«ÃßÇßÍÔßÐ ÏÀØÀÉÅÂ ÑÅ×ÈËÌÈØ ßÑßÐËßÐÈ ÉÅÄÄÈ ÚÈËÄÄß VII ÚÈËÄ ÁÀÊÛ–2012 Åëì ÿââÿëè ýþðöíÿí, ñîíó ýþðöíìÿéÿí áèð àëÿìäèð. ...»
(Baku, 1983), and «Turkmen proverbs» (Baku, 1978). Ba ku’s Nizami Literature Museum has a Permanent Collection on display of Karkuk-related (Turkmen) material that has been gathered by Pashayev.
Ï.Ñ. Further there is an editorial article on pages 24– about prof.Pashayev’s books, especially «Anthology of Azerbaijani Folklor of Iraqi turcoman» (Baku, 1999) and proverbs published in his book.
It is emphasized that Kirkuk people living in Iraq are identical to or have only been lightly modified over the centuries from the sayings used by Azerbaijanis in the Azerbaijan Republic today. A staff member of «Azerbaijan International» Aynura Huseynova provided the interpre tation and the translation of Kirkuk proverb from Azeri into English.
MIRZA FATALI AKHUNDOV IN AMERICA* Mirza Fatali Akhundov is a great Azerbaijani writer and philosopher.
The rich and many-sided work by the great son of our people, the prominent writer and outstanding public figure takes up a special place in the history of the Azerbaijani lit erary, social, political and philosophic idea of the 19th cen tury. He is the founder of the national dramatic art, artis tic prose and literary criticism. His service in formation * See: The Baku times, February, 1993.
Ñå÷èëìèø ÿñÿðëÿðè and development of the education’s ideology in Azerbaijan is invaluable.
He devoted all his bright talent, all his energy to the noble cause of revival and flourishing of the social and spir itual cause of the nation. He wrote in one of his letters:
«I want to pave the way to the education, science and civilization for my people».
Today we’d like to acquaint you with the material which surely will be of great interest to you.
In 1987 when M.F.Akhundov’s 175th anniversary was widely celebrated in Azerbaijan, among those worthy of invitation there were two foreign guests who enjoyed partic ular respect and honour. It was not for nothing, for one of them was Mrs. Parirukh, a direct descendant of the Akhundovs, and the other her husband, Professor of Tokyo University Iraj Parsinejad began studying M.F.Akhundov’s works. The results of the research were surprising and the scientist couldn’t help writing: «Up to now, Ahundzadeh has been mostly treated as a philosopher, sociologist, histo rian, playwright and writer, with his outstanding contribu tion to the field of literary criticism almost completely ignored. Our story supported by previous investigations, however, demonstrates that as far as his plays and short sto ries go, he was one of the pioneering writers in the area of modern European style of literary criticism in the countries of the East».
That is why Professor Iraj Parsinejad collected his essays on literary criticism, for the first time translated them into English and published them with an introducto ry research work.
The book titled «Mirza Fath Ali Akhundzadeh: literary critic» was published in the USA in 1988 by the Jahan Book Ãÿçÿíôÿð Ïàøàéåâ Company, under Middle Eastern Series No.17. In this book M.F.Akhundzadeh is presented to American readers and scientists as a literary critic.
The following essays of the writer are included into the book: «Kritika» («Criticism»), «Discourse in Objection», «About Rumi and his Works», «About Verse and Prose», «Preface to the Book», «Note to the Scribe», «Note to the Reciter», «Letter to Mirza Agha Tabrizi», «The Art of Critica», «The Methods of Writing».
In this scientific research work the author considers such important themes as «Historical background of liter ary criticism in Iran», «Akhundzadeh: the founder of mod ern literary criticism in Iran», «Social and literary criti cism», «The influence of social, cultural and literary envi ronment», «A critique of Akhundzadeh’s views on literary criticism», and others.
In conclusion Professor Iraj Parsinejad writes that liter ary criticism in its modern, scientific and European sense, leaves out the classical Persian literature. And M.F.Akhund zadeh is the founder of literary criticism in Iran. With his «Queritica» («Criticism») and other critical essays on prose and poetry, he radically departed from the confines of traditional discourse with its preoccupation with rhetorics, and under the influence of European thinkers, and Russian revolutionary critics, replaced the customary pedantic hairsplitting by scientific and objective criteria. It was also M.F.Akhundzadeh who for the first time, under the influence of realistic environment of the period, gave due attention to social contents of literature as a signifi cant subject of literary evaluation. He was the first to artic ulate the idea of the social responsibility of the poet and Ñå÷èëìèø ÿñÿðëÿðè the writer in Iran. In this respect he went as far as to regard literature as a tool of moral regeneration of the people. In his critiques he methodically analysed the contents of the works of the well-known authors of his time, as well as the literary giants of the classical period. For instance, speak ing of unique English poet Shakespeare, M.F.Akhundza deh put him in the rank of the best classic writers who rec onciled poetry with real life.
Akhundzadeh suggested the «excellence of words» as the criterion of poetical evaluation and stressed his realistic ideas on poetry.
His «Principles of writing» is a critique of ornate and wordy prose writing of his time. His theories on theatre, of which he is the founder in the Islamic world, are presented in his «Preface to the book» and «Letter to Mirza Agha Tabrizi». In both he repeatedly emphasizes the educational and pedagogic function of the drama.
Though more than one hundred years have passed since those pioneering essays of M.F.Akhundzadeh were written, they still retain much of their originality and freshness.
In conclusion we’d like to note that Professor Iraj Parsi nejad’s book is not the only one in the States, concerned with the Azerbaijani literature. There are some more books, articles and dissertations dedicated to Azerbaijani literature, language, art, etc. in the USA, of which we are going to speak in our further publications.
Ãÿçÿíôÿð Ïàøàéåâ AN UNDELIVERED LETTER * (Story) ABDULLA SHAIG It was in the height of winter. Cold froze people’s blood and bit as a sword. The sky was covered with heavy black clouds, as if it were in mourning and snow had wrapped the ground in a white shroud.
Some crows were walking on the heaps of snow, looking round fearfully.
A group of people in warm coats were strolling along the streets, some others were driving merrily in the coaches. The severe winter seemed to be an enjoyment for them.
But it was not for Gurban, for the poor unlucky man.
Why do all the miseries and disasters existing in the world fall only to the poor people’s lot?
So Gurban was sitting near Mullah Farzali – his coun tryman who used to sit in one end of Shaitanbazar and write letters for uneducated people.
Gurban looked older than his age. He had a ragged coat on patched in every possible way. Pulling nervously at the collar of his worn pullover he cleaned his old muddy shoes and said;
«Mullah, write a letter for me. You know, I came here from the village less than a year ago, but it’s already the fifth letter I’d like you to write for me. Mind my words, I may be useful to you some day too.»
Mullah Farzali rubbed his frozen hands to grow warm, yawned, put a piece of paper on his knee and said;
* The translater was a third-year student in 1960, when took the first place among competitor students.
Ñå÷èëìèø ÿñÿðëÿðè «Countryman, what do you want me to write?»
Gurban sat closer to the Mullah, leant forward as if telling him a secret and said;
«At first give my best regards to my wife. Let her kiss the children on my behalf and take care of Anakhanim and Mamish.
Then write that with the help of god I am safe and sound. Please, tell her I’ve sent them fifteen roubles with Gulam Riza.
On the eve of the holiday I’ll send them some more money so that the children shouldn’t be in need of food and clothing.
Write, please, that I’m going to see them in the last month of spring.»
Mullah Farzali wanted to begin writing. But as the ink in the inkstand was too thick, he couldn’t start at once. He spat into the inkstand, mixed up the ink in it and then began writing. Shivering with cold Gurban closed his open chest with the collar of his worn out pullover and said, «I’m so unlucky, Mullah. You know, I work at an oil-well. Believe me, our boss is a ruthless exploiter. The well we are digging now, is more than thirty arshins deep. When we say it is hard to work at such a depth, when we say we can hardly breathe there because of the oil and gas, he cuts us short saying we are to work according to the pre vious agreement, otherwise he will not give us any wages.
Mullah, it is awfully difficult to earn money there. But your profession is good. If you write some five or ten letters or applications a day, that will do. What else does one need?»
One arshin = 28 inches Ãÿçÿíôÿð Ïàøàéåâ Mullah Farzali put his pen into the pencil-case, took some dust from the wall, put it on the paper, and then dried it saying, «My profession is not so easy as you think, coun tryman. In winter and spring I sit here waiting for some clients to come. Sometimes nobody comes to my place the whole day and in the evening I go home empty handed.»
Mullah Farzali covered himself with his coat firmly and then read the letter to Gurban.
