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VII ۖ2012 , . ...

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What do the large guards guard?

What Do You Know About Sports and Games in England?

Most Englishmen regard themselves as sportsmen. This is not surprising. England has been the home of sport for cen turies. Football started there. Cricket, the national game, has not spread much beyond the countries of the Empire. Football has spread to the four corners of the world.

Has it ever struck you how many games and sports have been invented or perfected in Britain?

Football, rugby, cricket, golf, hockey, athletics, tennis, box ing, badminton and a lot of others. (Badminton was first played in England in 1873). The game itself was imported from India by the British. Some over-patriotic Britishers might still tell you that this is simply because the British are better. Another answer sometimes given is that the natural conditions in Britain are responsible the weather and especially the beautiful green grass which is ideal for cricket, lawn-tennis, bows etc. Indeed, sport in some form or another is an essential part of the Englishmans daily life and athletic training in an essential fea ture in the English system of education.

WESTMINSTER ABBEY Westminster Abbey is famous for its Poets Corner The great glory of Westminster is, of course, the Abbey. In 1066 when William the Duke of Normandy conquered England and got the name the Conqueror, he gave orders to finish Westminster Abbey. Soon Westminster Abbey was fin ished and William was the first king to be crowned there.

Since then, for nearly 1000 years, nearly all the English Kings and Queens have been crowned in the Abbey. Since then Westminster Abbey has been the crowning and burial place of British monarchs.

Tombstones of some kings and queens are made of gold and precious stones.

The wonderfully vaulted roof along the length of the nave, is of a startling and breathtaking beauty. There is an element of greatness here that is not just concerned with size and height.

Westminster Abbey is as well famous for its Poets Corner.

Here many of the greatest writers are buried: Chaucer, Dr.

Johnson, Charles Dickens, Tennyson, Thomas Hardy, Rudyard Kipling and others here too, though these writers are not buried in Westminster Abbey, are memorials to Shakespeare, Milton, Burns, Walter Scott, the Bronte sisters, Thackeray and the great American poet Longfellow.

Here is that touching symbol of a nations grief. The Grave of the Unknown Warrior. The inscription reads:

Beneath this stone rests the body of a British Warrior unknown by name or rank brought from France to lie among the most illustrious of the land.

Many great scientists as well are buried in Westminster Abbey. I. Newton, Ch. Darwin, J. Watt, G Stephenson, M.


Faraday among them.

Vocab u lar y Notes Westminster startling and breathtaking beauty Westminster Abbey - element of greatness to be crowned - touching symbol crowning and burial place Unknown Warrior Answer the questions What is the glory of Westminster?

When was the Abbey built?

Who was first crowned in the Abbey?

What is the Westminster famous for?

Who is buried in the Abbey?

What Do You Know About English Tea?

Tea drinking is quite a tradition with the English. The day starts with a cup of tea. There are two tea breaks at work at a.m. and at 4 p.m. (but its 5 oclock tea time at home). The Briton drinks tea when he is cold. He drinks tea when he is hot.

Tea is served in almost every house at about the same time 5 oclock in the afternoon. The tea cups and saucers, with the tea-spoons are laid on the table. The milk jug and the sugar basin are also on the table. There are small plates for bread and butter, or bread and jam, or biscuits. Tea is ready. It will proba bly surprise you to learn that when the mistress of the house in England offers her visitors a cup of tea, she sometimes asks:

Russian or English tea?. By Russian tea the English mean tea with a slice of lemon in it. English tea means very strong tea with milk in it.

CENOTAPH A MEMORIAL TO THE GLORIOUS DEAD OF BOTH WORLD WARS Whitehall is the street of Britains Ministries. It runs between Parliament Square and Trafalgar Square. Branching off Whitehall is a small unimpressive street that no one would give a second look if not for the fact that each Prime Minister has his official residence there at number 10 Downing street since 1710. (The cabinet meetings take place here too).

Standing right in the middle of Whitehall is the Cenotaph a memorial with the inscription The Glorious Dead. It com memorates the dead of both world wars.

State visitors usually place wreaths there.

When Spaceman Yuri Gagarin visited London in 1961, he placed a wreath on the plinth of the memorial and saluted the War dead.

Every year in November crowds gather at the Cenotaph and stand in silence for two minutes in a memorial ceremony. This is a simple white monument in the middle of the street without any effigy. People take off their hats when going by to the memory of the victims of both World Wars.

Vocab u lar y Notes Cenotaph to place a wreath , to stand in silence , to branch of , memorial ceremony unimpressive street without any effigy to give a second look - Answer the questions In what street is the Cenotaph?

What is written on the memorial?

What do the state visitors usually place there?

Who saluted the War dead in 1961 there?

In what month do the crowds stand in silence for two min utes in a memorial ceremony?

Why do people take off their hats when going by?


Almost every nation has a reputation of some kind. The result is the proverb: So many countries, so many customs. In Denmark on Fridays (It is a rest day) the men present their wives and the young people present their beloved girls with flowed. It is a custom eagerly accepted by everybody in the country.

In Holland on the arrival of an infant, the parents put a red pincushion on the door, if it is a boy, and if it is a girl, pincush ion is white. If you happen to be in France and are to shake hands with a blind man, dont forget to put your hand at first on his shoulder then to shake hands. It is a custom there. Manners and customs being the mode of life show characteristic features of this or that nation. Thus the French are supposed to be gay, the Eastern peoples hospitable, the Germans formal, efficient, fond of military uniform and parades;

the Americans boastful, energetic, gregarious and vulgar. The British are reputed to be cold, reserved, rather haughty people, who do not yell in the street, make love in public. They are steady, easy-going and fond of sport. A strong link with history and love of tradition are typical features of English life. It is not said in vain: Only the names and traditions live long in England.

English people like to give nicknames. For example Bank of England is called The Old Lady, only because it exists more than 250 years. Of course you know the story of Big Ben too.

Puffing Billy is the nickname given to the first English locomotive and so on. The working man seldom helps his wife on and off a bus, or holds out chair for her in a restaurant, or helps her to put her coat on. He acts in this way because he is forgetful or ride;

he sees her move as an equal. In fact, a work ing class woman would think her husband had gone mad if he began diligently to open doors for her. When greeting friends, working class people rarely shake hands. Only if they are intro duced to a stranger they do so, and among young people even this is becoming more unusual. They simply say How do you do or even just Hallo. No answer is expected unless the direct question, How are you? is asked.

Courtesies and bows are now considered antiquated.

The upper class act differently. They do tend to open doors for ladies and pull out chairs. One reason for this might be that the working class woman feels herself much more of an equal with her husband, especially if she works, than her upper sister.

Upper-class people sometimes still cling to the tradition of raising hats to a lady, but this is especially dying out.

One great difference between Britain and Germany is that there are no hot-dog stands on the street corners and railway stations. Hot-dog can be bought in England, but not as frequent ly as in Germany. On the other hand British people eat in the cinema and the theatre. Ice-cream, sweets and nuts are sold both at the cinema of theatre entrance or, during the intervals, inside.

