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Abbasgulu Aga Bakikhanov and Gasim bey Zakir, dis tinguished masters of that period wrote some verse stories and fables as well as full poems having high idea and artis tic features in didactic and literary genres spread widely in classic Azerbaijani and Eastern literature and from this standpoint they played an important role in the develop ment and enriching of Azerbaijani literature. Cruel, despot ic, unfair supreme feudal rulers, negative human passions, shortcomings of public life, worthlessness of human life were criticized severely and the idea of the ruler, positive moral values, humanistic and democratic views of leading motifs of Azerbaijan epic literature were promoted in their verse story and fables.

First basis and first sample of new type poetic prose was created in Azerbaijani literature of that period rich in inno vations either from standpoint of genre and form or idea and content. The history of modern Azerbaijani prose be gins with Rashid bey va Saadat khanim (Rashid bey and Saadat khanim) by Ismayil bey Gutgashinli published in French in 1835 in Warsaw when he was in military service there. Love affairs of two romantic youths aristocratic by birth were described in the highest level of modern Euro pean prose language in the story subject of which taken from periodical life of Azerbaijani khanates. The author was against the middle age feudal mode of life and culture, conservatism in the system of mutual relations of people and he promoted free love ideas meeting moral require ments of human being, new life and moral values rejecting moral slavery in his work. The influence of romantic and sentimental literature of Western Europe and Russia at the same time Azerbaijani love stories and eposes arrest atten tion. This is a romantic story for its poetic style. I.Gutga shinli tried to deliver his impressions and observations dur ing his travel in Eastern countries 1852-53 years by simple native language in his another work called Safarnama

(Travel Notes) one part of which has been revealed recently.

The development of Azerbaijani literature was bound for a completely new idea and esthetic direction, great achie vement was obtained in the research of poetic form and our literature joined to global literary process entering the world literary system of new period in the second half of XIX cen tury. The break-up of feudal relations which had already become historical anarchism in Azerbaijan, bourgeois rela tions taking its place gradually, intensification of social and moral contradiction among the people of different opinions, establishment perfect basis of enlightenment ideology and strengthening of literary relations of Azerbaijan-Russian, Western Europe beginning from 50th of the century at the result of countrys and societys having different economic and social values demanded of belles-lettres, changes made in its functional activity, strengthened its relations with ob jective reality, life of individual and community, moral and psychological problems of that period and caused for ap pearing of new poetic and esthetic principles, new literary variety and genres.

This period was significant with forma tion of new literary varieties and genres and poetic and es thetic principles related wide spread of enlightenment ideol ogy which is the most important achievement of Azerbaijani literature, formation on new creative method realism as a perfect method and its taking an important and leading place in the literary process and define the direction of liter ary development.

Although enlightenment ideology was associated with the ancient roots and origins in essence and conveying thin king brains during human history, human and the environ ment surrounding him after the XVIII century considering as the century of intellect suggested a new conception which was grounded from scientific point of view on family life and social relations. We can express the essence of this con ception as the conscience, character, psychology and moral world is the product of environment and agree with environ ment directly. Then, education of social environment for correct conduct of new human education and reformation on the basis of humanistic principles is one of the important tasks. Some of remarkable writers taking this conception as a main factor and stimulus described and represented hu man in organic relationship with the environment surround ing them in their works and reflects daily life of various stra ta, mode of life, customs and tradition, grief and sorrow, wish and desires, social and moral state of society correctly, deeply and detailed in compliance with objective reality.

Belles-letters formed as the mirror and poetic chronicle of that period in every sense of word thanks to the description of reality with all broadness and many-colouredness, with all difficulties and contradictions of nations life. Enlighten ment ideology caused severe satiric relation against worth lessness humiliating individual and feudal society in belles letters and strengthening the description of social life in satiric style. The object and scale of satire deepened and extended more in belles-letters. Shortcomings of feudal soci ety, ruling privileged strata not depending on their public affiliation as well as separate individuals were the main crit icism and exposure target of it. At the same time praise of new progressive inclinations observed in public life, educa tional and democratic ideas, violent defense of social justice problems and general interest of the nation enriched the line of actual problems which belles-letters tries to solve. Enligh tenment ideology brought about a fundamental change in the poetic form of Azerbaijani literature, at the same time its object of description and promotion, contents, idea and aes thetic principles and stimulated the formation of new poet ic varieties and genres drama and prose as well as the style and language of belles-letters approaching to, becoming democratized and national as a living folk language.

A new and quite different development way of Azerbai jani literature, strengthening of realistic poetic and aesthet ic principles in it and being in the first place names remark able writer and philosopher Mirza Fatali Akhundzada in the second half of XIX century. M.F.Akhundzada who had high poetic talent, sharp critical sense, deep observation skill and erudition, skill of philosophical generalization, mastering advanced humanistic poetic and philosophical tradition by reading literatures of Azerbaijani and Eastern, Russian and Western Europe, laid foundation of dramaturgy in Azerbaijani literature and achieved fame as a first play wright not only in Azerbaijan but generally Near East Mus lim countries by writing six comedies such as Hekayeti Molla Ibrahimkhalil Kimyagar (Story of Mullah Ibrahim khalil Alchemist), Hekayeti-Musyo Jordan hekimi-nabatat ve darvish Mastali shah cadukuni-mashhur (Story of Doctor Musyo Jordan and Well-Known Wizard Hermit Mastali Shah), Hekayeti-khirs-guldurbasan (Story of Robber Defeat), Hekayeti-Vaziri-Khani-Lenkeran (Story of vizier and khan of Lenkeran), Hekayeti-mardi-khasis (Story of Great Stingy) (Haji Gara) and Murafia Vakillarinin Hekayeti (Story of Hypocritical Advocates) after one another in the 50th of XIX century. He saved our national literature from the influence of imitator-formalist and religious mystic poem and brought about a fundamental change in it for the promotion of humanistic ideas by his comedies.

M.F.Akhundzada took the subject of his comedies from the nations life he saw in his daily life. Azerbaijani reality of that time, the mode and way of life, family and social sta te, psychological and moral features of our nation during 1830-50 were described correctly and high masterly in his comedies. The dramaturgy of M.F.Akhundzada can be con sidered as an indicator in the settlement of further social and psychological problems at the same time objective poetic representation of concrete history of public life. The great realistic playwright notable for not only in local level, but also global level of the period by his deep philosophical thinking and ability of objective appraisal of the events fo cused on important matters, social contradictions, individ ual shortcomings and was against backwardness, apathy, ignorance, extreme religious fanatism and misunderstand ing of the essence of religion and criticized social injustice and its objective and subjective reasons. He promoted edu cation, healthy sense, creative work, achievements of world wide scientific and cultural development in Western Europe, social and cultural improvement ideas and humanistic val ues in his works.