Gurban seemed to devour every word uttered by the Mullah. He forgot for a while all his sorrows. The letter was such a comfort to him that his face beamed with joy. Deep thoughts came over him and took him to the old days. Then he said, «Please, give my best regards to Gurban Husseyn, too.
Tell him to have an eye on my children while I am away and ask him to write in his letter, how is my nice cow and if he has sold the blind horse or not. Mullah, add that I’ll bring some gayly – coloured shawls to Anakhanim and Mamish.»
Having finished the letter Mullah Farzali put it into an envelope and asked, «Countryman whose name must be written on the envelope?»
Stretching his neck Gurban answered, «My wife’s.»
Mullah Farzali put down the address on the envelope and handed it to Gurban.
Gurban gazed at it fondly, but feeling overjoyed let it fall. The poor wretch picked it up as quickly as he could and cleaning it from mud put it in his bosom. Then he took out his purse and gave ten copecks to the Mullah.
«Here you are, Mullah,» he said «I’m awfully thankful to you. God bless you, Mullah!
On the eve of the holiday I’ll ask you to write another letter and give you some more money.»
Saying these words Gurban pressed the letter to his heart and left for Gulam Rizas’, who was expected to leave for the Ñå÷èëìèø ÿñÿðëÿðè village in two days. He wanted Gulam Riza to deliver the letter to his wife and speak to her.
On his way to Gulam Rizas’ Gurban thought of his friend. «What a lucky one he is! Now earning plenty of money going to see his family…. Indeed he was born under a star. He will see his family, his countrymen the beautiful village. Oh! How nice our village will look in a month! The trees will break into blossom, the fields and the mountains will be covered with green grass. The mountains will look so glorious at sunrise and the dew will drop so big and fresh!
Flocks of spring swallows, starlings and storks will fly back from other countries and make their nests singing sweet songs to the people’s delight. The peasants will begin sowing, the fishermen angling in the rivers and lakes.»
Gurban heaved a sigh. «Oh, poverty, poverty,» he thought.
«You deprive me of all these beauties. You turn me out of my own house, you make me part with my dear children…»
Suddenly he felt that something was wrong with him.
His legs began trembling, his heart sank, and he fell down on the snow… When he opened his eyes, he saw some warmly dressed and happy looking people driving by in rich coaches. Gurban glanced at them with hatred. A deep sigh escaped through his frozen lips. He stood up and looked for the letter. When his fingers touched the letter, he felt a little bitter, pressed it to his heart and continued his way. In some minutes he reached Gulam Rizas’ place. But he didn’t find Gulam Riza at home.
The door was locked. Wandering about the streets Gurban came across his countryman Saftar. He learned from Saftar that Gulam Riza had gone to town. Gurban begged him to tell Gulam Riza he was anxious to see him and ask him deliver a letter and a bundle to his family. «Let him not go without see ing me,» he implored. Then Gurban went home.
Ãÿçÿíôÿð Ïàøàéåâ At down he walked to the well, where he worked togeth er with Safar and Tanriverdy.
He came down a rope into the well and began working at its bottom.
Some minutes later he heard the voice of their boss.
«Beasts, scoundrels, I know you but too well. It’s a rule with you not to grumble when you find the well to be shal low, but when it’s deep at bottom you deliver one ultimatum after another and keep on saying, «The well is so deep, it’s devilishly hard to work in it. Death faces us at every step, and so on and so on.» Every day you bore me with some more complaints. You are shameless brutes. I know you need nothing, but flogging, yes, just flogging.»
Tanriverdy and Safar pulled up a pail full of soil and left the pail in again.
Tanriverdy couldn’t help speaking. He looked at the boss and said falteringly, «Master, you know, your words have always been a rule for us. But now death is at our heels»
Be merciful, for god’s sake … Safar cut him short. Pointing to the lines of derricks stretching around he said, «Look at these surroundings, if you dig the ground here, you’ll find the workers’ bones under each layer and inch of it. You will hear the wails of the dead workers. But there, in those luxurious houses you can see only …..
Hadji Guly the owner of the well got furious and shouted:
– So that’s it! I don’t care a fig if there’s death or any other rubbish at your heels!
You’re to work instead all that money I give to you.» He went on talking, his brain burning with anger.
Suddenly Tanriverdy caught sight of the rope swingling from right to left, and cried:
Ñå÷èëìèø ÿñÿðëÿðè – «Safar, Safar! Gurban is calling for help.»
Both of them ran up to the edge of the well. All of a sud den they heard an explosion of gas in the bottom of the well and withdrew in horror groaning, «Poor Gurban, you’ve passed away too. May god forgive us.»
As if hearing nothing, Hadji Guly approached the well, lay down on the edge and looked into it. When he saw oil fill up the well his resentment was gone at once. His face bright ened up and he cried joyfully:
– «Oil, oil!»
«Hadji, will Gurban’s body remain in the well?»
Tanriverdy asked coldly.
These words seemed to awake Hadji from a deep dream.
His eyes opened wide and he took fifty roubles out of his purse and said, «One, who pulls his body out of the well, will get these fifty roubles.»
Tanriverdy approached the well. Seeing the rising oil he whispered, «Poor Gurban, you’ve dug your grave with your own hands.»
Hadji Guly gave the money to the workers and warned them, «Divide the money between yourselves, but don’t say a word about the event anywhere.»
«Hadji, but what about his clothes?» they asked.
«Bury them somewhere, here» was the answer.
As Tanriverdy and Safar took Gurban’s clothes, a letter fell on the ground.
On the envelope was written:
– «This letter is for Gurban’s wife.»
The two men felt heavy at heart as they read these words.
They stood motionless for a long time looking at that undelivered letter.
Ãÿçÿíôÿð Ïàøàéåâ HISTORY OF AZERBAIJANI LITERATURE FROM THE THIRTEEN TO EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES* (Volume III) Summary The 3rd volume of History of Azerbaijani Literature includes belles-lettres materials of Azerbaijani public-artis tic conception from thirteen to eighteenth centuries. The purpose is to study as a whole evolution dynamics of creat ed literature from the point of historical-chronological style view in the limits of that prolonged time. While working on this volume latest achievements concerning literary criti cism of classic Azerbaijani heritage were widely used, the volume was enriched with some conceptually significant image-bearing literary events. The scientists investigated hundreds of literary and historical documents, initial and original sources, for the first time the investigators dedicat ed essays to a number of scientists, poets and artists whose names were mentioned in the Middle Ages memoirs and jounks (literary works), who took part in literary process of that time.
Certainly, not all the literary patterns of the thirteenth eighteenth centuries literature were analyzed, but special attention was paid to each periods characteristic literary monuments. Part of the thirteenth-eighteenth literature has already been published but part of it remain as manuscripts.
While compiling this volume, printed works, as well manu * See: History of Azerbaijani Literature, volume III, Baku, «Elm», 2009, p. 720–733.
Ñå÷èëìèø ÿñÿðëÿðè scripts or their photo-copies were used. Sufficient place has been allotted to essays devoted to public-historical and liter ary-cultural life. Literary problems of each period being important, leading and each one being the bases of philo sophical ideas of literary schools, ideological trends and ten dencies elucidated in close unity.
*** It must be noted that in the thirteenth-eighteenth cen turies Azerbaijani social-literary conception main, impor tant event was developing of literature in native language, increase of it, being embellished and becoming perfect.
Because of some historical-political reasons for centuries Arabic (during caliphate), then Persian languages dominat ed in Azerbaijan. In official circles and in written literature foreign languages prevailed over mother-tongue. Even dur ing post Turkic ruling dynasties were from this point of views activated, in most cases in palaces and high rank resi dences they used to speak foreign languages, at schools and at religious Moslem schools the lessons were conducted in Arabic or Persian. Till the thirteenth century Azerbaijani poets, different from folklore wrote in Arabic or Persian, in accordance with requirement of that time, some at their own will, the others under compulsion.
Certainly, it does not mean that till the thirteenth centu ry there were not available poems in Azerbaijani. Perfect lit erary monument «Kitabi-Dada Gorgud» existing from ancient times proves that the nation which created such a fundamental epos should have written literature in native language. Masud ibn Namdar, who lived a century before genius Azerbaijani poet Nizami Ganjavi in his Arabic liter Ãÿçÿíôÿð Ïàøàéåâ ary heritage confesses of having poems in Azerbaijani. But the fact is that till the thirteenth century Azerbaijani literary monuments in native language disappeared in the dark ages.
This happened as well through faults of calligraphs of the Middle Ages. The need obliged them to work in the palaces.
But in the palaces as we pointed on in front, strange atmos phere dominated on native people. In the palaces even Turkic rulers awarded the calligraphs for coping Arabic Persian monuments.
From the thirteenth century historical events offered condition for developing literature in native language. At this period of time political and social possibilities as well enabled development of literature of other Turkic peoples.
