Shajareyi-Tarakima (Genealogy of Ta rakima) (1;


It is possible to consider that Turkman is derived from Tarakimun, the incorrect plural form of Tarakama in Arabic (33, 27).

But we credit the researchers, who explain the word man as magnificence, greatness, purity, reality, greatness, and strength (24, 10). If we take into consideration that the term Turkman existed for a long time, its being used in the meanings of Great Turk, Majestic Turk, Mighty Turk Real Turk sounds natural.

The use of man in the meanings of great, heavenly, grand in the words;

gojaman (experienced person), azman (a giant person), ataman (a sharp person), shishman (an overweight person), kechaman (a big lizard) in both Azerbaijani and Kirkuk dialect also supports this idea.

We have to mention that there are fundamental differ ences between the Iraqi-Turkman dialect and the Turkmen language in the Central Asia. In Turkmen language initial length of vowels are wide-spread and it changes the words meanings. For example: ba (head);

baa yara (bruise), qr (see), qr (grave) etc. This is characteristic neither for Azeri language nor Kirkuk dialect. The in dental sounds, , are found in Arabic and English, as well as in Turkmen lan guage. But there are no such sounds in Turkman dialect and Azerbaijani.

The sound g, which is widely used in both Azeri and Iraqi-Turkman dialect, is not available in Turkmen lan guage. While Turkmen language distinguishes itself in some other cases as well, the phonetic structure of Azeri language and Iraqi-Turkman dialect coincide (52, 14-16;

82, 355;

53) Therefore A.Benderoghlu, the Iraqi researcher writes:

Iraqi-Turkman dialect corresponds to Azerbaijani lan guage. But there are small differences in Iraqi-Turkman dia lect. They are almost unremarkable and shouldnt be con sidered something major (9, 14).

Interestingly, in 1995, the world-wide famous Professor Ihsan Doghramaji, who is originally from Arbil, was giving continuous speech in Arbil dialect, more precisely in Azerbaijani in the Academy of Sciences, but he sensed that the guests from Turkey didnt understand him well enough, and suddenly he turned to the president of the Academy: If you dont mind, Id talk to the guests from Turkey in their own dialect about our academy. (30, 149).

When the TV correspondent asked him: How do you feel about celebrating your 80th jubilee in your second mother land Azerbaijan? Doghramaji gave a polysemantic and well-thought answer: Azerbaijan isnt my second mother land. It is one of my two motherlands. There is nothing more natural and more real than celebrating your birthday in your own motherland (30, 153).

As one can see, rightfully Ihsan Doghramaji considers Azerbaijan his own motherland and Azerbaijani language his mother tongue.

Doubtlessly, we are the parts of a whole and therefore although we consider Nasimi and Fizuli our own, and they think of these poets as Iraqi-Turkman poets, none of us contradicts the other on this issue.

Perhaps this is the reason that Nizami was introduced as Iraqi poet in his books, Khosrov and Shirin (1934), Treasure of Secrets (1934), Seven Beauties (1937), Igbalname

(1939), which were published in Tehran, in Persian in the first part of the 20th century and are on display at the per manent exposition of Nizami Ganjavi in the Museum of Azerbaijan Literature. Only in the book Leyli and Majnun (1939) he was introduced as Iraqi-Ajam poet.

All these are telling us about a nation, whose fate sub jected to scattering in the difficult terms of life. Fazil Huseyn and Sinan Said, the Kirkuk researchers note that, first time the issue of this elats being Turkman and speak ing Azerbaijani turned to a subject of discussion in the first part of the 20th century, when the fate of Mosul county became subject to question while the Ottoman rule ended in Iraq and Iraq turned into a colony of England. The Turkish government considered them Turkish, but the England insisted that they were Turkmans. The English government proved that this elat didnt belong to Ottoman, their dialect wasnt similar to Turkish language, but to Azerbaijani language. England believed that originally they were Turkman, and were deported from Iran to that territory long before the emergence of the Ottoman Empire (15, 93-99;

64, 35).

From this point the representative of the East-India

company, Edmonds travel to the Turkman inhabited terri tory in 1820 is interesting: We arrived in Guruchay (Dry river) at 8.20. There were the tents of Bayat Turkmans here.

Hasan bey, the head of the ashirat (tribe), who sometimes was referred as Garagush bey (Eagle bey) invited me to have meal. He was well aware of the existence of the ashirat (tribe/elat) of Boyuk (Great) Bayat in Khorasan, but he couldnt define the exact date, when this branch of the ashirat moved to this country (14, 267).

We come across various historical facts about Iraqi Turkmans origin and their settling date in Iraq. Many researchers believe that they moved from Azerbaijan.