M.F.Akhundzada who seized specific characteristics of comedy genre and poetics and the great master of comic dramatic poetic situations wrote his works in poetic level, animated, natural, sweet and sincere mother tongue and gained fame as comedy playwright with original style. Some of Azerbaijani literary critics appreciated M.F.Akhundaza das comedies as real belongings of treasure. Literary crit ics and orientalists of Russia and Western European coun tries showed how they appreciate his ability of comedy writ ing calling him as Tatar Moliere.

M.F.Akhundzada wrote his successful philosophical novella named Aldanmish kavakib (Defrauded Stars) of historical subject after his comedies in 1857 and did great works in the field of new type poetic prose in the basis of sample of European prose in Azerbaijani literature.

The subject of Aldanmish kavakib, a novella from an event of astrologic content described in Tarixi-alem arayi Abbasi (History of Abbas Adorning the World) by Iskan dar bey Munshin, Iranian historian of middle ages. Writer took this historical and half-serious story as a poetic back ground and on the basis of it he give realistic description of state, social-political and moral life of Iran which he was on modern lines, satirized sharply shortcomings and worthless ness of feudal and despotic manner of rule dominating in the country, created full satiric images of feudal rulings and advanced educationist ruler idea and promoted as one of the ways of social development. Aldanmish kavakib, the story was written on the basis of completely new realistic poetic principles for Azerbaijani poetic prose. It is a prose work having high qualities from poetic mastery point of view that it can be appreciated as the continuation and development of high mastery we have seen in comedies.

Aldanmish kavakib is deemed as the most successful sample of world educationalist philosophical and publisistic prose at the same time attaining great importance in the for mation history of new type Azerbaijani poetic prose. Come dies and Aldanmish kavakib, the product of poetic and philosophical thinking of M.F.Akhundzada had great im pact on Azerbaijani dramaturgy and further development of poetic prose and fulfilled strong poetic base function.

Some talented, patriot writers, who played an important role in the development of Azerbaijani realistic literature, continuing and developing dramaturgical traditions of M.F.Akhundzada appeared in the late decades of XIX cen tury. Notable Azerbaijani playwrights such as Najaf bey Vazirov, Nariman Narimanov, Abdurrahim bey Hagverdi yev, Enyali bey Sultanov enriched our dramaturgy with new significant idea and poetic qualities writing a chain of come dies and tragedies and rose to the poetic level.

Some specific features of daily life were described in the first dramaturgical works written in that period such as Ev tarbiyasinin bir shakli (A Type of Home Education), Dal dan atilan dash topugha dayar (The Thrown Stone behind Hits the Ankle) and Sonraki peshmanchilig fayda vermaz

(The Following Repentance does not Benefit) by N.Vazi rov, Turk gizi (Turkish Girl) by E.Sultanov, Gan ojaghi

(Hotbed of Blood) by R.Afandiyev and Yeyasan gaz atini gorasan lazzatini (Eat Goose then Enjoy its Taste) by A.Hagverdiyev and some interesting satiric poetic image were created representing negative appearances of feudal patriarchal society. Shortcomings as customs and traditions being out of fashion and hinder to the social development, ignorance, illiteracy, extreme religious fanatism, family des potism, female lawlessness, parasitism, robbery, brigandage and other negative values and worthlessness of humanity we re criticized and enlightenment ideas were promoted in them.

The most important part of dramas created in the 1890s is tragedies. The tragedies Musibati-Fakhraddin by N.Vazirov, Nadir Shah by N.Narimanov, Daghilan ti fag and Bakhtsiz javan by A.Hagverdiyev differ for their high idea and poetic qualities and rouse interest for and at tain an importance by offering poetic settlement of painful social and psychological problems of that period as plays raising Azerbaijani literature to a new stage.

Literary process of North Azerbaijan, divided into two parts at the result of historical and political events happened in the second quarter of XIX century, affected the literature of South Azerbaijan. In the last quarter of this century the foundation of drama genre laid down directly under the impact of M.F.Akhundzadas literary activities in South Azerbaijani literature. Under the influence of M.F.Akhund zadas creative work the basics of drama was founded in South Azerbaijan in the last quarter of the same century.

Mirza Aga, born in Tabriz and one of the cleverest and edu cated Azerbaijanian men of that period read M.F.Akhund zadas comedies in the beginning of 1870 and under the influence of the comedies by M.F.Akhundzada wrote his comedies Ashraf khanin sarguzashti (Adventure of Ashraf khan), Zaman khanin Burujurdda hakimiyyeti (Zaman khans sway in Burujurd), Aga Hashim Khalkhalinin eshg bazlighi (Philander of Aga Hashim Khalkhali) and Shah gulu Mirzanin Kirmanshahda sarguzashti (Adventure of Shahgulu Mirza in Kirmanshah) in Persian. The history of dramaturgy begins with these comedies by Mirza Aga not only in South Azerbaijani literature but also Iranian litera ture where South Azerbaijani included from geopolitical point of view.

N.Vazirov was the first Azerbaijani writer who tried his pen in modern type poetic prose after M.F.Akhundzada. He wrote satiric story named Aghichi (Keen) in 1875 while getting higher education in Moscow. The young writer rep resented an event he saw giving social and psychological meaning in the level of poetic opportunities of poetic prose by the image of Badirjahan.

Eynali Sultanov who began hot journalistic activity at the beginning of the 1890s, published four short stories after one another such as Chayi kech, sonra lovghalan (Cross the river then boast) (1891), Kurd gizi (Kurdish Girl) (1892), Hasan khan (Hasan Khan) (1893) and Kichik sar guzashtlar (Little Adventures) (1893) in Russian in No voye obozrenye newspaper. Chayi kech, sonra lovghalan

(Cross the river then boast) and Kichik sarguzashtlar

(Little Adventures) are satiric works exposing some social shortcomings of modern life. Kurd gizi (Kurdish girl) and Hasan khan (Hasan Khan) were written in the romantic style on the basis of folk legends.

Jalil Mammadguluzada wrote the story Danabash kan dinin ahvalatlari (Stories of Danabash village) and Nari man Narimanov the novel of Bahadir va Sona (Bahadir and Sona), who were busy with intensive and productive activity as playwright, prose-writer and public man in the last decade of XIX century and in the beginning of XX cen tury. Azerbaijani prose achieved great success and its devel opment took a step to a new stage in the direction of inte gration to the world literature with these works conforming to high idea and aesthetic requirements and having deep social content. J.Mammadguluzada exposed social short comings and gaps in the mutual relation of people with dif ferent character and mode of feudal patriarchal village life setting the problem of human fates in the background of real description of Azerbaijani village in the story of Dana bash kandinin ahvalatlari (Stories of Danabash village).