In the cinema, the performances are continued from eleven in the morning till eleven oclock at night and one may enter the cinema at any time. There are therefore, periodic intervals bet ween the films when ice-cream, chocolate, soft drinks and so on are sold. Smoking is allowed in all cinemas and in a few theatres.

If strangers are introduced in families the introduction is usually simple. This is Miss Brown or if it is probably that the new comer will become a close friend of the family This is Susan.

In the north of the country they often address each other as love or dear;

in London they say ducks;

while in Glasgow one can be referred to affectionately as hen.

You would not be expected to bring flowers for your host ess, except as a birthday present.

Middle-class people are more formal than the working class. Introductions are made at parties, whether they are for the family alone or for strangers. In this case the handshake is accompanied by How do you do. A farewell greeting, such as Good bye, or Thank you for a lovely time is also accom panied by a handshake.

The working class family, on the other hand, will probably say cheerio or Be seeing you. Excuse me is a phrase which often causes the foreigner difficulty. Getting off a crowd ed bus one says Excuse me, please, and when one wishes to squeeze past someone. In a cafe when asking if there is a place at the table, Excuse me, but is this anyones seat? is the cor rect way to ask.

The Englishmans home is his castle is a saying known all over the world;

and it is true that English people prefer small houses, a house, built for one family, perhaps with a small gar den. But nowadays more and more blocks of flats are being built, especially by the local council because shortage of build ing land.

Englishmen do not as a rule like bright colours, exaggerat ed fashions. British people in general do not care about clothes as much as others do. They do not look after themselves as well as often go round in a filthy raincoat that no self-respecting for eigner would be seen dead in.

One point which is very difficult for foreigners to under stand, is the English sense of humour. English humour is ironi cal, often directed against oneself in a self-critical way. It rests on verbal battles. It is quite common to find good friends insult ing each other in a verbal battle.

Vocab u lar y Notes eagerly accepted - had gone mad to shake hands courtesies and bows the British are reputed to be soft drinks cold - yell in the street cling to the traditions make love in public - hot-dog stands , look after themselves the Englishmans home is his castle filthy raincoat shortage of building land be seen dead in , verbal battle blocks of flats Puffing Billy to give nicknames to put the coat on Do You Know Origin of Sandwich?

The word Sandwich is very common in English. If you want to know how the word Sandwich was born, you must know something about an England nobleman, the Earl of Sandwich who lived in the 18th century. He was known as the greatest gambler in London and played card for money. He often played day and night. On one occasion he remained at the cardtable for 24 hours, and during it, the only food he had was some slices of meat and bread brought to him by his servant. He did not stop to eat his food. He put the meat between the bread and in this way was able to continue playing while eating.

People who were watching the game liked Sandwichs idea and it soon became popular to eat bread and meat in this way.

From the name of this man, the Earl of Sandwich, we have the word Sandwich today.

HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT The Houses of Parliament were built in the middle of the last century and was completed in 1857. It is 270 metres in length. The Houses of Parliament include the House of Lords and the House of Commons, Westminster Hall, the Clock Tower, the Victoria Tower, Various Committee rooms, offices etc. The Clock Tower is 316 ft. high.

When Parliament sits, a flag flies over Victoria Tower by day and a light in the Clock Tower burns above the Big Ben by night. Daily sessions start at 2.30 p.m. and end by 10.30 p.m.

Visitors are allowed on the invitation of MPs only. They will be taken on conducted tours on Friday afternoons and Saturday, when Parliament is not sitting. Visitors may not touch anything or sit on the MPs benches. Lucky visitors will get special invitation to sit in the special Strangers Gallery during a meeting of the House. They may listen, but not take any notes.

The House of Commons has 630 members and the House of Lords 850 members: one-third of whom to-day are company directors. The Prime Minister is usually the leader of the party that has a majority in the House of Commons. The party which obtains the majority of seats in the House of Commons is called the Government and others the Opposition.

There are two rows of benches in the House of Commons for the ruling party on one side and the oppositions on the other.

The Speaker doesnt belong to any party. He cuts himself away from any party whichever he belonged to before he was elected Speaker. In law, the Queen can summon Parliament or dissolve it.

In practice, the Queen acts only on the advice of her Ministers. She reigns, but she doesnt rule. The Queen enters the Houses of Parliament only on the day of the opening of Parliament.

Vocab u lar y Notes Parliament is Sitting ruling party House of Commons to cut oneself away from any party House of Lords Speaker , to obtain the majority of to be elected Speaker seats - - to summon or dissolve Answer the questions When were the Houses of Parliament built?

How many members has the House of Commons?

Does the Speaker belong to any party?

Who can summon or dissolve the Parliament?

When does the Queen enter the Houses of Parliament?

Do You Know That The Speaker must not belong to any political party, that he cuts himself away from party whichever he belonged to before he was elected Speaker.

before the debate begins in the Commons the Chaplain reads the prayer and when it is over the policeman cries:

Prayer is over, Speaker is in!.

if you happen to be there when the Speaker is in, the policeman would shout to you: Hats off, stranger!.

that after the debates in the Commons are over the atten dants shout: Who goes home? Who goes home?.

The tradition comes from the olden times when Westminster was a muddy spot away from the centre and was dangerous to go alone, because of thieves, so the shout meant that a group was forming to go home.

THE GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL LIFE TODAY The Prime Minister is responsible for every measure sub mitted to Parliament. He is the virtual ruler of the country, pre siding over the meetings of the Cabinet, which are always secret.

The Prime Minister chooses the members of the Cabinet from the Ministers. In this case as well as while choosing the Ministers the Prime Minister does not consult the House of Commons.

The House of Commons does not control the Cabinet, the Civil Service or the armed forces.

The strength of the government is powerfully reinforced by the right of the Prime Minister to secure a dissolution of Parliament at any time.

This is a right which belongs to the Prime Minister person ally. The Government may hold office for five years, unless it is defeated by the Opposition on some important Bill. If it is defeated the Government resigns and the Queen calls upon the leader of the opposition to form a new Government. In Great Britain at present day there are four great political parties Conservative, Labour, Liberal and Communist parties. The Conservative party is the party of landowners, bankers and industrialists. The Liberal party is the party of middle class and began to be called the Liberal Party, because the members of it gave refuge to everybody from any country. Thanks to it K.

Marx, F. Engels, V.I. Lenin and others took the chance and lived in London at different times. The Labour Party was founded in 1900 to enable the working class movement, to send its own representatives into Parliament. The Labour Party has always been as association of different class elements, which was not a clean break that took place. That is why in 1920 the Communist Party was formed. It was formed out of some of the finest ele ments in the British Labour Movement.

Vocab u lar y Notes her powers are limited hold office to call upon , virtual ruler of the country - was not a clean break Answer the questions Who chooses the members of the Cabinet?

Does the House of Commons control the Cabinet?

How many years may the Government hold office?

How many great parties are there in England now?

When was the Communist party formed in England?