We also think that, starting from early Middle Ages till the middle of the 16th century and afterwards in certain peri ods we lived together with Iraqi-Turkmans in the same ter ritory, under the same power, but because of certain social political reasons we had to split. As a number of substantial researches have come out lately on the history of Iraqi Turkmans and Azerbaijan, we become more convinced in our conclusion (66;






In the meantime, we dont reject the fact that the bloody wars, political interests and other reasons caused some other streams of movement as well. Moreover, this took place in both directions. As Abulgazi Bahadir Khan states, thousands of Turkman families left Iraq and came to Shamakhi (1, 99).

Tabari, the Arabic historian and professor Subhi Saatchi think that the first movement of Turks to Iraq happened in 45, the Hijri calendar (76a, 167;

68, 20).

Professor S.Buluch, the Turkish scholar, also writes about this issue: In the first centuries of the Hirji calendar Azerbaijani Turks passed through Tabriz-Sultaniyya and settled down in Kirkuk (63, 109).

Shakir Sabir, the Kirkuk researcher thinks that their movement to Iraq started in the 7th century and they already formed their own blocks in Iraq in 745, the Christian calen dar (72, 37, 39).

Ibn-al-Asir, the Arabic historian of the 12th-13th centuries writes: Many Azerbaijani Turks led by Abu Mansur Baktash and Abu Ali ibn Dahgan moved to Iraq and settled down in Tilafar, Mosul and the neighbouring areas (26, 136).

Mustafa Javad, a well-known Iraqi researcher writes in his book The History of Turks in Iraq that Turks move ment to Iraq started in the year of 32 in the Hijri calendar and divides this movement into seven stages. In the period of Amavis, especially Abbasis Turkss being incomparably good at shooting, brave in battles, tolerant to the hardship brought high prestige to them, strengthened their position and made them the driving force in Iraq. In Mustafa Javads categorization Saljug period falls into the fourth stage and in this period thousands of Oghuz Turks entered and settled in Iraq, formed Turkman khanates, and other khanates such as Artiglilar in Mardin, Atabeys in Mosul, Zeynalab dins in Arbil, Gipchags in Kirkuk, Gara (Literally: Dark/ Black, Means: Great) Aslanlis in Diyarbakr, and the kha nates in Daghistan and Azerbaijan. According to the resear chers writings, the bayat tribes inhabited around Gara Tapa (Black Hill) and Daquq entered Iraq in the fourth stage. The rule of Teymuris and Jalairs marks the beginning of the fifth stage. Mustafa Javad categorizes the period of the State of Garagoyunlu and the State of Aggoyunlu in the sixth stage. The seventh stage consists of the period of the State of Safavid (46).

Professor Subhi Saatchi divides these movements into seven stages and calls the last stage Ottoman Period (68, 31-106).

According to Ershad Hurmuzlu, a Kirkuk researcher, the biggest movement of Turkmans to Iraq happened dur ing Toghrul beys authority (10401063). In the Christian year of 1055 they numbered even more. As the continuous stream of Turkmans to Iraq went on in that period and later, the north part of Iraq turned to a Turkic-speaking area (24, 25).

It is undeniable that starting from the date that Sham saddin Eldaniz took over the control in 1136 and afterwards during the periods of his predecessors;

sons Mahammad Javan Pahlavan and Gizil Arslan, the relations with Iraq tightened (74, 53-58, 59).

During Shamsaddin Eldanizs period the state and troop of Iraq and Azerbaijan united under the same power and the nation lived in peace (66, 127). He used to rotate between Azerbaijan and Iraq back and forth. His trip to Iraq ended in 1175, and after a while upon his return to Azerbaijan, died in Nakhichevan. And Jahan Pahlavan and Gizil Arslan became executive authorities of Iraq, Azerbaijan, Arran, Rey, Isfahan, Hamadan and other counties (10, 74). Daquq, Arbil, Kirkuk and other places that inhabited by Turkman, and Ganja, Nakhichevan, Tabriz and other cities were unit ed under the same power during the period of the State of Atabeys (10, 234, 238;

66, 134).

Starting from the execution of the last Abbasi khalifa in 1258 all the neighbouring cities and villages including Baghdad turned to Azerbaijans county and accept its authority (3, 73). Since that period the connection between the Azerbaijanis living in Baghdad, Kirkuk, Mosul and Arbil and the Northern and Southern Azerbaijan grew clos er. This relation becomes even stronger during the periods of Jalairs in the 14th century, and the State of Garagoyunlu and the State of Aghgoyunlu in the 15th century. The territo ry of the State of Garagoyunlu included Azerbaijan, Arme nia, Western Iran, Iraq, Kurdustan etc. The capital was Tabriz. The major cities were Tabriz, Maragha, Ardabil, Nakhichevan, Ganja, Baghdad, Arzinjan etc (4, 54). During the period of the State of Aghgoyunlu, especially during the power of Uzun (Tall) Hasan the borders extended till the Kur River, Karabakh County, Arab-Iraq, Acami-Iraq, the borders of Persia and Khorasan including Arzinjan etc (23, 221;

27, 81;

28, 62;

36, 3;

37, 97, 172).