Indecent elements of village rulers by the image of Khuda yar bey, village headman and mullah and confessor, who are the satiric heroes of the story and specific characters of tsar officers by the images of head and chief were generalized and their typical image were created. The writer described hard and painful mode of life of unprotected and helpless villagers who underwent every kind of tyranny and arbi trariness by the image of uncle Mahammadhasan which was described with great love and a heavy heart, and bitter fate of Azerbaijani women deprived of all human rights by the image of Zeynab and struggle actively for their interests.

N.Narimanov described love relations between Bahadir and Sona young intellectuals having high spiritual and moral features, owning progressive ideas of the period, con cerning two different religions and the tragic fortune of characters in Bahadir ve Sona (Bahadir and Sona) which he considered a small novel. The writer was against extre me religious fanaticism, conservatism and religious- feudal morals and defended family based on international friend ship, liberty of individuals, moral progress ideas and new humanist relations and social relations relying on social jus tice principles.

In the last decade of XIX century serious change arose in prose under the impact of enlightenment ideology which spread in the South Azerbaijan and Iran on one hand, on the other hand great M.F.Akhundzada as well as Western European and Russian literary social idea, perfect founda tions of new type poetic prose. At the same time these prose works are considered the first successful samples of modern Iranian prose, because they were written in the Persian lan guage, they were described generally Iran reality, the life of the peoples living in Iran and they deal with the necessary, urgent problems of social-political and moral life of Iran.

In Kitab yuklu eshshak (Donkey with book load) by A.Talibov village life, daily living and traditions were described with the eyes and tendency of writer with progres sive views. Some important social contradictions of Iran feudal-patriarchy were cleared in the work and the ideas of enlightenment were propagated. The first volume 1894, sec ond volume 1895, Istanbul, the third volume published in 1906 in Baku. The novel of Talibinin gmisi (Your Talibis ship) published in 1906, Baku was written in the genre of educative pedagogical novel. From the point of view of its idea-literary structure it reminds the novels, Emil by Russo and Wilhelm Mayers Studentship by Goethe.

According to his general subject of outlook A.Talibov, concerning the moderate enlightenment group considered that it is possible to liquidate the contradictions in feudal community by acquainting young generation with the ideas of enlightenment and achievements of worldwide sciences and improve welfare condition of people, social-political po sition of the country. By acting from this social-philosophi cal principle he was against conservative feudal ideology holding the consciousness, intellect, will of the peoples being under tyranny of Iran in servitude, feudalism rules, morals and instructive and educational methods, prejudice and mys ticism and raised the questions of educating young genera tion in new method, in the level of requirements of sound in tellect and logic, on the basis of enlightenment ideas, achie vements of the sciences of world nature study and physics.

Three volume novel of Travel book of Ibrahim bey

(brahim byin syahtnamsi) by Z.Maraghayi was written in the genre of political-journalistic travel novels spread in the Western Europe and Russian poetic literature. He was acquainted with the novel Aldanmish kavakib (Defrauded Stars) written by M.F.Akhundzada and philosophical trea tise of Kamaluddovla maktublari (Letters of Kamaluddov la) and benefited by them in his creative work.

The novel Travel book of Ibrahim bey (Ibrahim beyin sayahatnamasi) is a realist work reflecting political, social, public and moral life of the ends of XIX century complete ly, deeply and comprehensively. The violent criticism of feu dal despotism administration and its state, administrative, legal, military, cultural establishments, clear, hard, irrecon cilable criticism of feudal judges and educationist-democrat ic ideas are the main subject, idea direction of the novel and its problems necessary to solve.

The novel Travel book of Ibrahim bey (Ibrahim beyin sayahatnamasi) by Z.Maraghayi is considered the best mod els of Azerbaijani and Iran prose and world educationalist political-philosophical prose from the standpoint of its rich ness of content and poetic qualities.

In the second half of XIX century classic poem tradi tions in the literature of Azerbaijan were continued and improved and some achievements were obtained in this direction. Masters of pen writing poems in classic style acted in Baku, Shamakhi, Shusha, Gazakh, Shaki, Nakhchivan, Ordubad, Lankaran and other cities of the country in this period. The majority of these poets gathered around the lit erary assemblies of Majlisi-uns, Majlisi-faramushan, Beytus-safa, Majmaush-shuara, Anjumani-shuara

and Fovjul-fusaha organized in different cities of the country. The literary circles were in Shaki, Gazakh, Aghdash and Darband besides these assemblies. A.Asi, M.A.Novras, Hasanali khan Garadaghi, F.Kh.Kamina, M.A.Baki, M.Safa, M.A.Bikhud, A.Zuhuri, M.N.Dida, Naseh, Abdulkhalig Yusif, A.Salik, A.Muniri, A.Jannati, M.T.Sidgi, I.Nakam, M.Shukhi, Abbas aga Nazir, Abdurrahman aga Shair and other poets and art amateurs were members of these assemblies.

In the literary assemblies works by Firdovsi, Khagani, Nizami, Sadi, Hafiz, Rumi, Nasimi, Fuzuli and other clas sics of the Eastern literature were learnt, conversations on knowledge, astrology, history, music and literary-artistic and scientific discussions were held. The members of the as sembly were interested in the urgent social and cultural problems and requirements of the period, obtained the new spapers of Akinchi, Ziya, Kashkul and were acquain ted with the progressive ideas of the period. There were poets among them knowing Russian language and being familiar with the achievements of cultures, enlightenment ideas of Western Europe. These poets opened schools in new style, worked as teachers, prepared educational sup plies, did some work in the field of propagating the enlight enment ideas, worldwide sciences. Though the members of the assembly wrote mainly in different genres of classic poetry, there were poets among them sympathizing with the traditions of peoples poetry, writing lyrics in syllabic.

Literary assemblies established relations with each other, their members corresponded each other, held exchange of poem and poem competitions. Poets S.A.Shirvani, Kh.B.Na tavan, Bahar Shirvani, Asi, Bikhud, Naseh, Navvab, Gasir, Nakam looked at the art as real, responsible social and aes thetic position not as means of entertainment and play on words and enriched our poetry with original works, wrote the works reflecting social problems of the period besides fine lyrics distinguished themselves for high poetic qualities in the subject of love. In these poems they complained of difficulty of time, infidelity of the world, cruelty of the fate, indifference of friends and pals, described their difficult mode of life, their lives with moral trouble and were against the world of tyranny and arbitrariness, injustice and unfair ness. Poets S.A.Shirvani, Kh.B.Natavan, Bahar Shirvani, Asi, Bikhud, Naseh, Navvab, Gasir, Nakam looked at the art as real, responsible social and aesthetic position not as means of entertainment and play on words and enriched our poetry with original works wrote the works reflected social problems of the period besides fine lyrics distinguished themselves for high poetic qualities in the subject of love. In these poems they complained of difficulties of time, infideli ty of the world, cruelty of the fate, indifference of friends, described their difficult mode of life, their lives with moral trouble and were against the world of tyranny and arbitrari ness, injustice and unfairness. Poets as S.A.Shirvani, Navvab, Gasir, Khayali, M.Sidgi, M.Nakam, Abdulkhalig Jannati wrote enlightenment-satiric poems under the influ ence of enlightenment literary idea, raised the satiric poetry trend to a new stage, established by G.Zakir, B.Shakir, M.B.Nadim in national literature. These poets were against the ignorance, backwardness, conservatism, mode and mo ral of life of middle century looked as anachronism in com parison with the life of neighbouring countries peoples, scholastic thought and instruction education, criticized hypocrisy, greediness of confessors, tyranny and parasitism of beys, illegal acts, bribery, bureaucracy of czar officials and propagated enlightenment, worldwide sciences, new so cial life principles. S.A.Shirvanis services are especially great in the development of poetry trends in literature.