Even the eleventh-twelfth century fundamental Turkic Arabic vocabulary by Mahmud Kashgari «Divanu lugat-it turk» appeared. This unexampled work includes a vast number of ancient poetic materials and could be useful as initial source for all the Turkic countries. At the same time there appeared «Cutadgu-bilik» (Yusif Balasagunlu), «Ata bati hagaig» (Adib Ahmad Yuknagi), «Divani Hikmat»
(Khoja Ahmad Yasavi) in Turkish. In the thirteenth centu ry this record enlarged. The memory of these centuries were translations into Turkic Nizami’s «Khosrov and Shirin» by Qutbi from Kharazm and Farukh from Turkmenistan (the thirteenth c.) especially from Rum Ashug Pasha’s «Qaribna ma» (the thirteenth a.), «Divan» of Yunis Emra (the thir teenth a.), Ahmadi’s «Iskandarnama» (the fourteenth a.), Gulshahri’s «Falaknama» and «Mantug it-teyr» (the four teenth a), Sheykhi’s translation Nizami’s «Khosrov and Shi rin» into Turkic once again (the fourteenth a), Sheykhoglu’s «Khourshid and Farahshad» (fourteenth c.) etc. are among Ñå÷èëìèø ÿñÿðëÿðè the voluble examples of Turkic language literature express ing turks mentality.
In Azerbaijan as integral part of Turkic world turning also took place. Azerbaijani poets could slowly go out of centuries old Arabic-Persian languages bondage. They be gan writing poems in different forms in native language.
According to historical sources notable Azerbaijani poet Behishti alongside with writing lyric poems, as well wrote bulky epic poem named «Samshah and Alamshah». At the beginning of the century poet M wrote «Gisseyi Yusif»
Latest researches show that poem «Dastani Ahmad Harami» (author is unknown) had been written at the twelfth, beginning of the thirteenth centuries. Also, from the thirteenth century poets of ours Ahmed Faqih’s works in Turkish «Charkhnama» and «Kitabi ovsafi-masajidi shari fa» («Glorifying the honourable mosques») reached our days. Founder of the popular sect «safaviyya», the great grandfather of Khatai, Sheykh Safi (1254–1344 (5) wrote wonderful poems in his native Azerbaijani language.
Izzaddin Hasanoglu, who lived at the end of the thirteenth, beginning of the fourteenth century created nice poem in native language. He takes honourable place in developing mother-tongue poetry. His original work of art (ghazal) popular with hemistich «A pretty moonfaced beauty took my heart» attracted attention of many famous poets and they dedicated imitative ghazals to his above ghazal. Azer baijani poet by name Nasir Bakuwi (1306–13..) also wrote poems in Azerbaijani.
Mother-tongue poetry extended and was able to show its mysterious work of art in Gazi Burhanaddin’s creative Ãÿçÿíôÿð Ïàøàéåâ work. Poet and monarch Gazi Burhanaddin’s ghazals, rubai and tuyugs mixed with folk spoken language played unusu al role in poshing of Azerbaijani poetic language. At that period of time poets like Yusif Maddah, Mustafa Zarir, Abdulgadir Maragai and others created in mother-tongue lyric and epic poetry.
In the fourteenth century Azerbaijani language gained high developing stage thanks to Nasimi’s poetry. The well known poet, not only of his time, but of all the times, poet thinker Nasimi brought a new meaning, a new spirit to Azerbaijani poetry. Thanks to his talent mother-tongue poetry became as transparent as crystal. He learned much from poetical traditions of poetry in Arabic, Persian and Turkic languages. The poetry created till his time became model for him Nasimi mastered the Middle East poetics – aruz, rhyme, nicety and created miraculous works of art in native language.
The fifteenth and sixteenth centuries are considered a new period of social-political-cultural development in Azerbaijani history. Fight for centralized state took impor tant place in the life of the country during this period of time. Azerbaijan was relatively free from foreign occupation during dynasties of Garagoyunlu and Aggoyunlu.
During the dynastic rule of Safavids (especially Shah Ismayil I and his first sons) the country was centralized as a single political state and gained international reputation.
These portentous events in social-political life created new possibilities for further development of science, culture and literature in Azerbaijan, Garagoyunlu, Aggoyunlu and Safavis being real Azerbaijani states, as a result in all the political social life Azerbaijani language’s dominating position wide Ñå÷èëìèø ÿñÿðëÿðè ly reflected upon the literature of that century. Literary lan guage became more improved, more beautiful and the poets writing in native language began their creative work in the palaces. Shah Ismail not only protected the representatives of poets writing on classic style, but also during his power ozan-ashug literature made a developing step. Garagoyunlu ruler Jahan Shah himself was famous poet of his time and created in native language nice lyric verses under pen name «Hagigi».
Shah Ismail’s ghazals dedicated to love, philosophical didactic goshmas, garaylis, varsagiz, bayatis were famous among common people, and his poem «Dahnama» brought him fame among broad masses of population during his own time. That period of time there appeared such talented poets as Kishvari, Habibi, Sururi, Basiri, Mali, Shams, Hagiri, etc., who wrote in native Azerbaijani language.
Sovereign of poetry in Azerbaijani, outstanding poet Mohammad Fizuli was also representative of that period Venerable wise teacher of Azerbaijani classic poetry Fizuli with his art founded a new creative school in the history of the Azerbaijani language and literature. The sixteenth cen tury Azerbaijani literary language reached its highest level namely in Fizuli’s poetry. With his endless power and talent he enriched the literature in native language with new mean ings, ideas, styles and as a result developed literature of Tirkic peoples. With the power of his endless talent he included in Azerbaijani literature new style and topics. His poetry was touching and impressive. From his time till our days hundreds of skilful poets learned of him, more, and continued Fizuli’s tradition. Certainly there were some imi tator poets in later centuries repeating him. But they could Ãÿçÿíôÿð Ïàøàéåâ n’t direct the real great literature. The real representatives of Fizuli school penetrated his art’s miracles and presented it in a new subject.
In the seventeenth century Amani, Fadai, Masihi, Govsi and other poets continued Nasimi and Fizuli’s traditions and created bright samples of art of poetry.
From the eighteenth century mother-tongue literature began to develop in a new course. The structure of poetic language and literary composition faced with more changes.
In literature classical style (Nasimi, Fizuli style) and folk poetry developed side by side and sometimes the second pre vailed the first. Yet in the fifteenth century Khatai applied to folk poetry comprehensively. Classic style and ozan ashug style was Khatai’s double branch and showed itself in one creation. In fact Khatai’s creation was a syntez of ozan ashug art and classic poetry. In the eighteenth century a new folk style poetry began to develop with Vagif’s poetry in Azerbaijani literature. Vagif made use of all the classical styles including folk speech in his poetry. Vagif’s poetical style played an important role in the future development of literary process.
In the thirteenth-eighteenth centuries by writing original work in native language the Azerbaijani poets and writers even translated literary works from Arabic and Persian into Azerbaijani and wrote comments to them. All these influ enced very effectively in developing of Azerbaijani literary language, hi the second half of the thirteenth century Azerbaijani folklorist and writer Iftikharaddin Mohammad translated ancient folklore specimen «Kalila and Dimna» as well «Syndbadnama» into Azerbaijani, which were brought by some Arabic-Persian authors to written literature. In Ñå÷èëìèø ÿñÿðëÿðè 1425 popular philosophical treaties «Gulshani-raz» of Mahmood Shabustari was translated into Azerbaijani by a poet with pen name Shirvani. Also in this century – i.e. (that is to say) in 1454 another Azerbaijani author supplied «Gul shani-raz» with comments in Azerbaijani language. Doing a good turn in Azerbaijani literature Turkish-Azerbaijani philosopher and poet Dada Omar Rovshani (fifteenth c.) translated several parts of Movlana Rumi’s «Masnavi» into Azerbaijani. Hie prominent translator of the fifteenth centu ry Ahmadi’s translation, done in 1478 from Persian poet Faridaddin Attar’s «As-ramama» reached our time. There is an information about Attar’s another work «Pand-nama»
(«Admonition») translated into Azerbaijani in the sixteenth century. Fizuli translated Aminrahman Jami’s «Hadisi arbain» (fourty legends) and Huseyn Vaiz’ «Rovzatush shuhada» («Martyrs garden»), as well «Hadigatus-suada»
(«Lucky ones’ garden») with free prose. The art of transla tion during the seventeenth-eighteenth centuries for Azerbaijani literature became durable and important method of belles-lettres.