Do You Know That The national flag of Britain is called Union Jack and consist of three crosses on a blue background. The first is the cross of St. George, representing England;

the second that of St.

Andrew, for Scotland, which was added by James I;

the third is the cross of St. Patrick, for Ireland, which was finally added after the union in 1801. That describes the Union part. The jack part is concerned with the sea. A jack is a small sized flag, used at sea as a signal, and usually flown at the bow or fore-part of the vessel.

Do You Believe It?

An English traveler was one day in Paris and saw in a street a man with a black beard and very white hair. He stopped the man and asked him:

How does it happen that you have so black a beard so white a head of hair?!.

Sir, the man answered, it is because the head is 20 years older than the beard.

BIG BEN Clock Tower is famous thanks to Big Ben. Big Ben is a clock at the top of the Clock Tower of the Houses of Parliament in London. It is more than 120 years old. To reach it one has to climb 360 steps. The clock has 4 faces and each face is 7 metres across. The minute hands are 45 metres long and the figures on the face are 60 centimetres long, the minute-hand is 4.26 m.

It weighs 13 tons, 726 kgs.

It is not the clock at Westminster, which weighs 17 tons and is the heaviest in England, but it is the best known clock housed in St. Stephens Tower and chimes the hour. It was named after sir Benjamin Hall, who was Chief Commissioner of Works at the time, it was cast. How did it happen?

When the great bell was cast in a London foundry (in 1858), the question of its name was discussed in Parliament. One member said: Why not call it Big Ben?. There was much laughter among the members. Because it was a nickname of Benjamin Hall, as he was a very tall, stout man. Since then the clock and bell of the Clock Tower of the Houses of Parliament has been known as Big Ben.

Vocab u lar y Notes Clock Tower Commissioner of Works seven metres across to be cast minute hands there was much laughter to be housed - to be known as to chime the hour Answer the questions When was Big Ben cast?

Where is it housed?

How many tons does it weigh?

Whose nickname was Big Ben?

Do You Know That For company and conversation the English go to the pub.

In the cafes you can have only coffee, tea and soft drinks.

You go to a caf for a meal or for a quick cup of tea, but not to sit and watch the world go by. When you want to rest after a days work, you go to the public house.

Each public house has its own regular customers who go there every night to drink one or two pints of beer slowly, and play dominoes, and so on.

There you may find every kind of person. Doctors, school teachers, workmen;

in a village, the station-master and the vil lage policeman. Company, thats what a man wants!

Most pubs have a piano and on Saturday night the cus tomers often sit round it and sing. The people who want to sing ask one of the customers to play the piano. They buy drinks for the pianist, that is the custom. The one who plays has free drinks as long as he plays. When he stops he becomes an ordi nary customer again and must pay for his own beer.

If you go to the pub regularly the landlord will get to know you and will remember what you usually drink. Many landlords know their regular customers so well that even if you have been away from England for many years and then one day walk in, the landlord will come up to you and ask without showing sur prise: The usual, sir?.

The pub is the place where you meet people. You get to know other regulars, you buy drinks for them and they buy drinks for you, and you talk. You talk about the weather or how the English cricket players are doing in the match against Australia, about football or Parliament. But the regulars who meet there almost every night for years never go into each others homes.

On Saturday people usually stay in the pub till closing time.

In England the opening hours are fixed by law. Pubs open at ten in the morning and close at two oclock. Then they open again at six and stay open until ten-thirty. At Easter, or Christmas, or the New Year, the landlord may ask the authorities to keep open longer.

Many pubs are centuries old some are as much as seven hundred years old and were once inns.

The pub is friendly, warm and very typically English.

FLEET STREET Fleet street is the heart of British newspaper-land. It is one of the best known streets in the world. Beginning with the first Weekly News published in 1622 nearly all of them are print ed here and have their offices here. Here every thing is under the ground. If you walk in Fleet Street you will feel how the ground under your feet swings, because of the machinery work ing in the basement. The street is simply packed with vans, cars, motorcycles and newsboys every day between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m. when the latest news is ready to go out all over the world.

The most popular papers are: The Daily Telegraph 30 pages, Sunday Telegraph 40 pages, The Times 22 pages, The Economist 90 pages, New Statesman 48 pages etc. and one of the very important, of course, is Morning Star.

The Englishmen are very fond of reading. From 18 to millions newspapers are sold every day. For every 100 inhabi tants 50 copies of daily papers are sold every day. If you look through most English newspapers, you might be struck and get lost in the forest of pages, where many pages are devoted to gossips, film stars, murder cases and divorces. And many of these news become a red lie. As a result of it there appeared the English anecdote: Once a correspondent was sent abroad to report events. The newspaper of the publisher waited news. But none appeared. So his editor sent a short, but sharp cable say ing: Why unnews?. The correspondent answered: Unnews good news!. The editor sent another telegram: Unnews, un job. The correspondent took the hint and when there were no news he simply invented. Another important thing. They speak much about free press in Britain, but Britains free press is really one of the most undemocratic. The Morning Star is the only independent paper. The paper was brought into existence as Daily Worker by the Communist Party in 1930. In The Daily Worker got its new name Morning Star. The staff of the Morning Star are among the best journalists in Britain. Some of them have been with the paper since it began.

Walter Holmes, Allen Hutt and others among them. It was Allen Hutt who opened the Memorial Plague of F. Engels in Rich mond Street in London, where he lived from 1870 till 1894.

Fleet Street is popular as the centre of British journalism. It is really the centre of National Press.

Fleet Street is also associated with the name of Dickens. The Marshalsea Debtors Prison, where Dickens father was impris oned is in this street.

Vocabular y Notes newspaper-land unnews good news to be packed with to take the hint to be fond of , to be struck - to be brought into existence to be associated with to get lost in the forest of pages to be devoted - memorial plague red lie The Marshalsea Debtors Sharp cable () Prison Answer the questions What street is the heart of British newspaper-land?

What are the most famous English newspapers?

What can one read in those newspapers?

Can you tell the English anecdote about the English corre spondent?

What is the name of the English Communist partys news paper?

When was it brought into existence?

Do You Know That They have found an unpublished letter of Charles Dickens.

On April 1, 1842 at the midpoint of a six-month trip to America he wrote of the country: The nation is a body without a head.

I believe the heaviest blow ever dealt at libertys head will be dealt by this nation to the earth (see: Moscow News, June 20, 1970).

*** English cinemas show films from about midday to an hour or two before midnight. Very few cinemas have any break in the programmes for more than 10 minutes. You may come into the cinema and leave it any time you like. A full programme at a cinema is made up of one full length film, a shorter film, a coloured cartoon film and a news film.

*** In some parts of England you may expect a knock on your door on the last night of the year. When you open it you may see some boys with black faces. They are carrying brushes.

With these brushes they clean all the dirt from the fire-place, at the same time sing a song.

When they finish you give them some money.