Therefore in his letter to the European states Uzun Hasan indicated with especial emphasis: Iraq, all of the Persia till the doors of India, Mazandaran, Gilan, Azerbaijan, Baghdad all these belong to me. I am the ruler of these territories (37, 103).

Interestingly, S.Longrig, the English researcher writes that during the rule of Uzun Hasan the capital of the coun try was Tabriz in summer and Baghdad in winter (35, 20).

As his grandfather Uzun Hasan, Shah Ismail Khatai also aimed to unite Azerbaijan and Iraq under the same power and reinstate the united Azerbaijan. His capturing Baghdad in 1506 with this purpose made Ottoman Empire very rest less. Ottoman Empire was cautious about the growth of Safavid. For this reason it launched a war against Safavids with a great force and overcame in the famous battle, Chaldiran (38, 143). This defeat caused an incredible amount of losses to Safavids. One of them was the loss of Baghdad.

Afterwards Azerbaijani rulers attempted to take Baghdad back by all means (38, 143). From this standpoint the facts by Shakir Sabir, the Kirkuk researcher and A.Mammadov, an Azeri scholar are quite attractive. Prince Bayazid joins a revolt against his father Sultan Suleyman and brother Salim II. The revolt fails. Bayazid turns to Safa vid in search of a refuge. Sultan Suleyman promises a great amount of gifts to Safavid to have his son back for execu tion. Shah (King) Tahmasib puts a condition that Baghdad should be annexed to Azerbaijan again (36, 78). But Sultan (King) Suleyman doesnt accept this condition.

In the war of 15331535, between Azerbaijan and Tur key, Azerbaijan lost all Iraqi territories including Baghdad (38, 161, 162).

But starting from Shah Abbass rule, in a timeframe from 1623 to 1638, Baghdad, Kirkuk and other places were united under the Safavid authority, but again in 1638 the Ottoman authority took control over these territories (71, 85;

36, 3;

24, 30) and from 1732 to 1743 the control was swit ched between the Ottoman Empire and Azerbaijan back and forth. During 1734-1746, these territories were totally under the control of Azerbaijan, but as Longrig, English historian writes, in 1746 Baghdad, Mosul, Kirkuk and other cities lost khan (referring to Azerbaijani authority) and gai ned sultan (referring to Ottoman authority) forever (35, 20).

Afterwards our connection with Iraq came down to almost nothing. Therefore Azerbaijani rulers attempted to gain back the tribes that inhabited in Iraq. Mirza Jamal Javan shir writes on this occasion: After Nadir Shah was assas sinated in 1747, Panah Khan along with his accompanists went till Iraq and Azerbaijan borders to welcome the Ka rabakh people Their visit ended up with failure (31, 14-15).

It should be mentioned that not only Karabakh tribes, but also other Azerbaijani tribes from both south and north inhabited here.

After the connections broke, the people in Iraq expressed their complains about the broken relations, the longing in the khoyrats (bayatis) like this:

slim Qarabald, I am from Karabakh, Sinm arpaz dald. My soul is hurt.

Ksilib glib-gedn Nobody comes and goes, Dem yollar bald. The connections turned out to be cut off.

Badad yolu Gncdi, Road to Baghdad goes through Ganja, Gl pnc-pncdi. It has fully-blossomed flowers Dem sizdn iraam, Dont say that we are apart, Bu sevda lncdi v s. This love is forever, etc.

But neither the broken relations, nor the long-lived years of separation could influence the language and the folklore of this elat. Although the Ottoman Turkish language was accepted as the literary language at that time, the spoken language and the folklore closely reflects Azerbaijani lan guage and folklore (69, 14;

22, 329).

We dont intend to confront the Turkic languages that are very close. But at the same time, we have to accept the fact that Turkish, Azeri and Iraqi researchers, who did a deep study of Iraqi-Turkman folklore and are very well aware of Kirkuk dialect and folklore affirm that the dialect of this people coincides with Azeri language. Their folklore and folk songs, which share the same roots, are identical (6, 147-152;

18, 26;

45, 56-66, 44, 6;

42, 86-96;

54, 64-68;

55, 3-26;

69, 11-14;

71, 203;

9, 14;

36, 11;

2, 329).

Fuad Korpulu, a Turkish researcher writes with confi dence: Iraqi-Turkmans The Turks who speak in Azeri dialect of Oghuz.

Amir Asim, the head of the Foundation of the Turkic Language, read the first part of the book Selected Khoy rats of Kirkuk, published by Kirkuk researcher Molla Sabir, (Baghdad, 1951) wrote an acknowledgement to the second part, where he stated: These folk poems, which resemble very typical patterns in Azeri dialect, include words and expressions that are very close to ours (45, 57).

Vahabi Ashgun, a Turkish scholar wrote an acknowl edgement to the second part of Molla Sabirs book and mentioned rightfully: As the first book, this book is also in Azeri dialect (45, 47).