Thus in the seventeenth-eighteenth centuries public and literary conception, translation as original work of art in native language and development of literary translation attracted attention. But also in the thirteenth-fourteenth centuries there were some famous Azerbaijani poets that wrote poems in Arabic-Persian adherent to former transla tions. In the thirteenth century Zulfigar Shirvani, Humam Tabrizi, Sheykh Mahmud Shabustari, Nasiraddin Tusi, in the fourteenth century Awhadi Maragai, Assar Tabrizi, Arif Ardabili, Shams Magribi-Tabrizi, in the fifteenth century Shah Gasim Anvar, Badr Shirvani, Ashraf Maragai, in the Ãÿçÿíôÿð Ïàøàéåâ seventeenth century Saib Tabrizi, Mir Agil Kovsari and other Azerbaijani poets, literary men, philosophers created in Persian Nasimi and Fizulu also have works in Persian and Arabic.
In the thirteenth-eighteen centuries Azerbaijani litera ture developed from the side of genre, subject and manner of expression. Azerbaijani poets tried to test pen in classical Eastern poetry field, created beautiful works both in lyrical and epical poems: ghazal, ghasida, rubai, tuyug, gita, muk hammas, mulamma, masnavi, etc. were getting improved and covered a wide range of literary ideas. Prose took a cer tain place in literature. Nasiraddin Tusi’s «Akhlagi Nasiri»
(«Nasir’s book about moral») and Hindushah Nakhchiva ni’s «Sihahul-ajarn» («The correct vocabulary of Persian language»), Fizuli’s «Dibacha» – mugaddirnas, some of his letters to historical persons, especially his letter to Nishan chi Pasha, called «Shikayatnama» («Complaint»), «Sahhat va Maraz» («Health and Illness»), «Rind u Zahid» etc.
works and «Epos of Shahriyar» of an unknown author are remarkable.
Traditional nazira – imitative literary work –was the main characteristic feature of classic Eastern poetry. In the history of pictorial and public opinion centuries old tradi tional mizan was a kind of poetic method in the develop ment of taste, as well was decisive factor in the work of moral wealth passing from fathers to sons. It was not only Azerbaijani or Eastern objective law of poetry, it was as well specific for all the peoples literature from ancient times up to Middle Ages.
In the thirteenth-eighteenth centuries the representatives of Nizami Ganjavi literary school took to pen Nizami’s Ñå÷èëìèø ÿñÿðëÿðè «Khamsa» and his other works reflecting Azerbaijan: epic poems. Nizami’s epic traditions in Azerbaijani literature became popular in two ways. Some authors, like Ashraf Maragai (fifteenth c.) couldn’t come off from Nizami’s influence generally and they followed «Khamsa»’s plot. Arif Ardabili in his «Farhadnama» (fourteenth a), Hagiri in his «Leyli and Majnun» (fifteenth c.) took as model Nizami’s analogical works and created real original patterns with plot line. Literary comparative research principles make it possi ble to carry out such common characters, topics, as well aes thetic thought specificities and assume importance of the works from «Khamsa» succession in the thirteenth-eigh teenth centuries Azerbaijan: literary process. This period was very interesting as traditional succession with Awhadi and Khatai, with his «Dahnama», Ali, Suli Fagih, Mustafa Zarir, Khatai Tabrizi with their «Yusif and Zuleykha»
poems, Fadai’s «Bakhtiyarnama» on the range of «Synd badnama» and «Tutinama». Yusif Maddah and Masihi’s «Varga and Gulsha» poems are interesting.
We must point out as a remarkable event in Azerbaijani epic poetry Assar Tabrizi’s «Mehr and Mushtari» in the fourteenth century. Assar’s work with new problems and subjects was very important for developing of literary thought. The poets of that period tried their pens on half historical heroic epos, philosophical-didactic treaties alle gorical satires and allegorical-philosophical stories and nov els, love narratives, etc. Ahmadi Tabrizi’s «Chingiznama»
(thirteenth a), Ashraf Maragai’s «Zafarnama» («The book of victory») and «Haft awrang» («Seven power») (four teenth a), Saib Tabrizi’s «Gandaharnama» (sixteenth-seven teenth a), Sadiqbek Sadigi’s «Fathnameyi-Abbasi-namidar»
Ãÿçÿíôÿð Ïàøàéåâ («Abbas’ victories») (sixteenth-seventeenth a), half-histori cal eposes of Humam Tabrizi’s «Sohbatnama», Awhadi’s «Jami-Jam», Khalili’s «Faragnama» and other philosophi cal works were created in lyrical-epic form. In this duration as in the eleventh-twelfth centuries Azerbaijani poets served to moral ethics treatment of tic society. Problem of perfect man was in the centre of literary conception and the theme of hundreds of works of art became mystic philosophy which gave wide creative impute to poets.
Researches, fact and sources note that mysticism spread widely in Azerbaijan public mentality and played important role in the thirteenth-sixteenth centuries. In the twelfth century philosophical irfan (cognition of God in imagination) poetry, whid: found comprehensive affirma tion in Khagani and Nizami’s works of art passionate poetry of mysticism ideas lived in unity with poetry in the thirteenth-sixteenth centuries. In the thirteenth-fifteenth centuries Mahmud Shabustari and Shams (Shamsaddin) Tabrizi, famous poets acted as ideologists of mysticism and wrote well-known works in all Islamic East on mysti cist principal thesis. Both philosopher and great poet Shah Gasim Anvar’s creation (1356–1433) was fully adjusted on mysticist ideas. The thinker accepts all the events of Universe as the Creator’s manifest. The way from God to creature or the way to God was called the unity of the Lover’s way to loving. He was exponent of «vahdati vujud»
philosophy, the famous juz-kull and «baga bad al-fana»
(everlasting life after death) thesises showed «juzi’s»
launching into entemity considering living indirectly in God. As most mystic poets he considered the love as a sin gle part that joined the Human and God.
Ñå÷èëìèø ÿñÿðëÿðè This idea found its reflection in the thirteenth-sixteenth centuries lyric and epic poetic models and developed as God-Universe or smb. is taking energy from God, from here in mystic literature the love oppose the whole prominent representatives of notion philosophy preferred the love and considered it the reality in the world around.
The praising of love played a leading role in the litera ture in the thirteenth-seventeenth centuries. Some poets wrote in the content of joining to a single – God. One can meet such works in Azerbaijani literary heritage of the poets: Zulfigar Shirvani, Humam Tabrizi, Awhadi Maragai, Shams Magribi, Nasimi, Khatai, Fizuli, Govsi Tabrizi, Saib Tabrizi etc. (the thirteenth-seventeenth centuries). But there were a few works that did not correspond to mystic way in the presentation of love and beauty rubaies, ghazals, mu khammas, musaddas etc. works we meet the love and beau ty without symbolical and mystic expression. Beauty and love contents of the time were distinguished with its double levels. It happened, guiding by beauty and love, training Azerbaijani poets showed their own human ideals about aesthetic categories. So, all the things in the world is the mighty Gods wonder, beauty is reflected in reality, as a result it was known that God also loves beauty and love some good irfani philosophers imagine divine beauty and Platonic love as unity of human beauty and love. They explained them as regulating each other and considered the human love reaching the divine love.
Thus, the presentation of human beauty with motley pigments, played great role in the past centuries in the liter ature of that period and it became figurative style for the masters of pen.
Ãÿçÿíôÿð Ïàøàéåâ Praising the beauty of human being (let this beauty even be
and nomand) was dedicated to the imagi nation of «I» lyrical hero’s critical situation like ghazals, musaddases, rubais, terkibbands, terjibands are countable in the thirteenth-eighteenth centuries Azerbaijani divan literature.
Worldly love and its motley appearance and the prob lem of its presentation in many big epic works are not rare, here we often watch the joint of worldly and metaphorical love.
The pluse of time beat harmoniously with the events of real life, as well with the wishes, happiness, griefs, regrets of real people. The men of pen if they wanted or not – allotted to the decision of problems of real life. Yet in the eleventh thirteenth centuries the approaching process of sufies (mys ticists) to akhu-ukhuvet unity was noticed. In the next cen turies this unity became more intensive. The sufi ideology spread among the professional people enabled akhus beco me closely linked with them and its ideology became rich.
Especially in the twelfth-fourteenth centuries it attracted attention with its Azerbaijani tasawuf literature. The popular poets of the time Zulfigar Shirvani, Humam Tabrizi, Nasiraddin Tusi, Awhadi Maragai, Assar Tabrizi’s mystic ideas showed phi losophy of life and activities of akhiizm with futuwat and generousness training in one unity. The human ideas organ ized the motivation force of literature and each one of them reflected in new content and topic, even to force and cruel, justice and public equality, moral wisdom and praising of real, ideal love were the main points of thirteenth-eighteenth centuries Azerbaijani literature. Our poets were against of Ñå÷èëìèø ÿñÿðëÿðè all slander, harm and disformity and protected the beauty and heroism, propagandized the human feelings. They couldn’t be indifferent to life’s conflict, to revenge in the re sult of vein rubs, to moral poverty, orphan’s grief. The pub lic criticism was also leading in the thirteenth-eighteenth centuries literature. The public moral wounds, deeply root ed, in the society were criticized in the poetry of Awhadi, Assar and Masihi. Fizuli’s satirical works and his ideal «Leyli and Majnun» were the graphic description of rebel against the life which incompatible to divine laws. The crit icism of life condition in the sixteenth-seventeenth centuries reflected vividly in Sadigi’s creative works and Govsi’s ly rics. But it was the bases of Fadai’s «Bakhtiyarnama».