*** In the middle of the 14th century a dreadful disease, the plague, raged in England, and about one third of the whole pop ulation of England perished.

the most ancient city in England is Chester.

the highest mountain of the British Isles is Ben Nevis, in Scotland.

there is one British island which has but one house on it:

this is Jethou, one of the Channel Islands.

the narrowest street in Britain is Nelson Street in Kings Lynn near Norfolk. Here you can shake hands through the win dow with your neighbor across the street.

the oldest working clock in the world is in Salisbury Cathedral, England. It dates from at least 1386.

ORATORS CORNER IN HYDE PARK Hyde Park is like many other London Parks, but there is a corner of it, the like of which is not to be found anywhere else in England or anywhere else in the world for that matter. A cen tury ago this little corner of Londons largest Park used to be a favourite place for duelling.

When it was that Englishmen gave up settling their differ ences with sword and pistol and decided to use their tongues instead the historians do not tell us. Probably the tradition became established at the end of the last century, when the great political movements of the time had spread the desire for debate to all classes of the population. Here, on wooden stands and soap-boxes and even on ordinary park chairs (if the park-keep er doesnt spot them) all kinds of men and women stand up and give their views on subjects that range from politics and region to cures for rheumatism and the best way of getting on with ones mother-in-law. Among the park orators there are serious speakers and cranks, jokers and fanatics. In order to learn spo ken English V.I.Lenin used to go there to listen to the speakers.

Speakers Corner is one of the show-places of British bourgeois democracy. Foreign visitors are always conducted there to wit ness freedom of discussion in Englands capital. The Speakers Corner, is in fact, one of the most successful tricks of the ruling class, the most cunning ruling class in the world. They set aside a small place where discontented people can gather to complain in corners, to let off steam. Speakers Corner in Hyde Park is the best-known of these social safety valves. After listening to some of the speakers (many of them speak a lot of nonsense) one wonders how long this institution of Speakers Corner will be allowed to go on.

Vocab u lar y Notes Orators (Speakers) favourite place for duelling Corner () the like of which is not to be to give up found to give ones view , - the best way of getting on with to let off stream show-place social safety valves freedom of discussion to be allowed to go on Answer the questions In what park is the Orators Corner?

What kind of people are there among the speakers?

Who used to go there while being in London?

Is the Speakers Corner one of the most successful tricks of the ruling class?

What does one think after listening to some of the speakers?

You are sure to like the origin of BARBER The name for a hairdresser is not difficult to understand when it is remembered that the Latin for beard is barba. In those days hair was born long, but beards were trimmed. So the trimmer of beards was a barbar. When beards were no longer trimmed but shaved off, the shaver was still a barbar or barber.

READ AND RELATE Thomas More was one of the greatest men of his time. He was an Oxford scholar. Later he lived in London and became a famous lawyer.

In 1516 Thomas More wrote his famous book called Utopia. It is supposed to be a travellers description of a won derful island he had visited across the ocean. It was an ideal country, where nobody was idle or overworked, nobody was very rich or very poor, and there were no criminals. Of course, Mores object was to draw attention to the evils which he saw around him in England.

We must add that the theme was not new in the world liter ature. This theme was elaborated in the XII century by the great Azerbaijan poet Nizami Ganjavi in his famous Igbalnama.

Thomas More was a delightful man wise, witty and good humoured. Henry VIII the king used to ride down to call on him, just for the pleasure of his company. As often happens with the great men he had to die a terrible death. The thing is that Henry VII, Henry VIII father in order to have connection with one of the greatest powers in Europe had arranged a marriage for his eldest son Arthur the daughter of Ferdinand of Spain, Catherine.

Unfortunately Arthur died six months later, but the king was determined not to let these advantages slip, so the Princess was betrothed to his second son Henry. According to law, no man could marry his brothers widow;

but the King obtained a spe cial dispensation from the Pope.

But when Henry VIII became the king he had no child. As the years went on, doubts began to arise in Henry VIII mind.

Was his childlessness a punishment from God for some sin?

Perhaps he ought not to have married his brothers widow?

Henrys doubts increased when he fell in love with Anne Boleyn, the daughter of a city merchant. He ordered his people to obtain from the Pope a pronouncement that the marriage with Catherine had never been legal, and that he was therefore free to marry Anne. In ordinary circumstances there would be no difficulty, but now Pope Clement VII was in a very unpleasant position. He dared not offend Charles V by such an insult to Catherine. He didnt want to offend Henry either, so he delayed the answer as long as he could, by one excuse after another.

Henry grew impatient, and when at last he was invited to Rome and plead before a foreign court he became furious, and an nounced that he had already married Anne Boleyn. Everybody was sorry for poor Queen Catherine. The Pope excommunicat ed the king.

The Parliament replied an Act declaring the king to be Supreme Head of the Church in England.

There were many, who were against this Act, among them Thomas More, a friend of the King. He spoke about it openly.

The King caused Parliament to pass a new Act imposing the penalty of death on anyone who refused an oath acknowledging the King as head of the Church.

Thomas More refused the oath and calmly prepared for the end which he saw approaching. Mores cheerful good humour has made his execution famous.

I shall soon be above that fellow he said, glancing up at the sun. As he set foot on the rickety stairs to the Scaffold he remarked to the commander of the guard: I pray you, Master Lieutenant, see me safely up. For my coming down I will shift for myself.

Vocab u lar y Notes to ride down to call - to pass a new act to die a terrible death imposing the penalty of death not to let these advantages slip - see me safely up fall in love with I will shift for myself he dared not offend MASS MEETINGS Mass Meetings are organized in Hyde Park, in Trafalgar Square and other places. In Trafalgar Square the large plat form of Nelsons Monument is often used by the speakers when there are stormy mass meetings or political demonstra tions for Peace and Disarmament, for Better School Buildings, Better Pension, Better Conditions, Solidarity, Better Old-Age Pensions, More Schools for Children, Higher Wages-Lower Rents and so on. The strikers carry placards with above words. After Trafalgar Square they pass many streets and move on towards the Hyde Park. The marchers every short while shout slogans about the strike. The main organizers and speakers wait for them in the Park ready to deliver speeches on the platforms.

Vocab u lar y Notes mass meeting better conditions to be used - higher-wages-lower rents demonstrations for peace and , disarmament to move on better old-age pensions - to wait for to deliver speeches the marchers shout slogan Answer the questions Where are Mass Meeting organized?

What for are political demonstrations organized?

What do the strikers carry with them?

What do the marchers shout?

Do the main organizers deliver speeches?

Try it yourself!

Can you take one look at a stranger and read his character at a glance? No? Well let Aristotle help you with his book edited in London in 1857.

Eyes He whose eyes are neither too little nor too big and inclined to black do signify a man mild, peaceable, honest, witty and of a good understanding.

Noses A long nose extended, the tip of it bending down, shows the person to be wise, discreet, secret and officious.

He who has a nose big at the end shows a person of a peace able disposition, industrious and faithful.

Hair He whose hair of a brownish colour is a well-disposed man, inclined to that which is good.

Mouths A little mouth shows the person to be of a quiet and pacific temper, secret and modest.

Ears Small and thin ears show a person to be of a good will, secret, modest, of a good memory and one willing to serve his friends.