In the last quarter of XIX century poets as Haji Mehdi Shukuhi, Mirza Ali khan Lali and Mahammadbaghir Khal khali writing lyrics in the style of classic poems and ashug poems under the influence of enlightenment movement beco ming stronger in Iran and South Azerbaijan besides their lyrics. They wrote satiric poems and allegoricdidactic works.

These poets were against fanatism, asceticism, criticized tyran ny, arbitrariness and despotism of Iranian judges and deeply regretted the difficult fate of the masses in their works. Though counselling and didactic spirit is strong in the satiric works of Shukuhi, Labi and Khalkhali they stimulated the development of satiric poem and expedited the formation of enlightenment and satiric poetry trend in South Azerbaijani literature.

The foundations of literary critique and realist aesthetics were established in the 1850s-70s. M.F.Akhundzada created the first and successful models of literary critique in the lit erature of Azerbaijan and laid down its foundation by writ ing literary-critical and scientific-theoretical articles as Fehristi-kitab (Fehristi book), Nazm haqqinda (About poetry), Mollayi-Rumi ve onun tasnifi babinda (Mollayi Rumi and in his classification style), Iranin yuksak Millat qazeti munshisina (To head munshi of Millat

newspaper of Iran ), Mirza Aganin pyesleri haqqinda kriti ka (Critique on Mirza Agas plays), Tengid Risalasi

(Letter of Criticism), etc..

M.F.Akhundzadas literary critique and aesthetic views were associated closely with poetic activity, social-political and philosophical views, his activity as educationist- demo crat and his struggle for social-moral progress and liberty of the people. His literary-criticism and aesthetic views were formed and developed on the basis of progressive literary traditions, scientific-theoretical idea of Azerbaijan and Near East literature. Russian and Western European education ist literary critique and aesthetic idea influenced the forma tion and development of literary critique and aesthetic view of the great writer and thinker strongly.

Educationist ideas underlie M.F.Akhundzadas literary critical and aesthetic views as his social-political views. He was against imitator-formalist and religious mystical liter ature, struggled for realist literature and prepared its main literary-aesthetic principles in his literary-critical works. For M.F.Akhundzada the main position and essence of the art is reflecting of real existence, life and people. For his opin ion the art is reflection, mirror of the life and it must reflect the life, mode of life, traditions, intentions and wishes, joy and sorrow of people. M.F.Akhundzada stated that the aim of the art is not giving pleasure to some group ruling class and entertaining them, but the aim of the art is serving people. The work of art must open the social defects of the community, state progressive views and serve for improving peoples morality. When he evaluated the poetic works, he took into account both subject and form beauty and took them in unity.

After M.F.Akhundzada literary critical models in the lit erature of Azerbaijan were published on the pages of Ekin chi (Ploughman) newspaper published under the editorship of H.Zardabi, educationist and public figure: a struggle for new outlook and new culture in Azerbaijan and integration to the world culture and science developed. Violent contro versy on urgent, important problems was between conserva tive poets such as Hadiyul Muzallim being supporters of outmoded literary traditions and scholastic poem and edu cationist publicist and writers as H.Zardabi, N.Vazirov, A.A.Gorani (Adigozalov), Ahsanul Gavaid and others and valuable views on essence, aim, positions of the art, its rela tion with the life by the reality, social-educational role, future progress perspectives were expressed. They stated that the main purpose of literature is to reflect the peoples life, answer the urgent problems of the day and spread pro gressive ideas.

Literary-critique articles were also published in the new spapers of Ziya (1879-1880), Ziyayi-Qafqaziyya (1880 1884) and Kashkul (18831891). The activity of Kash kul was estimable from its viewpoint. In relation to the problems of literature Kashkul tried to continue progres sive traditions of Ekinchi (Ploughman) unlike Ziya, Ziyayi-Qafqaziyya and was against mimic poetry and did the considerable work in the field of experience and propa gating of Russian and Western European literature. In the last years of XIX century literary critique articles of Azer baijani intellectuals printed in periodical media (Kafkaz, Kaspi, Novoye obozreniye) published in Russian in Baku and Tbilisi and especially their opinions on theatrical performances had important role in the development of lit erary critique.

Azerbaijani literature of XIX century assuming exclusive importance for its burden of fate in the history of the coun try and people opened a window to the world by benefiting progressive traditions of the world literature and culture. It must be estimated as the first successful steps towards the cultural-moral globalization continuing fast at present and serious and systematic beginning of this firm process.

Translated into English by prof. GAZANFAR PASHAYEV Baku, February 1, .. .. ..

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A GLIMPSE OF GREAT BRITAIN A Map of the British Isles The name Britain is very old and is connected with the first inhabitants of Britain the Britons. The Britons lived independ ently till 55 before our era. In 55 before our era Roman armies led by Cesar occupied the new world. The Romans brought to the country with them their language and manners;

instructed the Britons in letters and science. Many Latin words penetrated the English language and enriched it. For example: cup, pepper, ket tle, dish, mile, plum, street, wall, chapter, candle, copper, marble, chalk, elephant, animal, index, item, maximum, minimum, etc.

The traces of Latin are seen in geographical names as well:

Manchester, Lancaster, etc. (Chester from the Latin castra


The Romans built a lot of highways and ramparts entirely of stone. Heating and drainage systems that would shame many a country today, were displayed in Britain by Romans.

Centuries passed and the period had come now, when the Romans could not stay in Britain any more, because the inner affairs of the Empire went from bad to worse and about the year 448 after being the masters of the land nearly four centuries left the country for good.

The Picts and the Scots, who lived in the North finding that the Romans left the country attacked the Britons. The Britons who had lived in peace over 4 centuries couldnt resist and were forced to send a delegation to Germany to invite over the Saxons for their protection and assistance. The Saxons having the lucky chance embarked their troops in vessels and landing in the country (449 of our era) immediately marched to the defence of Britons.