Certainly Middle Ages criticism against existing public and moral libel was not characterized as social fight. In that time it was impossible. During this period of time like previous centuries maturity conception preferred against libel and this idea found its expression in tasawuf contest. The idea by cleaning greediness of human being could get divine oppor tunity. This idea was very strong here. Especially later in mystic poetry.
*** Exposing to Mongol conquest in the thirteenth century Azerbaijan faced a new disaster as many of the Near East countries in the second half of the fourteenth century. In 1370 holding the power Teymur, made Samargand his cap ital, began to military marches. He occupied Kharazm, then attacked Iran, the Caucasus and soon many cities of Azer baijan were under Teymur’s power. We don’t want to dwell specially on Teymur’s and his children’s social-political Ãÿçÿíôÿð Ïàøàéåâ activities in the East. There have been written much about Teymuries’ and especially Teymur’s being hot-tempered and sometimes his unbelievable cruelties as a result of his beco ming hot-tempered. There are also articles about Teymur and his children – Shahrukh, Ulugbay, who peacefully con structed buildings and their buildings are of rare memorial monuments in Islam countries (Heart, Samargand, Tabriz, Shiraz). There are writings on Teymur’s great sympathy to art and craftsmen, religious men, scientists etc.
According to historical sources Shahrukh was truth loving, peace-loving, brave and wise, during military attacks he didn’t let to plundering talents and destroying, if it took place he tried to pay domages. Ulugbay, was a great scientist – mathematician, astronomer of his time, during his power, Samargand lived its rich life. Being opposite to each other, all of these articles about Teymur and his chil dren we have to admit that tyranny, disorder really hap pened at the early stages in every country. The situation was so here in early days of Teymur in Azerbaijan as well.
The stability was disordered social-political life of the country. The cities were in crisis, endless executions enveloped the city. The people faulted Teymur for all of these and tried to show political resist to him. In Tabriz, Maraga, Gandja, Garabagh popular uprisings began. The situation was the same in many countries of Near East.
Certainly the poets, publicians of these countries and Azerbaijani masters couldn’t stay aside of it. In this social political condition there revealed the style hurufi-philo sophical – irfani literary trend and became famous in some Islamic countries. The leader, theorist and first patriot was prominent Azerbaijani scientist, thinker and poet Sheykh Ñå÷èëìèø ÿñÿðëÿðè Fazlullah Naimi (1339–1394), being the great, talented per son remained in the Near East philosophical thought histo ry with «Cavidannama», «Novnama», «Mahabbatnama», «Arshnama» illuminating hurufi ideas. He accepted Martyrdom for faith like his famous precursors Eynal guzat Miyanachi and Shihabaddin Suhravardi.
Hurufi being panteist thought trend, served to supreme humanist purposes, made holy the humanity and gave back human’s depressed rights, and punishment actions, prosecu tion of hurufi organizer’s and leader’s executions and other punishments were connected with their purpose. Teymuries took drastic measures against them.
As in tasawuf also the human factor was on the first place in hurufi. Hurufies also considered that in order to cognize the Universe it is important that human being per ceive himself. If a man perceive himself, then he can get to God – this organized the foundation of tasawuf learning.
But in hurufi this thesis was presented with the help of let ters combination.
Adopting divine love philosophy in Sufi, they preferred mental ability and showed special care in the selecting men tal evolution for understanding God. According to their theory the man is a book, God’s book. Perfect man is God’s vicegerent position on the Earth.
The worship of hurufi representatives to Fazlullah was from this point of view as hurufi’s light, and his humanist essence attracted attention of many scientists and poets, hi the fourteenth century Seyid Ishag, Ah al-Ala, Tufeyli, Suru ri and other poets followed Naimi’s sect, began to pro pagandize hurufi ideas. Hurufi influence is seen in Khatai’s creative work. But hurufism found immorality in Nasimi’s Ãÿçÿíôÿð Ïàøàéåâ creative work. Nasimi was a prominent agitator of this opin ion. In his creation he preferred its essence to naked letter theory. Nasimi directed hurufism to high moral quality and prepared the training about creative man’s opinion to the life. Man–God conception of Hurufi illuminated with mira cle of Nasimi creation. The renovation of public social-po litical atmosphere in the beginning of sixteenth century, re sulted to certain ideological changes of the time. It is known that the creator of Azerbaijani Safavi state – Shah Ismail was also the leader of Gizilbashli movement and directed all his activity to spreading of it among the people in the country.
Gizilbashlig propagandized shiitism and political ideas of Safavi were carried out under the screen of this religious ide ology. Tasawuf with its understanding the world, as a cur rent, still retained its position in that time. Facing with strong persecution at the beginning of the fifteenth century hurufis could fight openly for their purposes and aims. But one can observe that in the sixteenth century tasawuf and hurufism were widely used in the dialect of Gizilbash shias and this was distinct and strong in the literature of that time.
Tasawuf ideas «vahdati vujud» attributes the hurufi training. Hurufi ideology continued with its shade of mean ing in the seventeenth century poetry as tradition. But in the eighteenth century these religious-philosophical currents were not so much seen in fiction. Such works ready met, but they were mainly the memory of centuries as ready form composition and expression. A new love and love worship were leading subjects in poetry. It happened that the poets began thinking about creative, material and spiritual life, substance and put forward their philosophical ideas and looked for answers to them.
Ñå÷èëìèø ÿñÿðëÿðè But namely difference on meditation was felt. The mys tic scope at the philosophical views of the poets of the eigh teenth century relatively weakened, desire for materiality of the world became stronger. Generally the whole seven teenth-eighteenth centuries Azerbaijani literature in com parison with previous centuries distinguished by a big vari ety from method and style side. The poetry of that period was popular with such mighty poets as Saib Tabrizi, Govsi, Amani, Fadai, Masihi, Vidadi, Vagif.
The literary process had been enriched in different kinds of form and genre, hi the literature of that time there were some models written on the bases of tales and eposes, as well in classical traditions.
In the seventeenth-eighteenth centuries there took place inclination to realistic style, the poets dedicating poems to historical events and personalities were especially remark able. In all the Moslem countries, as well as in Azerbaijan, public-literary process romantical description of life was leading in the Middle Ages.
The facts confirm that till eighteenth century Azerbai jani poetry distinguished from romantic literature of world with its romantical diversity. Till the eighteenth century Azerbaijani poetry developed in the limits of high principled aesthetic laws. In the attitude to nature, socie ty, human being, the Universe romantic approach pre vailed. The poets approached the problem in their works on historical subjects from this conception. During the Middle Ages there were a few works on realistic style in the Near East literary process, but these patterns didn’t demonstrate value as works of art and disappeared in the pages of history.
Ãÿçÿíôÿð Ïàøàéåâ In the seventeenth century the public man, scientist and poet Sadig bek Afshar (Sadigi) wrote «Fathnameyi-Abbasi namidar» («Abbas’ victories»), dedicated to important political events of his time. Also in the eighteenth century there appeared Amani’s some stories on realistic style: «The old woman whose camel died», «Tiryaki», etc.
In the eighteenth century historical poems taken to pen by Vidadi «Musibat-nama», a wide range of mukhammases by poet Nabi, dedicated to Sheki khan Haji Chalabi, Shakir’s «Ahvali Shirvan», etc. were very fascinating com paring whistorical documents, even the sameness of facts were observed among them. The difference was only in lit erary emotion part. It is true that in the previous centuries some of Azerbaijani poets, such as Gatran Tabrizi, Falaki Shirvani, Mujiraddin Beylagani, Khagani, Humam Tabrizi, etc. in their ghasidas showed their attitude to the historical events, they associated with.