Chins A thick and full chin shows a man inclined to peace, honest and true to his trust.

AN UNEMPLOYED ARTIST It is not a rare thing to see a pavement artist in London Streets. He has become a pavement artist not because he is less talented. Not at all. He simply cant find any job and is obliged to become a pavement artist. Here are some sentences about an unemployed artist from the book This is London: We got off and walked to old Bond Street the most expensive and aristo cratic shopping district of London. Just as the girls were run ning from shop to shop with loud Oh!-s and Ah!-s. We saw a pavement artist. He was not old, but his face was grey and very thin and tired, his clothes looked tired too.

His old hat lay on the pavement beside his picture which was painted right on the pavement in coloured chalks. Below the picture were the words Ladies and Gentlemen! A penny is enough. Thank you kindly.

What is this? Is it not begging? Yes, it is. But he cant beg otherwise. The thing is that in accordance with the law begging is forbidden in London. But you can sell any small things in the streets or draw pictures on the pavement. here, in London, this case whoever you be talent wont help you. It is not simply one of Londons contrast, but it is the evil of Capitalist System.

Vocab u lar y Notes a rare thing in accordance with begging is forbidden a pavement artist , whoever you be ( ) to be obliged to evil of capitalist system () to get off , Answer the questions Is it a rare thing to see a pavement artist in London street?

Why is one obliged to become a pavement artist?

Begging is forbidden in London, isnt it?

What is the evil of capitalist system?

Read and think over Richard I, who ruled England from 11891199 and was famous for his military talents and was called the Lion Hearted perished because of his greediness. The thing is that a vassal of the king by name Vidomor had found a treasure, of which he sent part to Richard as a present. Richard claimed the whole of it and when he got a negative answer besieged the cas tle in person and said that would hang everybody, but an archer took aim at him and pierced his shoulder with an arrow. But the kings garrison took the castle hanged everybody, except the archer, who had wounded the king and whom the king reserved for a more cruel execution. The wound wasnt itself dangerous;

but the unskilfulness of the surgeon made it mortal. When Richard knew that the death was near, he called the archer and spoke to him.

Wretch, he said what have I ever done to you, to oblige you to seek my life!.

You killed my father and my two brothers when they were not innocent answered the archer. You intended to have hanged myself. Now I am in your power, you may take the revenge.

Richard struck with the reasonableness of this reply, ordered the archer to be set at liberty and a sum of money to be given him. His people flayed the unhappy man alive, but then seized him, took the money and then hanged him. There is another sor rowful fact about Richards life. Before Richard, the king of England was his father (from 1154 till 1189) Henry II.

He was the greatest prince of his time for wisdom. In there was a revolt, when Henry II knew that his beloved son Richard was at the head of the revolt, he couldnt bear it and died.

THE BRITISH MUSEUM It was opened in 1759 and today it has become one of the best, richest and most famous museums in the whole word.

When you enter it, you see Britain as it was in the early days of its history. There are rooms in it, in which you can see works of art of different times and countries.

The museum is a great scientific institution, generally known as Natural History Museum. It is at the same famous for its zoological and botanical collections too. Then there is an enormous collection of manuscripts there.

But in the first place the British Museum is a great library, one of the greatest in the world with something like six mil lion books. (These books in different languages take up more than eighty miles of shelves) and a separate Newspaper library.

One can find many different and interesting historical things from all parts of the world in the British Museum. Many things of interest from Azerbaijan, great poet Nizamis Khamsa

among them, are there too. Shah Ismail Khatais, Mohammad Fizulis, M.F.Akhundovs works are there too.

Many scientist from all over the world come to study above mentioned collections.

Vocab u lar y Notes richest and most famous enormous collections of manuscripts scientific institution eighty miles of shelves 80 Natural History Museum all over the world - above-mentioned Answer the questions When was the British Museum opened?

Is it a great scientific institution?

How many books are there in its library?

What can one see in that library from Azerbaijan?

Why do many scientists from all over the world come to the British Museum library?

Read and Translate Changes in Mens Ideas For centuries clergymen were the only educated people, they alone could be ministers of state, teachers, lawyers, artists, scientists. But later there had been signs of changes. the Church began to lose mens respect, for its hold over mens mind and because of the doctrines that this life is only a preparation for the life to come, and that men ought not to try to know too much about it, or give themselves up to enjoying it. But it is only nat ural for people to take an interest in the world in which they live. Scholars now began to search out the writings of the old Greeks, who were so eager to discover all that was to be known about nature. Explorers tried to learn about unknown parts of the globe. Scientists began to probe into facts instead of spin ning theories out of the texts the Bible. here was a general desire for knowledge among all sorts and conditions of men.

Great invention come only when men have learned to feel the need for them. This was why printing and paper came just at this time. This great change in mens outlook on the world is called The Renaissance. The word means rebirth the rebirth of peoples interest in this world.

Do You Know That Famous American inventor Alva Edison, self-educated knew the value of learning and speaking on education said:

Education isnt play. It is hard, hard work. But it can be made interesting work.

READING HALL The Reading-room of the library is a large round hall for 500 readers. Many great men have studied in the famous read ing room. K.Marx spent a great deal of his time in the Museum reading room when he lived in London and wrote his well known works. Year after year often for as much as sixteen hours a day Marx spent at the British Museum Reading Hall working on his Capital. In his book which appeared in 1864 Marx explained the economic laws of Socialist development and proved that the class struggle, which in the end breaks through the capitalist barrier, leads to socialism. This was a great dis covery. Later, in 19021908 Lenin also became a regular visi tor of the Museum Reading-room, gathering materials which he needed for his works. The list of books V.I. Lenin read there, and his letter to the Director of the Museum, belong to its col lection of historical papers.

During the Second World War, the Reading-room was badly damaged. Over 150.000 volumes of books and magazines per ished in flames caused by Nazi bombs.

Vocab u lar y Notes class struggle reading-hall;

reading-room a great deal of time to break through the barrier year after year to lead to economic laws - to need for , socialist development - to perish in flames , Answer the questions What kind of hall is the reading-hall?

Who has studied in the famous reading-hall?

For how many readers is the reading-hall?

Did Lenin work in the reading-room as well?

Was he a regular visitor of the Museum reading-room?

LENINS SIGNATURE IN THE REGISTER OF THE READING HALL V.I. Lenin made five visits to London between 1902 and 1908. He came to London for the first time in April 1902 to con tinue the illegal publication of Iskra. Taking the favourable chance Lenin became a regular visitor to the British Museum Reading Hall and spent a great deal of his time there gathering material for his work Materialism and Empiriocriticism.

Lenins letter with his signature at the bottom to the Director of the library is among the collections of the historical papers of it.

I have read the Directions respecting the Reading Room and I declare that I am not under twenty one years of age. Lenin was 32 then and he was known in London under the name of Jacob Richter. On April 21, 1902 under this name Lenin wrote a letter to the director of the museum, asking for a readers tick et. The letter said:

Sir, I beg to apply for a ticket of admission to the Reading Room of the British Museum. I came from Russia in order to study the Land question. I enclose the reference letter of Mr. Mitchell.