Mir oghlu Jamil, the Turkish counselor to Belgrade, read Molla Sabirs book and wrote: Sabir beys book The selected Kirkuk khoyrats brings an unquestionable fact to the surface that the language is totally the same with the Azeri dialect, which is the closest one to Turkish, the Western Turkic. (45, 140).

From this point, the thoughts of Ata Tarzibashi, the Kir kuk researcher are also worth paying attention: Our Turk man dialect is much closer to Azeri dialect than Turkish lan guage, and even perhaps they are twin sisters. Regardless the fact that they split for various kinds of reasons and lived a long history without any connections, there are not remarkable differences in these dialects (78, 26).

Professor Hidayat Kamal Bayatly also came to a reason able conclusion in his book Turkic dialect of Iraqi-Turk mans: The dialect that Iraqi-Turkmans use, is identical to Azeri dialect. Geographically, Azeri dialect embraces Eas tern Anadolu, Southern Caucasus, Caucasusian Azerbaijan, Iranian Azerbaijan, Kirkuk (Iraq) and Suriya Turks. From the folklore point, it is the richest Turkic dialect with nume rous variations (22, 329).

H. Mirzazade, a well-known scholar on the history of Azerbaijani language, also affirms this conclusion in his serious article Some Considerations About the Language of the Azerbaijanis Living in Iraq (42, 86, 96).

Interestingly, the history of literary language of Azerbai jan indicates that our literary language included numerous elements of the dialects of Southern Azerbaijan and Bagh dad (Kirkuk) in the 15th16th centuries, and Kirkuk dialect was categorized in the Southern branch and dialects of Azerbaijani language (12, 37;

13, 43;

62, 17;

42, 85).

By the way, since the phonetic and lexical parameters of Azerbaijani language correspond with those of Southern and Eastern dialects, some of the researchers of Kitabi Dada Gorgud, V.Bartold, F.Koprulu, A.Dilachar, M.Er gin consider that as Bartold says it belongs to Caucasian Turks (32, 6, 10, 13). O.Gogyay, M.Ergin, Y.Yakubovski, H.Arasli, M.Tahmasib, A.Damirchizade, S.Jamshidov, K.Koroghlu and others believe that the Dresden copy of the book was entirely created in Azerbaijan (32, 10, 19).

Doubtlessly, we can tell that for centuries Iraqi-Turk mans had to survive by themselves surrounded with other nations, so that they preserved the old lexical and phonetic characteristic features of their language and therefore their language reflects the peculiarities of Kitabi-Dada Gor gud. Tens of words, which were used in the Kitabi-Dada Gorgud, are still in use in Kirkuk dialect, precisely, the same words still carry the same meaning and this is an apt proof. For example: kapanak (a-felt cloak), (oru-thief), kmk (rk-bread), ns (ara-back, backsi de), alavuz (bldi-guide), sra (at, madyan-horse), yayan (piyada- pedestrian), nsn (ya, alt-thing), smiz (k-root), sr (bua, cng-bull), mavlama (huunu itir mk-to faint), anara (arm-crucifix), bor alma (ey pur alma-to play trumpet), davul dmk(tbil alma to play the drum), ismarlama (taprma-to charge, to commission), yarn (sabah-tomorrow), g (n-front), oy rad (aba, kobud, nadan-rude, impolite, ignorant), yama lama (talama-to plunder, to rob), avat (ala, skik adam-ignoble person), oda (ota-room), imdi (indi-now), ba zrin (ba st!-all right, no problem expression to say yes), aum-ardash (ohum-arda-literal: the relateive-the brother (means: close people)), klisa (kils-church), iyi (gzl-nice), kndi (z-oneself) etc. In relation with Gor gud, Abulgazi Khan says: Goul Ergi Khan offered Gorgud to sit at tor/tour in the place of honour at the head of gathering (1, 79).It is interesting that this word as Dor// dour is used in Turkmani even today.

Therefore, Azerbaijani researchers consider the Kitabi Dada Gorgud the ancestor of Azerbaijani folk and written literature (32, 5), and at the same time, Ata Tarzibashi, the Kir kuk researcher, calls it the mother book of Iraqi-Turkmans.

The fact should be added that, the linguists, such as P.Melioranski (40, 16, 18), M. Shiraliyev (75, 11), N. Baska kov (7, 9, 56), A. Sherbak (73, 27), H. Mirzazade (43, 20), E.Najip (49, 30), A.Orujov (50, 9), Y.Shirvani (76, 16) and others, state that since the Dictionary of Ibn-Muhanna, which belongs to the late 13th, the early 14th centuries, is in old Azerbaijani, it should have been written either in Azer baijan, or in Iraq territory.

Mahir Nagib, an Iraqi-Turkman researcher affirms the shared roots of the music in his book Categorization and Analysis of Kirkuk Turk Folk Music: The distance between the borders couldnt deteriorate the shared roots of Kirkuk Turk folk music and Azerbaijani Turk folk music (36, 11).