The Britons applauding their own wisdom in calling over the Saxons hoped to enjoy peace and security under the power ful protection of that warlike nation. But, alas, the Germans thought of seizing the country. When the Britons understood the Saxons trick it was too late to do smth. The Britons were full of indignation by the treachery of Saxons took to arms. They fought many battles with their enemy. But new forces i.e.

alongside with the Saxons, Angles and Jutes appeared on the island. They spread terror among the Britons. They spared nei ther age, nor sex, no condition. The Britons were caught and butchered. By 600 occupation of the country by the Angles, Saxons and Jutes, North Germanic tribes was completed.

Britain had became the home of the Anglo-Saxons and Britons had been driven into slavery or into exile in the west (Wales) and a new phase of history began on the island, whose largest area was to become known as Angle-land, hence England.

The Britons were called welsh, i.e. strangers by their con querors, hence Wales, the land of the welsh.

Now it is clear why Great Britain consists of England, Scot land and Wales. The English live in England and speak English, the Scots live in Scotland and speak Scottish, the Welsh live in Wales and speak Welsh.

Now England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Great Britain has a population of over 56 million people. It is a highly developed industrial country.

The capital of England as well as the capital of the United Kingdom is London. The capital of Scotland is Edinburgh. The capital of Wales is Cardiff city. The capital of Northern Ireland is Belfast.

Vocab u lar y Notes to applaud ones own wisdom inner affairs to go from bad to worse to enjoy peace and security to drive into slavery or into for good , excile to spread terror - to spare neither age, no sex , Answer the questions When did the Romans occupy Britain?

When did the Romans leave Britain for good?

What German tribes seized the country?

What countries does the United Kingdom include?

What is the population of Great Britain?

Do You Know That Capital letters are used more often in English than in some other languages. Capitalization is used in the following cases:

1. At the beginning of a sentence.

2. For the first person singular-pronoun I.

3. For names of languages.

4. For names of the months.

5. For names of the days of the week.

6. For proper names.

7. For titles preceding proper names.

8. For words in the titles of books, articles, stories, plays, etc., except for the articles a, an, the and short prepositions within the title.

ENGLAND England is divided into three main parts: South England, Central England, North-East England.

South England includes South-East and South-West England.

South-East England is known as the rich agricultural region. Here three distinct subregions may be recognized;

the Hampshire Basin, the London Basin, and Kent Basin. Its main towns are:

Southampton, Portsmouth, Reading, London, Bristol, Plymouth.

It is interesting to know that Kent is called the Garden of England as this part of the country is devoted to fruit mainly.

A Glimpse of Great Britain Central England is divided into three large countries or shires: the Midlands, Yorkshire and Lancashire.

The Soil of Midlands was found to contain untold riches of a different kind in the XVIII century;

iron, ore, coal, clay, lime stone were discovered in large quantities. In the centre of a small village near Coventry, stands a simple stone pillar which marks the middle of England.

But life has moved on and the recognized centre is now Birmingham the second city of Britain after London.

Many discoveries were made here. James Watt discovered the use of steam power in the middle of the XVIII century.

Abraham Darby discovered the process of coke-making;

the key to the modern process of iron-smelting. In 1779 he built the first iron bridge over the Severn, as a proof of one way in which iron could be used.

The variety of goods produced is unimaginable, nowadays everything from a pin to a railway engine, chains, nails, guns, ships engines, motorcars, tubes, pipes, needles and many others.

In Midlands pit-head buildings darken the sky, and the ear is greeted with a symphony or hammering engines, and contin ual hum of traffic according to your taste.

A couple of hours bus-ride from almost any of the large in dustrial centres brings one to many historical places of interest.

Stratford-upon-Avon, Shakespeares birth place is few miles from Birmingham.

Yorkshire people are very hospitable. The very first thing that you will happen as soon as you step across the threshold of one of the houses is that someone will put the kettle on for a nice cup of tea. Lancashire is known throughout the world as the centre of the British cotton industry. Nine-tenths of the area is occupied by farmed land: wheat, barley, oats, turnips, pota toes, beans are grown here. It takes the first place in the coun try in rearing horses. There is even a proverb Shake a bridle over a Lancashiremans grave and he will rise to steal a horse

for he loves horses so much.

Main cities of Central are: Birmingham, Coventry, Liver pool, Manchester, Leeds, Sheffield.

North-East England. North England is generally hilly. Good agricultural land is limited. Sheep farming takes the first place in the country. Its main towns are: Newcastle, Middlesbrought, Sunderland.

Newcastle is the regional centre. Its chief importance lies in its coal-mining. The proverb: To carry coal to Newcastle is a proof to it.

East England is a rich agricultural region. Though large scale industry is absent from East England, The occupation of people is not confined to agriculture alone. In large centres like Norwich and Ipswich and in other market towns there are indus tries closely related to agriculture. This part of England is famous all over the world for its University cities: Oxford and Cambridge.

Vocab u lar y Notes historical places of interest to contain untold riches step across the threshold as a proof of one way put the kettle on pit-head building a couple of hours bus-ride Answer the questions Into how many parts is England divided?

What Basin is called the Garden of England?

When was the soil of Midlands found to contain untold riches?

What is the second city of Britain?

Over what river and when was the first iron bridge built in England?

What are the main cities of Central England?

What part of England is rich agricultural region?

Seas of England By looking at the map of England and Wales one may see that no part of the country is very far from the sea. This is a great benefit to England in several ways. In the first place, in the course of the history of England, the sea had greatly helped the English to defend their country from foreign enemies.

In the next place, the sea has always been of great use to the trade and commerce of the English.

Thirdly, due to the nearness of the sea, there is much rain in England, which helps the soil to produce good crops. Lastly, the sea is a great storehouse of food. All the seas round about the shores of England abound in fish.

The following seas wash the shores of the British Isles: The Irish sea, the English Channel, Bristol Channel, the North sea.

Besides the Atlantic Ocean washes the coasts of the British Isles as well.

Rivers in England The longest rivers of England are small compared with the great rivers of the world, but few countries are better supplied with useful streams. The principal rivers in England are the Thames, the Tyne, the Trent, the Severn etc. The Thames is the most important river. Its mouth is wide and deep, it has regular tides and its current is slow. Therefore it is suitable for naviga tion. Large vessels can get as far as London Bridge, 50 miles from the sea. On its banks are London, Oxford, a university city, Greenwich with its observatory and many other notable places.

Some English Manners 1. In England the lady is the first to greet.

2. Men do not usually raise their hats to other men, they raise their hats to ladies only.

3. A gentleman always walks on the side nearest to the road if he walks with a lady, in order to protect her from passing traffic.

4. Ladies and girls who know each other very well or are great friends kiss each other when they meet or part, but men and boys do not kiss each other, not even fathers kiss their sons if they are past childhood. They meet and part with handshakes.