Of course, it was even manifested as details of Middle Ages romantic poetry. Nizami’s touching actual problems of his time’s lyrical literary problems not true? Besides, Fizuli made subject many events of his time. But it is a fact that he answered day’s pulse indirectly by romantic poetry, hi the seventeenth-eighteenth centuries realistic poetical works, especially historical poems in accordance with the eighteenth century conception described events of life vividly. In these poems the poets took to pen historical events of hard days, echo of public political events, descri bed them with lyrical-epic colours. In the eighteenth centu ry, during khanligs rule in different parts of Azerbaijan, such as Sheki, Shirvan, Guba, etc. the poets described war stages, fight for power, battles tactics, people’s facing plun Ñå÷èëìèø ÿñÿðëÿðè der, starvation and other miserable condition in realistic style. Such view to life events seemed novelty in comparison with the Near and Middle East poetry before the eighteenth century. This novelty fact – inclination to realistic thinking in the eighteenth century literature was distinctly followed, especially in Vagif’s creative work. Vagif was the first poet who opened the way to realistic literature. It was a step to the way of evolution and developed in the nineteenth cen tury. He substituted the inaccessible ideal growing in the wide open space to actual life, taking place in classic litera ture. By this a turning to practical way happened in literary life moral.
Certainly, in the eighteenth century poetry as well as in Vagif’s poetry the description of life did not mean full real ization, to pass to true realism, a little distance of time was required. The century realism was still spontaneous. And many shades of meaning in particular to true realism did not find its reflection in Vagif’s poetry. In his works on beauty, he praised only the noble women, their outward appearance, dresses, adornments. It is impossible to see in Vagif’s works peculiar to true realistic poets, character’s contrasting world – description of his excitements, delight, regrets, clashes of characters, revealing characters’ psycho logical world. From this point of view the romantic repre sentatives of classic time Nizami, Assar, and Fizuli’s poet ry m comparison with Vagif’s realistic poetry gives rich material. Not taking into account Vagif’s latest works:
ghazal «Bakh» («Look at») and mukhammas «Gormadim»
(«I didn’t see anything good in this world») one can say no social content patterns are available in his works. Social view on life and analyzing are main and characteristic fea Ãÿçÿíôÿð Ïàøàéåâ tures of realistic literature. Nevertheless of all these limited aspects, conditionally called by us «Vagif’s realism» – was very important. In the nineteenth century realism main tained its affirmation as a literary method in Zakir’s cre ative work. In Zakir’s satiric poetry realism appeared as elements. But great representative of famous realistic liter ary trend, named «critical realism» in all the Near East was Mirza Fatali Akhundzade.
*** We emphasized the realistic descriptions, being impor tant for the eighteenth century literary process. It may seem strange, but it is a fact that Azerbaijani poets strongly inter fered folklore – epos activity. Comparing with the previous centuries we see that folklore became very important in the seventeenth-eighteenth centuries Azerbaijani literature. To tell the truth, it is necessary to speak not about influence of folklore at that time, but about folklore’s «conquest» the written literature. There were many authors that preferred the topics from folklore stories and love-heroic eposes than the traditional classic topics «Hekayati-Sagga» (the seven teenth c.) by an unknown author, Mahjaur’s poem «Gisseyi Shirzad» (the eighteenth c.) on the motives of «One thou sand and one nights», Hamidi’s «Seyklmouluk» (the eigh teenth c.), etc. are of this kind. Azerbaijani literary science continuously developed. Theoretical problems, poet’s tech nique, etc. were the problems of the day.
The prominent linguist, literary theorist and talented poet Izzaddin Zanjani (1190–1258) was known as well the author of «Meyar-ul-nigar fi ulum-ul-ashar» («Criteria of poetical theory»). Nasiraddin Tusi (the thirteenth c.) dedi Ñå÷èëìèø ÿñÿðëÿðè cated whole chapter of «Asasul igtibas» («The foundation of adoption») to poetic problems, aesthetic laws of word, he also touched theoretical conception of poetry and argued about forthcoming problems of poetical science.
Sharafaddin Rami (fourteenth c.) in his «Anisul-ushshag»
(«Lovers friend»), famous poetry theorist of the Near East Rashidaddin Vatvat in his «Hadaigus-sehr fi hadaigush sheir» («Poem of gardens and the poem of nicety») and in «Hadigatul-hadaig» («The truth of gardens») and in other works they advanced scientific ideas about development of laws of poetry, image-bearing expression and metaphors in poetry, etc. in the East including Azerbaijan.
In this period rhythm, rhyme problems of poetry attract ed attention of poetical science and from this point a num ber of theoretical works were written in the thirteenth-eigh teenth centuries. Scientist, famous musician and author of wonderful poems Sadaddin Urmavi (thirteenth c.) also wrote a book, called «Kitab fi umumul-aruz val gavafi val badi» («A book on aruz, rhyme and literary science»). It is a remarkable scientific-theoretical work on poetry. Accor ding to sources Nasiraddin Tusi also had a book on theoret ical problems of poetry, named «Meyarul-ashar» («The measure of poems»). Assar Tabrizi also had treaties, in accordance with the sources, which was called «Al-vafi fi tedadul gavafi» («The comprehensive book about quantify of rhyme»). The prominent Azerbaijani theorist Vahid Tabrizi’s (fifteenth c.) popular «Jami-mukhtasar» («Short collection») was a textbook on aruz, rhyme and poetical fig ures, considered thorough resource of learning verse tech nique. The scientist’s «Muftahul-badaye» («Key of aristry») was also a treatise about theoretical problems of poetry.
Ãÿçÿíôÿð Ïàøàéåâ Ahdi Baghdadi, Sam Mirza, Sadig bek Sadigi and other Azerbaijani memorist-literary critics, who lived in the six teenth-seventeenth centuries wrote first important works about literary process of the time. Ahdi Baghdadi’s «Gulshan ush-shuara» («Poets’ garden»), Sam Mirza’s «Tohfeyi Sami» («Sami’s gift»), Sadigi’s «Majmaul-khavas»
(«Assembly of Selected»), and many other Azerbaijani poets, thinkers and scientists’ works are rich with informa tion. We get the first reliable information about Azerbaijani poet and thinker Mohammad Fizuli from Ahdi Baghdadi and Sadigi’s memoirs. These memoirs within the range of possibility dealt with poetical technique, style aspect, etc.
and put forward an idea on art about aesthetics.
In the thirteenth-seventeenth centuries the theoretical problems of literature was also in the focus of attention of poets as in previous centuries, they also spoke in their poet ic works about aesthetic principles. From this point of view Fizuli’s activities has a special position. Fizuli’s view on form and meaning, knowledge, figurativeness, artistry, duties of poetry in life, harmony of poetry, creative imagi nation, kinds of lyrics, especially on ghazal played an important role in development of Azerbaijani theoretical lit erary thought in the Middle Ages.
Cultural and literary relations among peoples, especially historically and socially close peoples were always impor tant. In all evolutionary stages of Azerbaijani literature, these relations are undeniable. Being the result of some his torical events it is impossible to study as a whole Azer baijani poetry isolated from the Near East environment.
In the Middle Ages Azerbaijani, Persian, Turkish, Uzbek, Tajic, Uigur, in some sense of meaning the Indian literatures were derivate from close origin. But the represen Ñå÷èëìèø ÿñÿðëÿðè tatives of each people – the patriotic poets worked specifi cally on the materials from mutual sources, connected char acteristic features with their own countries and peoples’ life, nature, particular features and tried to create original liter ary works in accordance with demand of their time. As in previous centuries in the thirteenth-eighteenth centuries as well Azerbaijani literature developed on mutual relations with the literatures of the Near and Middle East peoples. In that time the Azerbaijani poets from the one hand benefited from the native and neighbouring peoples’ literary heritage and from the other hand they created worthy works and influenced their literature. In these centuries the relations expanded due to travels, correspondence, especially thanks to imitative poems. Tatar poet Seyfi Sarayi (fourteenth c.), Turkish poet Ahmad Dai (fifteenth c.) wrote imitation to Hasanoglu’s ghazal. Leaving Shiraz old Sadi (thirteenth c.) hurried to Humam’s meeting in Tabriz. Humam wrote his masnavi poem «Hadiya» under the influence of Sanai’s masnavi «Hadiga» («Garden»).
In the Middle Ages Tabriz became one of the scientific and cultural centres of the Near East and attracted atten tion of many scientists and poets. The sources inform that many popular scientists and masters of pen came to Tabriz, lived and created there. In the fourteenth century prominent scientist and poet Kamal Khojandi from Central Asia chose Tabriz as his second motherland, spent there much of his time on creative activities, learned from Azerbaijani literary school, and himself influenced on Azerbaijani poets.
Saib Tabrizi’s reputation spread through Iran, Turkey, Hindistan, Afghanistan, became a model for many poets of these countries.
Ãÿçÿíôÿð Ïàøàéåâ In the thirteenth-eighteenth centuries literary relations became stronger and richer among the peoples of one ori gin – turks by birth. It became more intensive thanks to creative work and activities of the Uzbek poet, thinker and public figure Alishir Navai. The famous poets of the Near East, as well as Navai, who benefited by Nizami Ganjavi’s literary-philosophical heritage, was the founder of a new creative school and for centuries many representatives of other peoples, including Azerbaijani poets learned tradi tions of that school.