Researcher Subhi Saatchi is of the same opinion (70).

This closeness, identicalness is sharply visible in the place names as well: these place names Aghdam, Aghdash, Agh su, Billava, Boyat, Guruchay, Garabulag, Garaqoyunlu, Garadagh, Karabakhli, Amirli, Yaychi, Yengica, Mandili, Mardinli, Uchtapa, Khasa, Khasadarli, Chardagli etc are common for both Northern Azerbaijan and Kirkuk. As in Baku, there is Shirvan Fortress near Kifri. This palace was indicated as a historical monument of Iraqi-Turkmans in the map of Iraq published in Baghdad in 1961. Still there is a block called Karabakhli in Kirkuk. The Iraqi schol ars insist that Karabakhli or Kharabakhi, the famous melody among Iraqi-Turkmans was taken from Azerbaijan from Karabakh region. As well the folklore introduces so many similar facts.

Sinan Said, a scholar from Kirkuk, who did research on Arzu-Gambar the famous Iraqi-Turkman epic, thinks that this is a fundamental work, a document that can be referred to learn their dialect, to define their identity. The researcher brings this piece as an example:

, My Arzu went down to the spring, . Her voice was heard.

Let Shirvan, Tabriz, Maragha , , . Be sacrificed/gifted to Arzu.

and writes: These lines are enough to decide where and by who the epic is originated (65).

In the Tuz Khurmatu version of the epic the events take place by the Araz River:

Damn you, hey Araz, , , We dropped our saz.


The river carried away Gambar, , Please, come help, hey Khizir Ilyaz , (60, 376).

(60, 376) This piece itself is an apt fact of our shared roots.

Professor Subhi Saatchi, who did a substantial work on exploring and advocating Iraqi-Turkman moral values, also stated his personal opinion about this historical issue: If we explore the colorful folklore and oral literature, we will wit ness that Kirkuk dialect carries the motifs of Azeri Turkic.

If we study the customs and traditions of Azerbaijanis living either in the North or the South, we will witness that Kirkuk folk literature derives from the same source. This similarity and identicalness resembles in every example from lulla bies to riddles (69, 11, 13-14).

As mentioned above, many Azerbaijani and Iraqi Turkman scholars share the same opinion. In that case, is there any need to study the folklore of Iraqi-Turkman sepa rately? If we take into consideration that till the first quar ter of the 16th century Kirkuk was under Azerbaijans authority and as Subhi Saatchi, the Iraqi researcher says, Till the 16th century all of the publications in Iraq were in Azeri Turkic (69, 14), we will witness a great need to study this elats folklore deeply, who had to live apart from its roots for centuries.

By the way, note that two terms are used in Kirkuk sources Kirkuk folklore and Iraqi-Turkman folklore.

Both terms refer to the folklore of all Iraqi-Turkman commu nity living in Iraq. It should be considered normal. Because the term Darband folklore or Nakhichevan folklore

refers to the folklore of the people living in the surrounding areas of relatively Darband and Nakhichevan as well. Accor dingly, Kirkuk folklore refers the folklore of the people, who inhabited densely in Kirkuk city, the center of Kirkuk coun ty and the folklore of the people living in the neighbouring villages and regions. Thats why the readers will observe use of the both terms throughout the books of author.

Gathering, publishing and conducting research of Iraqi Turkman folklore started in the middle of the 20th century.

Ata Tarzibashi, Molla Sabir, Shakir Sabir Zabit, Moham mad Khurshid, Abdullatif Benderoghlu, Ibrahim Daquqi, Ihsan Vasfi, Subhi Saatchi, Mahir Nagip and others are the first remembered ones when the subject comes on to the scholars who collected this spiritual treasure, which was cre ated and passed over to the following generations for cen turies, and immortalized them in books, the greatest inven tion of humanity. As you look through the books that they complied with great difficulties, and published mostly at their own expense, you recall V.Beilinskys words: The hard work of the modest and honest people, who collected the invaluable pieces of folklore with painstakingly stub bornness and endless efforts and didnt let them be forgot ten and destroyed, should meet the fullest gratitude and appreciation (8, 109).

The folklore pieces they collected were first published in the newspapers Kirkuk, Afag, Bashir, Iraq, Yurd and the magazine Qardashliq-Brotherhood, and these materials all together turned to a substantial source for any researcher to refer to. The proverbs and aphorisms, khoyrat and manis (a kind of bayati), folk songs, ceremo nies, jokes (anecdotes), believes, prays, curses and other pat terns were included in The Selected Khoyrats of Kirkuk