5. If you dont know the name of a lady, address her with the word Madam when you speak to her.

6. For everything an Englishman receives, he says Thank you!. Asking for something, they either begin or end with Please. This is strictly observed by all public servants;

Post office clerks, railway officials and so on.

A post-office clerk even when he receives money for stamps says Thank you.

7. If you are asked at the table whether you want this or that, say Thank you if you wish to have it, but if you do not wish to have it you should say No, thank you.

Early Closing Day In England the opening time for shops is 9 oclock in the morning. The close time about 5.30 in the evening. Each shop has one early closing day weekly. Early closing day hour starts at one oclock midday. Only shops selling sweets, tobacco and cigarettes, newspapers and magazines can stay open to sell these things on an Early Closing Day.

LONDON THE CAPITAL OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND Historical Places of London London, the capital of England and mother city of the British Empire is one of the oldest and largest cities in the world with a population of over 9 million people. It is the largest city in Europe. It is a great industrial, commercial, economic, polit ical and cultural centre of the country. It is an important port too. London is without doubt one of the most fascinating cities in the world. 14 road-bridges cross the Thames within the city.

There are about 550 parks and gardens in London. Accor ding to the statistics, there are 7 sq. m. of green area for one Londoner in the capital.

Central London can be divided into four parts: The City, Westminster, the East End, the West End. They are very differ ent from each other. They seem to belong to different towns and epochs. Numerous banks and business offices concentrated in the City. It is the oldest part of London. The City covers only about a mile and few people live there. The City with a day pop ulation of about a million people all at work is entered by more than a million people in the daytime. At the end of the day the businessmen, clerks and secretaries go home and the city becomes silent and empty. If the city may be called the com mercial heart of London, Westminster is the centre of adminis tration. One can see the Houses of Parliament there, a very beautiful building with two towers and a very big clock called Big Ben. Most of government buildings are in Westminster. The river Thames divides London into two parts The West End and the East End.

The West End is a symbol of wealth, luxury. The best and most expensive hotels, restaurants, clubs, theatres, cinemas and the richest shops are there. There are splendid houses and love ly gardens there belonging to wealthy people. Only rich people live in this part of London.

The East End is the poorest district of London. There are many factories, workshops and docks there. The streets are narrow, and the houses are poor here. Working class families live there. The East End is all grey with soot and smoke. Here also are large set tlements of foreigners, engaged in small business such as clothing factories and retail shops. More than 3 million people live there.

Lastly London is a city of monuments, history (London is more than 20 centuries old) and traditions.

Ancient and Modern, the past and present seem to meet in this city almost everywhere. But what is true is true, London is full of contrasts. It is a city of contrasts. V.I. Lenin saw these contrasts in the world of the rich and in the world of poor. He used to say: The two world, the two nations.

And almost nothing has changed since that time. We may say to-day that the City is money of London, the West End is the goods of London, and the East End is the hands of London, that have built the banks of the City, the palaces, hotels, theatres in the West End, but those hands have neither money, nor goods.

The greater London is a large industrial centre of the coun try. Machine-building is developing on large scale. There are many enterprises producing control-measuring instruments, precision and high precision machinery, printing industry equipment, automatic and semi-automatic lathes, etc.

Scientific apparatuses and installations are produced for the needs of scientific research institutions and educational estab lishments. There are plants for car, plane, T.V. productions, electric-engineering, radio-engineering, chemical and paper printing industries employ the most qualified workers and engi neers. Among the most developed branches are such as wood working, light and food industries.

Speaking of London one must keep in mind that it is unlike any other city in the world. London is a closed book for many people. London is the centre of Britains cultural life. But life is not so rosy here as it looks.

London has low houses and wide streets. These endless streets seem all alike, but of different colours: a street of red houses all houses alike;

a street of grey houses all alike.

Endless comparisons can be made between Paris and Lon don, though the distance between them is not so far: London is left-handed, Paris is right-handed. In Paris the houses are high and the streets are narrow, but in London quite the reverse.

Londoners prefer to drink tea, Parisians coffee. Parisians shake hands every minute, but Londoners never do and so on.

One can see Tzar Street in honour of Peter the Great and Mos cow Street in London. Just fancy! Moscow Street in London!.

Some facts: the First Underground tube was opened in 1862, the first omnibus in London ran in 1829. In 1832 the first fire brigade was founded. The University of London exists since 1836.

Botanical Garden in London is the largest in the world, it covers 120 hectares. There are 4 thousand different plants in this garden.

London bridge Vocab u lar y Notes Empire all alike without doubt London is left-handed to belong to different epochs commercial heart Paris is right handed symbol of wealth, luxury quite the reverse retail shops , to keep in mind unlike any other city Londoners - Parisians to shake hands London is a closed book , Answer the questions What is the population of London?

How many bridges cross the Thames within the city?

Into how many parts can London be divided?

What is the commercial heart of London?

Who lives in the East End?

What can you say about the West End?

What did V.I. Lenin use to say about London and Londoners?

What comparison can be made between London and Paris?

Do You Know That Rush-hours in London are between 7 and 9 in the morning, and between half past four and half past six in the evenings.

Everyone rushes: in the morning they rush to get to work, and in the evening they rush to get away from work.

Office hours in London begin at 9 oclock, all the schools as well. That is why rush-hours in London are noticeable.

Be Careful You broke one of the most important unwritten English laws when you jumped the queue back there. And you were called queue-jumper. Wherever three or more Englishmen come together they form a queue. The English are great lovers of law and order, and this is one of their traditions.

Do You Know That Michael Argyle of Oxford, a psychologist, made a round the-world journey to study the gestures of people of different races and nations. His observations show that in one hour the Englishman makes not a single gesture, the Finn makes only one, the Italian 80, the French 120 and the Mexican 180.

Do You Know That In the middle of March on a Sunday the English people have Mothers Day. On that day all the mothers do not work. The children give them flowers and presents.

Do You Know That The Great Fire of London (1666) broke out in the bakers shop of Master Farryner, in Pudding Lane, and burned for three days and nights, spreading to Pie Corner, where it was at last halted. St.

Pauls Cathedral, eighty-nine other churches, thirteen thousand two hundred houses, and other property was burned down.

PICCADILLY CIRCUS London is a very large city. There are many streets and squares there. And it is difficult to say what street or what square is the real centre of London, but many people choose Piccadilly Circus, as this part of the capital of England is con sidered the heart of Londons world. The best-known theatres, cinemas and most famous restaurants are situated not far from it. The best and expensive clubs, shops, rich old hotels are there.

One of the largest underground station in London is situat ed near Piccadilly Circus.