Believe me, Sir, to be Yours faithfully, Jacob Richter April 21, Vocab u lar y Notes to make visits at the bottom , illegal publication to be under 21 years of age 21- to take the favourable chance under the name to be known Answer the questions Who made five visits to London?

Between what years did V.I. Lenin visit London?

When did he come to London for the first time?

What for did he come to London?

At what library did Lenin work?


Not far from the office of the newspaper of the English Communists Morning Star there is a house, which is dear not only to the English workers but also to the working people in the whole world. In this house there is a tiny room where Lenin worked in those days on the Russian working-class newspaper Iskra still stands and is kept as it was in those days. The house is now known as Marx house. It was founded in 1933 as a memorial to the great thinker and revolutionary. And Lenins stay in London was com memorated by a bust of his placed in the Finsbury Town Hall.

Vocab u lar y Notes office of a newspaper to be founded , to be dear to - thinker and revolutionary - a tiny room - to be commemorated , to be kept - Answer the questions Was the room tiny where V.I. Lenin edited Iskra?

Why is the house known as Marx House?

When was it founded?

By what was Lenins stay in London commemorated?

Do You Know That Racing is a popular pastime with the English people. There are all kinds of racing in England horse-racing, motor-car rac ing, boat-racing, dog-racing, and even races for donkeys.

Very popular in Britain is boat-racing. People started to use the boats for racing in the 19th century. Boat races took place not only in London on the Thames, but also in the universities of Oxford and Cambridge. The first boat race between Oxford and Cambridge took place in 1829.

There is a boat race between these two universities every year.

It takes place in London on the Thames, at the end of March or the beginning of April, according to the tides. The course is four and a quarter miles long and has many turns. The men members of the college Boat Clubs train together for twelve weeks before the race, first in Oxford or Cambridge and then in London. On Boat Race Saturday the banks of the Thames are thick with peo ple who have come to watch. Some wear dark blue ribbons (for Oxford), and some wear pale blue ribbons (for Cambridge).

MARX TOMB IN HIGHGATE CEMETERY Karl Marks died in 1883 and on the 17th of March was buried in Highgate Cemetery in London. In 1956 a monument to K.Marks was erected by international subscriptions.

Thousands of workers of the whole world sent money to have this monument erected. It is a massive block of marble with a sculpture of Marxs head on the top. Under it one can read:

Workers of all Lands Unite Karl Marx.

The monument looks very simple, yet most impressive. The bust was done by Lawrence Bradshow. Everyone who comes to London, particularly from the Soviet Union, wants to visit the Highgate Cemerety to pay tribute to Karl Marx grave. In great Azerbaijan poet, academician Samed Vurgun while being in London visited Marx grave and wrote his famous poem At the Grave of Karl Marx. We give here some extracts from it in Tom Bottings translation.

At the Grave of Karl Marx (an extract) Highgate Cemerety the tomb of Karl Marx Here I feel the earths patience is too much to bear, No memorial or stela that simple grave marks, Though the genius of centuries lies at rest there.

At the head of the grave is a half-sunken stone With a patchwork of Patterns of running drops trace.

Karl Marx, as I saw, does not lie here alone, Beside him the daughter he loved has a place.

Our hearts, all the world, all the people around Are stilled by respect. Not a whisper is heard Nature breathes quiet, making no sound.

To converse with infinity souls need no word.

Yes, Marx is alive! The truth cannot perish!

He approaches, and nature itself seems to pause, For what I once fought, said he, you men still cherish You have crowned with your triumph our noble cause.

The image of Marx makes us confident, brave To the workers new hope for the future he gave The Communist epic was traced by his pen His genius dug King Capitals grave.

Vocab u lar y Notes Workers of all Lands Unite international subscriptions , - , to be erected - to pay tribute to massive block of marble while being in London Answer the questions When did K.Marx die?

When was the monument erected to K.Marx?

Who sent money for this purpose?

What can one read on the monument?

By whom was the monument done?

Who visited Highgate Cemetery in 1950 to pay tribute to Marx grave?

It is interesting to know that K. Marx emigrated to England in the summer of 1849 at the age of thirty one, and spent there the rest of his days. He main ly lived in Dean and Macclesfield streets. Both streets are ten minutes walk from the British Museum, where he spent a lot of time working on his works. Marx worked hard with his best friend and cooperator F.Engels.

In 1933 on the 50th anniversary of the death of K. Marx the house, where he lived after 1850 was founded as a Memorial Library to the greatest revolutionist of all the times. The house is dear to us twice, because in this house V.I.Lenin edited Iskra in 1902.

Vocab u lar y Notes ten minutes walk - a lot of time () to work hard the rest of his days anniversary of death ( ) BIRMINGHAM In the heart of England about 112 miles of London is Birmingham, a city with over a million inhabitants (1.107.200).

It is Britains second city. Because of the great variety of its industries people call it The city of 1500 Trades.

All the pins and needles in English household are probably of Birmingham make. The pens, that people write with, the spoons, forks, glasses are mostly products of Birmingham industry.

It is quite possible that motor-cars, the bicycles, the railway carriages and the rails they run on in England, the radio and tel evision sets etc. have come from Birmingham.

Only in a motor-car factory 17 000 workers produce over 3 000 cars a week. The University of Birmingham exists from 1880 and has 5 faculties. One can see there hospital, Botanical Gardens, Churches, drama, opera, and ballet theatres (the first one was founded in 1774), nearly 100 cinemas, restaurants, libraries, parks, art galleries, banks, different kinds of schools etc.

There is a great airport in the suburb of Birmingham. But Birmingham today is best known the world over as an industri al centre and it deserves its title workshop of the world for there seems no end of its industry.

It is true to say that Birmingham today makes nearly every thing.

Do You Know That The English size 14 corresponds to our size 46, 16 to 48, to 50, 20 to 52 etc. Clothes of larger sizes than 20 are seldom on sale and are referred to as outsizes. Size 7 in shoes corre sponds approximately to our size 40.

When Did Cervantes and Shakespeare Die?

Cervantes and Shakespeare both died on April 23, 1616;

yet they didnt die on the same day. Why? Because England and Spain used different calendars in the seventeenth century. There was a difference of ten days between the calendar used in England and the calendar used in Spain.

EDUCATION IN ENGLAND Schooling is compulsory in England for children of 5 to years of age. At 5 the children enter the Infant school. Reading, writing and arithmetic are taught for about 20 minutes a day during the first year, gradually increasing to about 2 hours in their last year. At 7 they are transferred to the primary school.

In general there are three main types of educational institutions:

primary (or elementary) schools, secondary schools and univer sities. They are all controlled to some extent by the Ministry of Education, the State schools most and the Universities least.

State schools are free and attendance is compulsory. Morning school begins at nine oclock and lasts for three hours, until oclock noon. Afternoon school begins at 2 oclock and lasts for two and a half hours until half past four. School is open five days a week. On Saturday and Sundays there are no lessons.