by Molla Sabir, Khoyrats and Manis in Kirkuk by Habib Sevimlin, Social Life in Kirkuk, Proverbs in Kirkuk Dialect by Shakir Sabir, Khoyrats and Manis in Kirkuk, Kirkuk Songs, Invaluable Kirkuk words by Ata Tarzibashi, Iraqi-Turkmans, Their Language, History and Literature by Ibrahim Daquqi, A Step in the Literature of Iraqi-Turkman, and Our Proverbs by Abdullatif Bende roghlu, Iraqi Turkmans, Kirkuk Children Folklore and Folk Songs of Kirkuk by Subhi Saatchi, Aphorisms and Proverbs of Iraqi-Turkmans by Ihsan Vasfi, Collection of Invaluable Words by Mohammad Khurshid, Categoriza tion and Analysis of Kirkuk Folk Music by Mahir Nagib and other books. The activities in this sphere werent limit ed only to collecting the folklore pieces and publishing books but also the attempts were made at conducting scien tific research on the certain genres of Iraqi-Turkman folk lore. Ata Tarzibashis research on khoyrats, manis, and folk music is worth paying great attention.

But still the Iraqi-Turkman folklore is not entirely explored. It is the first attempt to analyze it systematically.

The Iraq-Turkmani researcher A.Benderoghlus opinion, who wrote the acknowledgement to our monograph Iraqi Turkman Folklore, supports this idea: Until now such a research of a substantial, detailed context has never been conducted either in Iraq by Turkmans, or in Azerbaijan or in Turkey (56, 4).

True, many genres and patterns of Iraq-Turkman folk lore become subject to research for the first time. The main sources of our research were the books on Iraqi-Turkman folklore, the publications that we listed above, and the pat terns, which we recorded in five tapes, each of which last ed for an hour and a half, and the examples we wrote down in several large notepads of more than a thousand pages each during our long-term visits to Iraq in 19621966 and 19721975.

The early genres, the peoples ceremonies and music, the bayati-riddles, the lullabies, the tales, the jokes, the riddles, and the proverbs of the Iraqi-Turkman folklore are being explored scientifically for the first time. Among these genres bayati-riddles and lullabies have not been studied as inde pendent genres in our Folklore studies the former entirely and the latter partially.

The mutual relations of the Azerbaijani and Iraqi-Turk man folklores were brought to light through parallels, com parisons of the patterns that derived from the same root and the categorization of the current genres were done through the latest achievements of the folklore studies (5;









81), etc.

While talking about the importance of this study, it should be mentioned that, the thorough study of the Iraqi Turkman folklore is also essential in a deep and thorough study of certain critical issues such as our history, the histo ry of our language, our dialectology, peoples poetry, histo ry of aesthetic thought etc.

Iraqi-Turkman folklore is such a treasure that it reflects all the nuances of the nations language and every single per son who is in love with his nation can find invaluable pearls in this treasure. There is closeness, identicalness to Azerbai jan Folklore in every layer of this treasure of the nations wisdom. We are blessed because the nation didnt parted in its consciousness, thoughts, and mentality! After all a stone gets crumbled and ruins, a rock becomes tumbledown and ruins, a spring dries, a river gets thinner and cuts off. And a nation forgets and disappears (17, 4).

But still there is a bright reality, which consoles one. As Irmag, Iraq-Turkmani, writes: The motherlands territory can expand or diminish, its borders can extinguish, its histo ry can be falsified, even its honor can be offended, its reli gion can be converted. But one thing never changes. This is mother tongue (19).

As you see, there are two principal existences in life folklore and language, which never disappear and carry undeniable historical facts about a nation. We think this is the literary-historical value of the Iraqi-Turkman folklore in the first place.

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48. Nabiyev Azad. Azrebaijani Folklore (in Azerbaijani), part I, Baku, 2002.

49. Najip E.N. XIV Century Kipchak-oghuz Literary Lan guage of Mamluke in Egypt (in Russian), Abstracts From Doctoral Dissertation, Moscow, 1965.

50. Orujov A. Therotical Principles of The Philological Expla natory Dictionary of Azerbaijani Language (in Azerbai jani), Baku, 1965.

51. Pashayev Gazanfar. Nasimi Imadeddin. Iraqi Divan (in Azerbaijani), Baku, 1987.

52. Pashayev Gazanfar. Phonetics of Kerkuk Dialect. Master Thesis (in Russian), Baku, 1969.

53. Pashayev Gazanfar. Phonetics of Kerkuk Dialect. Mono graph (in Azerbaijani) Baku, 2003.

54. Pashayev Gazanfar. Six Years on the Banks of the Rivers Tigris and Euphrates (in Azerbaijani), Baku, 1985, second edition 1987.

55. Pashayev Gazanfar. Powerful Branch of Our Folklore. See the book of Pashayev G. Anthology of Kirkuk Folklore

(in Azerbaijani), Baku, 1987, second edition 56. Pashayev Gazanfar. Iraqi Turkmans Folklore. Monog raph (in Azerbaijani), Baku, 1992.