The Piccadilly Circus is in the West End. The English call it circus because it is round like a circus. The Circus is very beautiful in the evening. It is full of people going to the theatres, cinemas, restaurants or walking here. Piccadilly is bright in the day-time with flower-sellers and at night with electric adver tisements. One can see here real flower-girls, selling beautiful flowers: roses, carnations, tulips, etc.

Piccadilly dates from the seventeenth century when gentle men used to wear high white collars with frills. Those frills called piccadillies were sold in this street, that is why the street got the name Piccadilly.

Vocab u lar y Notes Piccadilly Circus flower-sellers night-clubs advertisement music-halls , , - flower-girls to be situated , full of people - piccadilly , , Answer the questions What can one see in the Piccadilly Circus?

From what century does Piccadilly Circus exist?

What do the flower-girls sell in the Piccadilly Circus?

It is a Tradition Touch Wood

Have you ever heard an Englishman say touch wood and then put his hand on the nearest thing to him that is made of wood?

It is English version of an old superstitism custom known in various ways in a number of countries. When a man in ancient times had said something boastful or optimistic, he always touched a sacred object in order to protect himself against Divine punishment for his arrogance.

TOWER OF LONDON Whoever comes to London is eager to see the Tower of London. It dates back to 1066 and is more than 900 years old.

If the ancient stones of Tower could speak they would tell us many things. The Tower comprises several towers: Jewel Tower, White Tower, were the kings of England held their Court, Bloody Tower, in which many great men Thomas More, the author of the famous Utopia among them were beheaded.

Though kinds were born, lived and got married there, it hap pened also that many kings and queens were murdered there.

The Tower has at one time or another been a citadel, palace, political prison, mint, treasury, armoury and observatory. Now it is a museum and is perhaps Londons most outstanding link in the chain of its history.

As the English people is very fond of traditions the Tower guards known as Beefeaters wear the same uniform as the one they wore many centuries ago.

Vocab u lar y Notes Tower of London - to be beheaded , to be eager to see - to be married to be murdered Jewel Tower Bloody Tower to be fond of traditions Answer the questions How old is the Tower of London?

What Towers does the Tower of London comprise?

Were was Thomas More beheaded?

As what was the tower used at different times?

The Climate of England The climate in England is milder than that of other countries.

The winters are warmer and the summers are cooler than those on the continent. It is never too cold or too hot there. The changes in temperature are not very great in England. The best seasons in England are spring and summer. But the summer in England is not so hot as it is on the continent. In winter they have all sorts of weather. Sometimes it rains and sometimes it snows heavily, and they also have fog and frost. The two worst months in England are January and February. They get many cold, wet days one after another. The winters are never cold enough to freeze the rivers, thanks to Gulf Stream, which is like a hot water pipe. As the ice is rather thin, they seldom skate on the rivers in England. It may snow any time from November to March. But in England in win ter it rains more often than it snows. Thats why some English people do not wear heavy overcoats but only warm raincoats. The most typical feature of the climate in England is the thick fog that they often have in autumn and in winter. It comes often and stays for weeks together. It may be of different colours. It may be white, yellow and sometimes black because of the smoke of thousands of chimneys. When it is white it is not so bad, though it is more dangerous to cross the street in a white fog than in a black one. But worst of all is the yellow fog. It enters all the houses, all the rooms so that the lamps in the rooms look quite dim. In a dense fog cars and buses move very slowly. People do not see each other at arms length. They walk along groping through the streets because they are afraid to lose their way in the fog.

Plants and Animals in England Of all the area of Britain 48.2 per cent has been brought into cultivation, being devoted to grain (wheat, barley, oats), green and garden crops and vegetables (turnips, carrots, onions, peas, beans, potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers, mangold, sugar beet, etc.), fruit: apples, pears, plums, cherries, grapes, strawberries, cur rants, gooseberries, raspberries and other less important plant.

The trees: oak, beech ash are mostly seen in England and Ireland and birch and the Scottish fir in Scotland.

One can see horses, sheep, dogs, deer, foxes, wolves, bears, pigs, hogs etc. in Britain.

BEEFEATERS The Famous Beefeaters The Tower of London is guarded by the Warders, the famous Beefeaters dressed up in traditional medieval clothes. The warders make the old historic place look still more fantastic and theatrical. Every night at 10 p.m. at the Tower of London there takes place the traditional ceremony of the Keys. The ceremo ny consists of the following: The guard is turned out and at every gate there is a cry: Halt, who goes there?. Then the coming guard replies:

The Keys!

Whose Keys?

Queen Elisabeths Keys!

Pass Queen Elisabeths Keys!

God Save the Queen!


And the Tower of London is safely closed for the night and the keys are finally carried by the Chief Warder to the Queens house, where they are kept for the night.

The Ceremony of the Keys has been taken place for nearly 700 years.

Vocabular y Notes Beefeaters . to look theatrical , medieval clothes . , to be turned out Answer the questions By whom is the Tower of London guarded?

When does the traditional ceremony take place?

Where does the Ceremony take place?

Whose house does the Chief Warder take the key to?

What time does the Ceremony take place from?

Do You Know That A visit to London is full of surprises. The moment your plane touches ground you feel that the English you had been taught or you had been teaching is not the (same) English that is generally spoken.

First the porter in the Customs attacks you with a Whichiz yoz, mam? (in Standard English Which is yours, madam?).

Then follows a cascade of questions, many equally unintelligi ble. The traveler is in for another surprise as soon as he leaves the airport. Traffic keeps to the left, so the foreigner always finds himself running in the wrong direction. It takes time to get accustomed to this change.

One sees cars of all sizes and all possible models. Many cars have a big letter L on them. That does not stand for London.

It stands for learner and to the wise it means beware.

ST. PAULS CATHEDRAL St. Pauls Cathedral, the masterpiece of Sir Christopher Wren, was built between 1675 and 1710. Wren himself is buried here, his tomb carrying the fitting injunction: Reader, if you seek his monument, look around you. St. Pauls Cathedral is faultless from the point of architecture. It is 157 metres in length, 110 metres high and width is 75 metres. Its bell is the biggest in London and weighs 17 tons. (Big Ben weighs only tons). It look Christopher Wren, one of the greatest architects in the world for all the times, 35 years to plan and build this Cathedral. Inside the cathedral one can see many monuments to generals and admirals. National hero of England admiral Nelson is buried there too.

The great architect lived in a long life.

He was born in 1632 and died when he was 91 in the year 1723. It is interesting to know that when in 1666 Great Fire took place in London and destroyed over 3000 houses, churches etc. a new London, London of stone (instead of wood en houses) with wide streets and better houses was built under the leadership of Christopher Wren.

London healed its wounds and became one of the biggest cities in the world. To commemorate the fire a tall column ft. high was erected not far from St. Pauls Cathedral.

Christopher Wren loved best of all St. Pauls Cathedral. Till the end of his life he usually asked to take him there so that he could see his beautiful work.