Towards the end of their fourth year at State primary school the pupils write their Eleven Plus Examination. After that com plications begin. It is necessary to have a look at recent history to see why. The thing is that in 1944 an unjust act was passed in Parliament which said that there were three types of chil dren: The Academic, the technical, the rest. In fact it boiled down to two types of children the successful who go to Grammar School until they are 16, and then on to university;

and the unsuccessful children who go to the secondary school (modern) and leave it at 15. (No children may leave school before the ago of 15). Some of the latter will go on to techni cal school and colleges.

The selection as to which school they will attend is made as above-said at the age of eleven and is based on the opinion of the teachers who taught the child at primary school and on an examination known as the eleven plus. Depending on the results the pupils are sent to different schools. Those obtaining the highest marks are sent to Grammar schools, the next best to a Technical School and the others to the Modern or Comprehensive schools. The secondary Modern School pro vides for its all-round education. This school is usually well equipped with workshops for woodwork, metalwork, pottery, art, cooking, knitting etc. This school is attended by about 75% of the pupils of this age group (1115). Only in this kind of school children are taught handicrafts. The Secondary Modern Schools can be compared with the secondary schools in the Soviet Union, except those schools in our country where gener al education is offered with a bias. For instance, we have schools with a bias in mathematics, physics and chemistry in Baku. This kind of school of ours can be compared with the English Secondary Technical Schools, which accept about 5% of the pupils from the Primary school and offer a general edu cation with a technical bias. It is interesting to know that English schoolboys wear a white shirt and a tie with the collars of the school. Over their shirts they wear grey pullovers and school jackets called blazers. And English schoolgirls wear a blouse or shirt with a tie and a shirt collar of their school. They wear their school blazers too. Their stockings and shoes are black.

Vocab u lar y Notes Comprehensive School depending on the results the next best to transfer , to provide for attendance is compulsory to be well equipped to boil down to , ( -) with a bias Answer the questions What subjects are taught at the Infant school?

To what school are the children transferred at the age of seven?

Is attendance to state schools compulsory?

What kind of schools are there in England?

What can you say about Grammar Schools?

What can you say about Modern or Comprehensive School?

It is interesting to know the origin of:

Suburb From the Latin sub under and urbs city in other words, a place under, or near, a city wall.

Pen, pencil A pen was in Latin penna, meaning a feather. The earliest pens were quills feathers cut into the form of pens with a pen-knife.

A pencil in Latin was penisellum a paint brush. This will come as no surprise to artists, since their brushes are still referred to in works on art as pencils.

Pacific ocean The Latin word for peaceful is pacificus, from pax, pacem peace. When, in 1520, Magellan discovered the ocean, he gave it the name of Pacific because he had found it relatively free from storms.

Rector The word means one who rules, from the Latin regere to rule: rector ruler.

School The word, curious as it may seem, comes from the Greek schole;

and the Greek schole meant leisure.

Anecdote This word meaning a story which is told to all and sundry, has come to a corruption. Strictly speaking it should be some thing told in confidence, its origin being the Greek a (or an) not and ekdotos published or given out not to be pub lished or given out.

Glove Comes to us without any derivation from the Anglo-Saxon glof the palm of the hand.

Good-bye It is actually a contraction of God be with you;

the French say adieu (a Dieu I commend you to God).

GRAMMAR SCHOOL The Grammar School is for boys or for girls or for both.

This school takes in about 20 per cent of children from the Primary Schools and offers a five-year course. They are day schools and the hours of instruction are similar to those at pri mary school, but the subjects are wider and more advanced:

English (language and literature), mathematics, history (English and European), geography, natural science, languages (French, German, Spanish, Italian and Russian of course one of them), commercial subjects (typewriting, shorthand, book-keeper and accounting), art, music, handwork and physical training.

When boys and girls reach the age of 16 years they may sit for the General Certificate of Education, which shows that the holder has received a general education and has reached cer tain standards in various subjects. There are, indeed, three standards or levels: ordinary, advanced and scholarship. In order to gain an entrance to a university, a boy or a girl must pass examinations in five subjects of which English and another language must include either mathematics or science.

He or she must pass at least two of these five subjects at the advanced level.

It is easier to get to a university from Grammar School than others.

Vocab u lar y Notes to take in ordinary level primary school - advanced level to gain an entrance Answer the questions Are the Grammar Schools day schools?

How many per cent of children from the primary schools do the Grammar schools take?

What course do they offer?

TECHNICAL COLLEGE There are many types of colleges in England. They are with in Universities. That is why when people speak about higher education in Great Britain they are generally thinking of University education. The are different types of colleges.

Technical colleges among them. Colleges give a specialized training. In comparison technical colleges are new. With the advance of industrialization and the growth of manufacture in the nineteenth century, technicians and scientists were needed.

The older universities did not produce them. Therefore, science classes were set up the industrial centres and they developed into technical colleges or the Modern Universities. Most of the colleges have single-subject courses.

Vocab u lar y Notes higher education with the advance of specialized training - to be set up in comparison - single-subject courses Answer the questions Do the Colleges give a specialized training?

When did the technical colleges appear?

Are the technical colleges new in comparison?

What does single-subject course mean?

Do You Know Wedding Anniversaries?

The names popularly given to wedding anniversaries are as follows:

First year Cotton wedding Second Paper wedding Third Leather wedding Fifth Wooden wedding Seventh Woolen wedding Tenth Tin wedding Twelfth Silk and fine linen wedding Fifteenth Crystal wedding Twentieth China wedding Twenty-fifth Silver wedding Thirtieth Pearl wedding Fortieth Ruby wedding Fiftieth Golden wedding Seventy-fifth Diamond wedding Wedding ring Although, to-day, the wedding ring of a woman is merely an ornamental badge, or symbol, of her claim to be a wife, it was in the earliest days of much more importance. It was, in fact, the seal which gave a wife the right to represent her husband in every way. The ring was the seal with which all orders were signed.

PUBLIC SCHOOLS In England alongside with the state schools which provide free education there are also the Fee-paying private independ ent schools. These are quite different in their organization from the others. The thing is that the children are to go to pri vate kindergarten from 5 to 8, then to a Preparatory school till 13 and finally to a Public School until the age of 18. At this age the pupils are qualified to enter the Universities. Most of the Public Schools have an excellent reputation in the eyes of the general public. The most famous Public Schools are: Harrow, Eton, Rugby, Winchester. Harrow was founded in 1571, Winchester in 1382, Eton in 1400. In fact these schools serve the upper classes and wealthy groups. Fee in these Public schools is very high, that is why in these schools the sons of very rich people future directors of banks, Ministers and Prime Ministers study. Because of this and in spite of very high fee flow to these schools is so big that the names of the children are put down in the School list nearly after their birth. The doors of Oxford and Cambridge are open for those from Public School. Graduates of Public Schools have special ties for ever. The graduates of Harrow have blue with stripes, of Eton black with blue stripes, of Winchester blue with brown.