57. Pashayev Gazanfar. Iraqi Turkmans Folklore. (in Tur kish), Monograph, Istanbul, 1998, 320 pages.

58. Pashayev Gazanfar. Genres of Iraqi Turkmans Folklore (in Azerbaijani), Monograph, Baku, 2003, 320 pages.

59. Pashayev Gazanfar. The System of Genres of Iraqi-Turk mans Folklore (in Russian), Baku, 2003.

60. Pashayev G., Benderoghlu A. Anthology of Azerbaijani Folk lore. Iraqi-Turkman volume (in Azerbaijani), Baku, 1999.

61. Propp. V. Genre Compound of Russian Folklore (in Rus sian), Moscow, 1964.

62. Rzazade M. Materials About XVIII Century Azerbaijani Literary Language (in Azerbaijani), Baku, 1961.

63. Sadettin Buluch. Main Dialectic Specific Features of Kir kuk Khoyrats and Folk Songs (in Turkish), publication of Turkish language body, No 270, 1966.

64. Sinan Said Abdulgadir. Turkic Press in Iraq and Literary Problems (in Azerbaijani), Baku, 1969.

65. Sinan Said Abdulgadir. Brotherly Voice from Azerbaijan.

Newspaper Literature and Art, Baku, April 19, 1969.

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67. Soviet Encyclopaedical Dictionary (in Russian), Moscow, 1980.

68. Subhi Saatchi. Iraqi Turkmans (in Turkish), Monograph, Istanbul, 2003.

69. Subhi Saatchi. Childrens Folklore of Kirkuk (in Turkish), Istanbul, 1984.

70. Subhi Saatchi. Folk Songs Collected in Kirkuk (in Turkish), Istanbul, 1992.

71. Shakir Sabir. Public Life in Kirkuk (in Turkmani), Bagh dad, 1962.

72. Shakir Sabir. Turkmans Have Their History in Iraq (in Arabic), Baghdad, 1957.

73. Sherbak A. Grammatical Article About Language of Turkic Texts in the X XIII Centuries From Eastern Tur kistan (in Russian), M, -L, 74. Sherifli M. About Eldagaz, (in Azerbaijani), API, Scientific Works, No 1, 75. Shiraliyev M. About Dialect Bases of Azerbaijani National Literary Language (in Russian), Scientific Works of the Institute of Language and Literature named after Nizami, Volume II, Baku, 76. Shirvani Y. Some Notes About Ibn Muhanna and His Dictionary (in Azerbaijani), Azerbaijan State University.

Scientific Works, No 3, 1966.

77. Tabari. General history (in arabic), volume VI, Cairo.

78. Tahmasib M.H. Precious Gifts From Far Off Land (in Azerbaijani), Literary Magazine Azerbaijan, No 2, 1969. The article is dedicated to the book of peoples poet Rasul Rza and Gazanfar Pashayev Khoyrats of Kirkuk

(in Azerbaijani), Baku, 79. Tarzibashi A. Literary Language, Spoken Language (in Turkmani), Magazine Qardashliq, No 4, Baghdad, 80. Tarzibashi A. The Poets of Kirkuk, Volume I, Baghdad, 81. Veliyev V. Genres of Azerbaijani Folklore (in Russian), Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertation, Baku, 82. Veliyev V. The Azerbaijani Folklore. Text book for Uni versity students. Baku, 1985.

83. Zeynalov F.A. Benderoghlu and researches on Iraqi Turk man language. See: Benderoghlu A. Language of Iraqi Turkmans (Turkmani), Baghdad, 1989.

84. Ziyad Kopruli. Human Rights and Iraqi Turks (in Tur kish), Ankara, 1992.

AZERBAIJANIS IN IRAQLITTLE KNOWN PEOPLE * Not many Azerbaijanis realize that they are closely relat ed to one of Iraqs largest ethnic minorities, the Turkmen.

These two Turkic peoples speak the same language and share a common ancestry. Furthermore, several important Azerbaijani revered intellectuals classical poets and scien tists are buried in Iraq.

Researches estimate that the Turkmen population in Iraq is now between 2.5 and 2.6 million. Since the Turkmen are not concentrated in one central location, however, it is difficult to provide exact figures related to population.

Many Turkmen live in one of the richest oil-producing areas of the world in Kirkuk, which is about 250 km north of the capital of Baghdad.

Similar languages The Turkmen settled in Iraq beginning in the 7th century.

Wars and the resulting treaties in the area eventually sepa rated the Azerbaijanis living in Iraq and Azerbaijan. Their languages, however, stayed basically the same. For instance, even though Ottoman Turkish was declared as the written language for the Turkmen, their spoken language and folk lore more closely reflects Azeri.

Azerbaijani, Turkish and Iraqi scholars affirm that Azeri and the Turkmen dialect are very similar to each other.

They both come from the same root the Oghuz group of Turkic languages. Although these two dialects survived a * See: Azerbaijan International, Los Angeles, USA, 11.1, 2003, p.2223.

long history without any connection, there are no signifi cant differences between them today.