In the fifteenth century part of Azerbaijani poets moved to Heart and gained reputation in Navai literary meetings.
They became participants of Navai’s «Majalis un-nafais»
(«Gracefuls’ meeting»). In his «Tohfeyi-Sami» («Sami’s gift») memoirs Sam Mirza talked about some of them:
Khulgi, Ziyai, Allahi, and other poets among them. The prominent mystic poet of the fifteenth century Gasim Anvar continued part of his public-literary activities in Heart. Sources inform about relations among Susani, Paripeykar, Habibi, Kishvari and other Azerbaijani poets and Navai poetry.
Factual materials give an information about Fizuli and Uzbek literary relations. Benefiting of Navai traditions Fizuli himself influenced on literature of some Turkic peo ples, including Uzbek literature. In the Middle Ages, espe cially in the fifteenth-sixteenth centuries Hamidi, Hashimi, Shahi, Khalili, Khalifa, Khazani and other well-known Azerbaijani poets moved to Turkey, because of some his torical-political reasons and continued their activities there. Spreading Azerbaijani poetical traditions in Turkey, they usefully affected the development of Turkish litera Ñå÷èëìèø ÿñÿðëÿðè ture. At the same time the poet, philosopher and translator Dada Omar Rovshani (fifteenth e.) from Aydin – Turkey, moved to Azerbaijan and worked there. It is interesting to know that in the fifteenth-eighteenth centuries Turkish lit erary representatives Khayali, Bagi, Natl, Nadim consid ered Fizuli as their venerable teacher.
The history of Baghdad-Azerbaijani relations is too ancient. Historical sources inform that in the eighth-nineth centuries some Azerbaijani tribes moved to Baghdad and settled in the surrounding provinces. In the thirteenth centu ry Hulaku put an end to the Abbasis’ caliphate and consol idate Baghdad and nearby regions to Azerbaijan. This strengthened Baghdad-Azerbaijani relations.
Later, in the fourteenth century during Jalairies, in the fifteenth century during Aggoyunlu power Baghdad was considered as a part of Azerbaijan and thousands of Azerbaijanis lived there. Especially after Safavis’ conquest of Baghdad, Najaf and Karbala, the holy cities of shias in 1508 Azerbaijanis’ arrival in these sacred centres began to grow and certainly this public-political situation influ enced affirmatively on Iragi (Baghdad)-Azerbaijani liter ary relations.
Dozens of Azerbaijani prominent poets created new works in Baghdad and it caused strengthening of Baghdad and Azerbaijani literary relations. Azerbaijani by birth Ahdi, author of one of the famous primary source memoirs «Gulshanush shuara», who gave reliable information about the Middle Ages Azerbaijani literature and its creators, was representative of Baghdad literary school. In the fifteenth sixteenth centuries Shamsi Baghdadi, Zayeyi Baghdadi, Elmi Baghdadi, Fazli, Huseyni, Valehi, Karami, Nasir Ãÿçÿíôÿð Ïàøàéåâ Shirvani, Khurrami, Zehni Baghdadi and other Azerbaijani poets achieved perfection in Baghdad and created nice, lyri cal poems in Azerbaijani.
Great Azerbaijani poet and thinker Mohammad Fizuli was born in a province near Baghdad, lived there till the end of his life. By his literary works he enriched not only Azerbaijani literature, even he enriched all the Near East public-literary idea with his literary miracles.
In the thirteenth-eighteenth centuries literary relations among Azerbaijani and the other Caucasian peoples were very intensive, hi the twelfth century Nizami’s influence on Georgian poet Shota Rustaveli’s creative work was seen.
Even beginning from the thirteenth century a number of Georgian poets wrote on Nizami’s themes. Nasimi’s, Khatai’s, Fizuli’s poems were famous among the Caucasian peoples, e.i. fiction and poetry lovers and influenced on popular poets’ creative works. Especially, in the sixteenth eighteenth centuries Azerbaijani ashug poetry influenced greatly on Caucasian peoples’ literature. In that time some of Georgian poets benefited by Azerbaijani ashug poetry forms and shapes like garayli, tajnis, goshma, bayati.
The facts show that there were a lot of admires of Azerbaijani literature among the peoples of Daghestan. In the eighteenth century the poets of Daghestan Kochkhyur lu Said, later Yetim Emin and other ashugs created poems in the spirit of Vagif’s poems and Azerbaijani folklore poetry.
Thus, the thirteenth-eighteenth centuries there were firm literary relations among the peoples of the Near and Middle East and Azerbaijan from the point of theme, skill, style, composition and literary form. It is natural that as in vol Ñå÷èëìèø ÿñÿðëÿðè ume II of the «History of Azerbaijani Literature» in volume III as well the essays and portraits on the problems of liter ary relations are vividly analyzed.
Centuries of public-artistic opinion of Azerbaijani peo ple is an immence treasure.
Presented to the readers, this volume – dedicated to the Middle Ages Azerbaijani literature is full of rich and mot ley content and merits and covers a period of six hundred years.
The aim of our research is to consider in chronological succession the ways of its development and stages and bring to light philosophical-poetic essence of the literary events of that period.
Ãÿçÿíôÿð Ïàøàéåâ AZERBAIJANI LITERATURE IN THE TRANSITION PERIOD TOWARDS GLOBALIZATION* (Volume IV) Summary «I saw the world in darkness while opening my eyes …»
These words of Mirza Jalil may be devoted to the for tune of all peoples and ages, but not only to the individual.
Darkness is not the absence of light or physical invisibility, but also moral and psychological. In the public meaning darkness means social-moral slavery, intellectual darkness, no understanding of human rights by a group of people, destruction of vote of the members awaking up one by one.
Mankind is obliged to be on a long road to get out of the feudal darkness Mirza Jalil referred to.
It is not a secret that the awakening of different people, from the feudal darkness depended on the level of the pub lic development and coincides with different periods. For many, including Azerbaijan, change took place in the 19th century. Strong desire proved itself in the direction of fun damental change in literature as all fields of the public and cultural life after joining north Azerbaijan with the Russia Empire as a result of its expansion in the first half of the 19th century. The formation process of new literature does not pass painlessly. Sharp contrasts between the literal styles and tendency appeared. It was natural. The first steps of the new were in the background of struggle with the old on the place and position in fact. Such struggle was gradually beco ming stronger and as a result finished by the victory of the new. Clarity of the composite struggle as the continuous * The book is in print – red.
Ñå÷èëìèø ÿñÿðëÿðè process, making visual of its progress of the 19th century is possible to see the preference to the investigation chronically.
Two stages can be discerned in the literature of 19th cen tury Azerbaijan by examining the literary language, style, genre typology and literary type, way of progress, ideologi cal and aesthetic direction and characters and content: liter ature in the first half of the century and literature in the sec ond half of the century.
Valuable works were written and important achievements were gained in the first half of the 19th century in both fields of the national literature and folklore developed and tra ditions of the folklore poem and centuries-old classic Azer baijani, Near Middle and Eastern poetry for ages continued.
Romantic poetry established on the basis of the classic literary traditions consists of the essential part of the Azer baijan literature in the first half of the century. Abbasgulu aga Bakikhanov, Mirza Shafi Vazeh, Gasim bey Zakir, Se yid Abdulgasim Nabati, Mustafa aga Arif, Kazim aga Sa lik, Zikri Ardabilli, Heyran khanim, obtaining perfect east ern education for the level and opportunities of the active enlightenment, being familiar with the heritage of Firdovsi, Khagani, Nizami, Sadi, Hafiz, Rumi, Nasimi, Fuzuli and other representatives of the classic literature of Middle and Near East, turning to the famous word masters of the clas sic style played a great role in the development and continu ity of the classic poetry traditions in the national literature and created selective works with the poetic form perfectness and high idea and literary advantages in gazal, gasida, mas navi, mukhammas, musaddas, tarjiban, tarkibband, qita, rubai and poem genres leading types of the classic poems.
Contrary to eurocentric reactionary theory, abstract description and praising of the divine love, mystic cases in Ãÿçÿíôÿð Ïàøàéåâ the Azerbaijan and Eastern Literature were not permitted, real world love was praised as a great part of the lyric poem of the Eastern poets. Classic Azerbaijan poetry was distin guished from the world character contradictory to the poet ry of neighboring Iran, and propagandized the idea of faith to the life giving that power of love by means of art words.