St. Pauls Cathedral is a rare sample of fine art. John Ruskin has said, Fine art is that in which the hand, the head and the heart of man go together. This was true with Wren within years while planning and building the Cathedral. Whispering Gallery is a real miracle.

Vocabu lar y Notes St. Pauls Cathedral a rare sample fitting injunction - Whispering Gallery , length and width , : , London of stone - , under the leadership , Answer the questions Between what years was St. Pauls Cathedral built?

Can you describe the Cathedral?

When was Christophier Wren born?

When did the Great Fire take place?

What has John Ruskin said about fine art?

It is interesting to know that A woman does not take off her gloves to shake hands, no matter when and where, and never apologizes for wearing gloves when shaking hands. A man wearing gloves never shakes hands with a woman without first taking off his right glove. If in the street he cannot free his left hand to take his right glove off, he says Excuse me glove!.

A problem in London Finding ones way about London is no easy matter. The labyrinth of some ten thousand streets, widely named with numbers following different patterns (none bearing number 13 however) is quite bewildering. There are 9 points in London named Bedford. It would be natural to assume that all these points would be near one another. But that is not the case.

Bedford Court is in one part of London while Bedford Square is miles apart.

TRAFALGAR SQUARE Trafalgar Square is considered to be the heart of London.

Here stands the tall Nelson Column, 168.5 feet high. Both Trafalgar Square and Nelson Column commemorate the Admiral whose victory has given the Square its name. Nelson is the national hero of the English people. It was Admiral Nelson who in 1797 won the battle with the Franco-Spanish fleet of Cape St.

Vincent in Portugal. In 1799, at the battle of Abokir near Alexandria in Egypt Nelson destroyed the French fleet. In Nelson defeated the Spanish fleet near Copenhagen.

And on October 21, 1805 the English fleet under Admiral Nelsons command defeated the combined fleet of France and Spain. It was the battle of Trafalgar the most famous battle of his (a cape near the Strait of Gibraltar) in which the victory was won at the cost of Nelsons life. The square is almost in the cen tre of London.

The main feature of the square, of course, is the tall Nelsons monument, admiral Nelson on the top. There are four great bronze lions at the base of the monument. The four lions are the work of Edwin Landseer. They have seen the passing of coro nation processions and royal funerals, and have been in the midst of everything from political demonstrations to the rowdy celebrations after England won the world Cup in football.

Every day they watch the thousands of Londoners and tourists who throng the square to feed the pigeons and to take the sun by the fountains. In short now Trafalgar Square is a much loved part of the London Scene.

Vocab u lar y Notes Trafalgar Square - coronation procession to win the battle - royal funeral feet (foot) to be in the midst of 30,5 . -- to throng the square to win with the cost - Answer the questions Who is the national hero of England?

When did admiral Nelson defeat the combined fleet of France and Spain?

Where did this most famous battle take place?

What is the main feature of the square?

Do You Know That In the beginning the London Underground had steam trains which were not very different from other English trains;

but they went along in big tunnels under the ground to keep away from the crowded city above. They could get from one place to another faster under the ground than above it, because there were no buses, trams, carriages, and people on foot to get in their way all the time.

Steam trains made the underground stations very dirty. So the people took them away and put electric ones in their place.

Now the London Underground is clean, and the electric trains run faster.

At every underground station there are maps of all the underground lines in London, and so it is easy to see how to get to the place one wants to go to. At some stations one can change to a different underground line, and in some places, such as Piccadilly, there are three lines crossing each other.

The trains on the different lines are not on the same level. To change trains, one has to go up and down some stairs to a new level. But people dont usually have to walk up and down these stairs. At most stations in the busy parts of London there are moving stairs, or escalators. At some stations there are lifts.

CHANGING THE GUARD BEFORE BUCKINGHAM PALACE Buckingham Palace is the official residence of the Queen and the King. here is always guard of soldiers before the Palace in old fashioned dresses. They are there to guard the palace, to look nice and give visitors something to stare at. The colourful ceremony of changing the guard, which takes place in front of Buckingham Palace is of great interest for the tourists. We know that a strong link with the history and love of tradition are typical features of English life. That is why we dont wonder the fact that the ceremony of changing the guard before the Buckingham Palace takes place for centuries and continues in our days. It is not said in vain Only the names and traditions live long in England.

If you see changing the guard, you will never forget it. The bright red and gold of the uniforms, the shining top-boots, the helmets, the feathers flying, the banner flying, the drummer drumming and the drummers sticks flying up in the air. Oh, no words can describe this mixture of old and modern, of theatri cal fantacy and real life. The ceremony takes place daily at 11.30 a.m. It attracts a very large crowd every day.

You can easily find out that the Queen is in residence. If She is in residence the Royal Standard will be flying.

Vocab u lar y Notes to stare at - the banner flying mixture of old and modern a strong link with the history , theatrical fantacy the drummer drumming Royal Standard Answer the questions What Palace is the official residence of the Queen?

In what dresses are the soldiers?

What is taking place in front of the Palace every day?

Can you describe the ceremony of changing the guard?

Do You Know That The arrival of the New year celebrated so wholeheartedly, is the one time of the year when scores and scores of hundreds of people are to be found in the street.

Songs are sung, bagpipes are piped, greetings exchanged and complete strangers are ever liable to offer you a drink and clap you on the back crying A Happy New Year!. Most of the people in the street carry mysterious parcels. They are first footing. An old custom which means that carrying gifts, you set out to be the first of the year to get foot over the threshold of the houses of your friends. Custom also has it, that if you are not armed with food or drink you must not be the first to cross the threshold. It is bad luck, says custom, to come first-foot ing thus.

Do You Know That Easter, like Christmas, is a great time for giving and receiv ing presents, but an Easter present traditionally takes one form only-an egg. Sometimes it is an egg for eating and sometimes, though less frequently, one for keeping.

The dyeing or painting of egg-shells is a custom which is still maintained, especially among the country people.

Easter without Easter eggs would be unimaginable like Christmas without Christmas trees.

QUEENS GUARD If you arrive in Great Britain you will hear the word tradi tion everywhere, it is really so. Because the Englishmen have sentimental love for traditions. The traditional dress of the Horse Guards regiments-Queens Guard has existed since the twelfth century. This dress costs a lot of money and seems very funny nowadays, but Englishmen stand for it because its their traditional dress.

Two horse guards with tall black fur caps, on black horses are guarding the entrance to the Palace. The soldiers sit absolutely still. They are surrounded by children who come quite close to them, almost touching them or touching the hors es, yet the soldiers remain quite motionless, like two status made of stone or marble.

Vocab u lar y Notes to stand for something to have sentimental love for traditions - , - horse guards regiment to stand motionless Answer the questions Who has sentimental love for traditions?

Since what century does the traditional dress exist?

How does the traditional dress seem?

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