In fact, Turkmen grammar and phonetics is very charac teristic of the language of the ancient Azerbaijani epic Kitabi Dada-Gorgud (The Book of My Grandfather Gorgud). This compilation of legends was set down in writing during the 11th century but contains stories that can be traced back to the 6th and 7th centuries. Dozens of words and expressions that were used in Dada Gorgud but are not in use any more in Azeri are still alive and have kept their original meaning in the Turkmen dialect.

Similar place names Several cities and villages found in the Kirkuk region of Iraq bear the same names as ones in Azerbaijan, such as Aghdash, Aghdam, Bilava, Aghsu, Guruchay, Boyat, Gara bagh, Garagoyunlu, Amirli, Yayji, Yandija, Mardinli, Uch tapa, Khasa, Khasadarli, Chardakhli.

Near the city of Kifri in Iraq, there is a fortress named Shirvan Galasi (Shirvan Fortress). In 1961, this Shirvan fortress was identified as a historical monument of the Turkmen in the map of Iraq. Similarly, in Azerbaijan, there is the 15th-century palace located in Bakus Inner City called the Shirvanshah Palace, built between 14201460 where the residency of Shirvanshah state situated that was created during the first part of the 6th century and lasted till and was managed by the Shirvanshahs dynasty.

Nasiraddin Tusi Nasiraddin Tusi (12011274) was an Azerbaijani astrono mer, philosopher and mathematician who was famous for building the largest observatory in the East. Begun in 1259, the observatory still stands in Maragha, near Tabriz, in the Azerbaijani region of Iran. [See photos of this observatory in the article Nasir al-Din Tusi (12011274) and the Maragha Observatory, Al 4.2 (Summer 1996). Search at AZER.com.].

Nasiraddin Tusis grave is located in Iraq, in Baghdads Museyi-Kazimi Mosque. Tusi is buried alongside with Muse yi Kazims grave in Museyi Kazim Mosque. The text on his tomb reads: This is the tomb of Khoja Nasiraddin Al-Tusi Mahammad bin Mahammad Al-Hasan. He was born on Saturday dawn, Jamadul 11, 597 (Hijri calendar) [February 18, 1201 in Tus, Khorasan, which is now in Iran]. He died Monday evening, Zulhajja 18, 672 [June 26, 1274], in Baghdad.

Pity you, Nasiraddin Tusi Another inscription on the tomb reads: The helper of religion and people, King in the world of Science such a son had never before been born.

Fuzuli Classical Azerbaijani poet Mahammad Fuzuli (1494 1556) is perhaps best known for his version of the classic love story Leyli and Majnun. Fuzulis poetic version of this ancient Arabic legend became the setting for the first opera of the Muslim East, Uzeyir Hajibeyovs Leyli and Majnun (1908). Fuzuli is also famous for two collections of poetry, called divans, one in Azeri and one in Persian.

Fuzuli died in the sacred city of Karbala in Iraq. His tomb was originally located outdoors, near the western door of the Imam Husein Mosque. Later, due to road con struction planned for the city of Karbala, the tomb was destroyed (maybe intentionally) and the poets remains was moved inside the mosque, where it lies today. This was done by order of the Municipality Office of Karbala, which allegedly planned to build a new tomb in Fuzulis memory.

The sign next to Fuzulis tomb reads: The poet Fuzuli Baghdadi. Mahammad Bin Suleyman, the poet known by the name Fuzuli Baghdadi was born in [1494] in Baghdad.

Some people indicate that he was born in Karbala while others in Hilla. But the most exact place of his birth is Bagh dad. He died in [1556]. He wrote fine poetry in Arabic and Turkish languages. He spoke Azeri, a Turkic language.

Iraqi authorities didnt mention his knowledge and poetry in Persian, due to bad relations with Iran.

Nasimi Another famous Azerbaijani poet, Nasimi (died in 1417), also has a link to Iraq. Famous for his mysticism, as if allegedly flayed alive for his beliefs that God dwelled inside each individual.

One of Nasimis poetic works was titled Iraqi Divan. In the beginning of the 1970s Seyid Heydar gave a 286-page man uscript of this work to Abdullatif Bandaroglu, a scientist from Kirkuk province. Heydar considered himself to be a descen dant of Shah Ismayil. This manuscript of the Iraqi Divan had been copied by Molla Turab Ibn Molla Safi Ibn Molla Amin in 1853. Bandaroglu and I worked on this manuscripts and published Iraqi Divan Nasimi, he in Baghdad, I in Baku.

*** Gazanfar Pashayev, lived in Iraq from 1962 to 1966 and again from 1972 to 1975. He has written 10 books related to the Turkmen of Iraq. Major works include: Six Years Along the Banks of Dejla-Farat Rivers [meaning between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers], Kirkuk Songs (Baku, 1973), An Anthology of Iraqi-Turkoman Folklore (Baku, 1987;

1999), Divan Nasimi (Baku, 1987), Kirkuk Khoyrats

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