It is undeniable that description of the mystic love ideas of Sufism in the poetic legacy of the Middle ages was of great importance. All these were not ineffective to the activity of the Azerbaijani poets continuing the traditions of classic poetic style in the first half of the 19th century;
they gave deep religious and philosophic and ethic meaning to love in the several poems as the successors and appreciated as the factor following to the mental maturity and high sense in the divine level. The propaganda of the traditional notion in the activity of the able masters of word of that period was strong in the poems of Zikri Ardabilli, Heyran khanim and Abdulgasim Nabati. The ideas of nagshiband were descri bed in the poems of the classic activity of Nabati.
A.Bakikhanov, M.S.Vazeh, G.Zakir, and other above mentioned poets wrote lyric poems forwarding all public and political problems coming from classic traditions. They reflected all complaints and dissatisfaction from the torture and torments of life, contemporaries, private life, tyranny of the leading levels and life in the poems about the deep pub lic content and propagandized humanist ideas being against the dissimilation of the conservative confessors, oppression and torture, ignorance, satiety, tyranny in the feudal admin istrative way. These poets mastered all theoretical bases of the classic poetics, activity secrets, and poetic characters of the representatives of Azerbaijan and Eastern literature and benefited by the rich and colorful traditions as actively.
Ñå÷èëìèø ÿñÿðëÿðè They achieved organic unity between the idea and artistic form, content of the poems, used of them masterfully and duly in the characters such as love, beautiful, sweetheart, lover, moth, wine, hair, musk, sun, and moon of the sym bolical meaning and metaphor, imitation, hyperbola, repe tition, contract, allusion, hint – rich and colorful artwork, different crops of the aruz rhythm, main measure of form of the Eastern poetry in the poems.
Several successful samples were made in the genre of poem by leaning the Masnavi and Dastan style of the epic poem of classic Azerbaijan and Eastern literature in the first half of the century. The activity of A.Bakikhanov is worth noticing in this field of artistic activity. He wrote Miskat-ul anvar (Pile of light), Firang majlisi (French meeting) and Khayalin uchushu (Flight of dream) in Persian. Miskat-ul anvar (Pile of light) was written under the effect of Sirlar Xazinasi (Treasury of secrets) of Nizami and Bustan of Sadi Shirazi, Persian Poet, considering the most famous works of Middle East Literature. This poem of A.Bakikhanov was provided by the rich illustrative materials consisting of the verse stories, novels and tasnifs. High moral and ethical fa ces, divine love were described in the idea arsenal of the poem of religious and mystic character. Poet wrote deep love sense to his native land, thoughts and torments, feelings and anxiety while being abroad with high professionalism and sweet mouthed in the poems such as «Firang majlisi» (Fren ch meeting) and «Khayalin uchushu» (Flight of dream).
Wide range of Azerbaijan poets made his achievements in the style of folklore poem by leaning the traditions of folk lore poetry of rich and ancient history in the first half of the century. Talented poets such as Gasim bey Zakir, Abdul gasim Nabati, Mahammad bey Ashig, Aghig Pari, Kazim Ãÿçÿíôÿð Ïàøàéåâ aga Salik, Abdurrahim bey Dilbazi, Mujrim Karim Vardani, Malikballi Gurban, Andalib Garajadagi wrote goshma, taj nis and mukhammas – lyric poems of high dignity under the effect of Molla Panah Vagif and Molla Vali Vidadi, close successors and created rich poetic heritage and rendered great service in the position of style of people’s poem in the strengthening of the folk poem in the literary process.
Lyric poems written in the style of people’s poem by these poets, created in the first half of the century were devoted to the description of the nature landscape, feelings of the lover, real beauty, and worldwide love. Challenge to the use of life gifts, vitality, naturality, optimism, sincerity, holiness of the poetic emotions praised are of the main typical characters of the lyric works. These poets were against the religious and mystic poetry propagandizing the ideas of asceticism, patience against the tyranny, torment, social and moral pres sure of any type, expressed internal moral world, love of life, spirit with the power of artistic word, wish and hopes arising of the natural processes and life itself. A completely new idea – artistic and public value in the literature of Azerbaijan in this period was the obtaining of the great success and form ing of the independent and satirical poetry movement.
Criticism, exposure and directions was the way of satiric description style of the unfitness in public life in the folklore poetry and classic people’s poetry in the literature of Azer baijan. Critical relation directed to the actions not corre sponding to public justice, principles of humanism, nega tive cases in the society in the literature of the middle ages, acute and justified criticism of the public life was not formed as intensive view, and cannot be turned to the literary move ment as the independent part of the activity. Criticism and exposure of ugliness in life in the poetry of Azerbaijan in the Ñå÷èëìèø ÿñÿðëÿðè 1840s-50s was developed widely and intensively, forming an independent movement and began to play an important role in the struggle against the social slander and awakening of the human consciousness indirectly. Development and enlargement of the satiric poem in Azerbaijan poetry during the 1840s-50s was not by chance, it was related to the con trasts leading against the psychological bases and showing itself among the changes in the social, political and public life of our people. Establishment of the bureaucratic office new state system, led by Russian officials alongside as the second sort people by looking from upper to lower, not acquitting the internal moral and psychological life, tradi tions and life style and life conditions as well as intensifying the misunderstanding in the national and cultural life, social and moral contrasts between the people’s mass with the local officials caused the appearance and development of the satiric poem movement in the national literature. Fami liar with the poetic talent and poetry level by G.Zakir, B.Shakir and M.B.Nadim, representatives of Azerbaijan lit erature in the middle of the 19th century, acutely criticized relations to the important public and social trouble of the period played an important role of the criticized mind and satire in the literature.
Scope of the content of the satiric poems by G.Zakir, B.Shakir and M.B.Nadim, artistic range of problems, criti cism targets, bitter laughing and mockery of various objects were wide. They expressed the interest of the people, depri ved of social protection, undergoing exploitation, of the people’s mass by expositing the criticizing, free to be dishon est, greediness of the merchants, hypocrisy of the confessors of limited mind abusing for the private unjustified ambi tions which is outside of the humanist values and principles Ãÿçÿíôÿð Ïàøàéåâ of Islam, indifferent relations to the people’s advantage and needs, lack of education and shamelessness, tyranny of the local bey, bribery, bureaucracy of the Russian officials turn ing to the object of robbery as the colony, unfitness of the czar and bureaucracy management, colony policy of the czarism of imperialist ambitions in the satiric poems.
It worth noticing in the name of objectivity that satire of the abovementioned poets were not tendentious and was not turned against the preferable classes, public levels. In other words, satiric literature of that period as the claiming by the literary criticism and Bolshevik ideology and satiric literature, it was based on the schematic principle that «if he is villager, worker, craftsman – it is good, if he is a bey, con fessor, official and rich – it is bad!» The representatives of the satiric literary movement in the literature of Azerbaijan in the middle of the 19th century thought about the mistakes and losses belonging to the nature of the human. In this direction they were not afraid to criticize the poor as well as they criticized bey whose human rights were depressed. For example: Gasim bey Zakir, one of the great representatives of the satiric style and belonging to the bey estate protected Ali bey, calumniated by the liars and Kar Jafar, representa tive of the working masses underwent criticism:
Satires of G.Zakir, B.Shakir and M.B.Nadim were of the new, worth notice qualitative and dignities from the artistic feature and exposure content. It should be noticed that these poets wrote such satiric poems in the heja rhythm. It deter mined the language characters of the same works and increased its aesthetic influence force by using in time of the poetic means of expression belonging to the people’s lan guage. Criticism target was by the way of usage masterfully of the ways of underlined criticize, irony, hint, allusion. It is Ñå÷èëìèø ÿñÿðëÿðè true that several bad expressions were used against the con crete person and it comes from the curbing of emotions in the psychological affect and it is characterized by the litera ture of that period. Private motives, subjective relations in the criticism of the khans, local bey and czar officials in the satiric officials in the satiric works were undergone to the injustice and tyranny in concrete situations. Poets wrote pri vate pamphlets against concrete officials of the tendentious position of malevolent relations. Artistic and public value was given, removing concrete historical personality raised to the role of representation.
Subjective relations and private motives reflected in the criticism of the local bey and khans and czar officials in the satiric works undergone injustice and torture in the concrete situations. Pamphlets were written against the officials of quite clear position and ill-disposed relation by poets and rude, vulgar, clear words were used in the satiric works of best factors. All these gave the artistic and public value, and increased to the representation amplua generalized in the human nature by removing concrete historical personality.
Nevertheless, several limited factors were used in the satiric works of G.Zakir, B.Shakir and M.B.Nadim they played a great role in the establishment of the mutual influ ence mechanism among the literature and public develop ment, development of the satiric and realistic description factors, strengthening of the mutual and important relations with the actual social and moral problem, also with the life of the people and reality. The traditions of the satiric litera ture of this period influenced to Seyid Azim Shirvani and Mirza Alakbar Sabir, famous representatives of the satiric poetry of Azerbaijan in the last quarter of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century.