Vocab u lar y Notes Fee-paying schools in the eyes of public an excellent reputation upper classes in spite of Answer the questions Is Harrow a private school?

Is it a fee-paying school?

When was Harrow public school founded?

Whom do private schools serve?

The doors of what universities are open for those from pub lic schools?

OXFORD GENERAL VIEW Oxford is one of the finest and most ancient cities. Oxford is beauty in stone and history in stone. Oxford appears in histo ry in 912 of our era. The beauty of the buildings, the peace of the colleges and loveliness of the gardens are unforgettable. The 13th century was the great age of Oxford. The University of Oxford was founded in 1249. Oxford University contains colleges, 5 for women and 27 for men. The womens colleges are of red colour and the mens of grey. Most of the colleges have big and well-ordered gardens. Oxford dictionaries are famous all over the world.

The ancient University city Oxford lies on the river Thames.

The Modern Oxford includes: Compact residential areas, muse ums, libraries, university park, colleges playing fields, Morris motor works, robemaking, marmalade, sausages, ribbon devel opment etc. Its industry is growing from day to day.

But it was, is and will remain a University city. So many great men graduated from the Oxford University. Christ Church college alone gave 5 Prime Ministers to England in a single century. There are great names connected with Oxford: Shelly, Dr. Johnson, Sir Christopher Wren, Dr. Arnold, Cecil Rhodes, Gibbon and dozens of others.

Vocab u lar y Notes general view oveliness of the gardens is unforgettable beauty in stone to grow from day to day history in stone dozens of others Answer the questions What city is beauty in stones and history in stones?

When does Oxford appear in history?

When was the University of Oxford founded?

How many colleges does Oxford University contain?

Are there great names connected with Oxford?

It is interesting to know Chaikovsky in England Chaikovsky first visited England in 1861. London is very interesting, he wrote from London, to his father in St. Peters burg, but it produces a rather gloomy impression on the soul.

Later he came to London to begin his foreign concert tour;

it was a great success and the next year he again visited London.

In 1878 Turgenev wrote to Tolstoy: In Cambridge, an Englishman, who is a professor of music, told me with the greatest seriousness that Chaikovsky is the finest musical per sonality of our days.

It was after Chaikovskys first debute. Professors words became true.

Fifteen years later in 1893, on the 50th anniversary of the foundation of the Cambridge University Musical Chaikovsky was invited to Cambridge University to receive the title of Doctor of Music.

Chaikovsky studied English and learned it well. He wrote that his progress was very considerable and that he could quite easily read Dickens in the original.

Some of Chaikovskys important symphonic works were composed on themes from great English poets and writers:

Sheakspeares Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet and Byrons Manfred.

Vocabulary Notes to produce an impression to become true Doctor of Music to be a success - to be considerable the finest musical personality CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY Cambridge and Oxford are called University cities. But it seems rather strange to say that there isnt really and University at Cambridge and Oxford as there is, for example, at Manchester or Bristol or Edinburgh. Cambridge (like Oxford) is a collection of colleges, each self-governing and independent. The Univer sity is merely an administrative body that organizes lectures, ar ranges examinations, gives degrees, etc. The colleges are the real living Cambridge (or Oxford) and each has its own character and individuality. Cambridge University comprises 24 colleges for men and 3 for women. It trains about 7.000 students in different specialities. In order to get a Cambridge University degree, a stu dent must reside in a strictly limited university area during 3 years and pass serious exams each year. There are about 10. undergraduates at Cambridge. Cambridge is known all over the world as a great centre of research where a number of Nobel Prize physicists and nuclear scientists have worked. Thomson and Rutherford and the eminent Russian scientist Kapitsa among them. Kapitsa, the Soviet academician, was a pupil of Rutherford in Cambridge from 1922 to 1934. The most famous of Britains scientific laboratories have been built in Cambridge, the first one being built in 1874. Newton, Darwin, Byron and other scientists and writers as well got education in Cambridge. Instead of Greek and Latin classics alone, Experimental Physics, Nuclear Energy, Microbiology and such like are studied in Cambridge and Oxford Universities. These are the two great Universities and admission to them is very difficult. But if a fellow gets admission, gets his degree hes made for life! An Oxford or Cambridge degree is accompanied by all sorts of privileges. The Majoruty of Prime Ministers, political leaders are from the universities. Big business men and all the other Bigs of the country mostly belong to above Universities. And if it comes to getting a job, an Oxonian or Cambridgian will-alas! usually get the preference though he may have less brain and knowledge that the one from some other Universities. Tuition at these Universities isnt free. The fee at Oxford and Cambridge is so high that only the sons of rich peo ple can afford to attend them. Very few of those who are accept ed to those Universities get grants. That is why only three per cent of the students are children of the working people.

The academic year in England has three terms which usual ly last from the beginning of October to the middle of December, from the middle of January to the end of March and from the middle of April to the end of June.

Examination take place at the end of each term. If a student fails in an examination, he may be allowed to take the exam again. Only two re-examinations are allowed.

Vocab u lar y Notes to seem strange to get the preference self-governing - to have less brain and knowledge to get admission - , () to be made of life to afford to attend to get grants to be accompanied by privileges Answer the questions How many colleges does the Cambridge University com prise?

When was the first scientific laboratory built in Cambridge?

Is tuition in Cambridge University free?

If you learn this poem, it will bring you much use in everyday life The Months Thirty days have September, April, June and November.

All the rest have thirty one, Excepting February alone.

Which has twenty eight days clear, And twenty nine days in a leap year.

STUDENTS LIFE AT CAMBRIDGE There are more than 6,000 students at Cambridge, almost twice as many as before the war, so naturally the Colleges are crowded. The students are mainly English, but there are plenty of others. The students room is furnished to suit the needs of a student. There are even small gas-stoves on which one can make coffee or tea.

The discipline is not very strict. There are rules, of course, but the undergraduate is treated as a sensible person able to dis cipline himself and no longer a schoolboy who must be told everything. The students can stay out as late as they wish up to midnight, but after eleven oclock a fine (that is small sum of money) is imposed. But if a Tutor finds that one of his pupils is staying out late very often, he will want the reason.

The Tutor is a man who acts as a parent to the student away from home. He gives advice and help in time of need and is an understanding friend to his pupil. Then there is the Dean, who is in charge of the discipline among the 300 stu dents inside College. Last there are the Directors or Studies.

At the start of the term the Director of Studies arranged times for lessons and suggests books to read and classes or lectures to attend.

Discipline out of College is the responsibility of two Dons appointed by the University, called Proctors. Each evening a Proctor with two assistants called Bulldogs, wanders about the town keeping an eye on the students behavior.

In most colleges the students live, study and have their food in one and the same building. They have their libraries and din ing halls within the building of the college. Suppose they have their studies on the floor, dwell on another, have their dining hall on some other floor.

A very important thing differing Cambridge and Oxford from all other English Universities is the Tutorial System of theirs. Every student has a tutor here and he, more or less, plans the students work for a week. Each week the students goes to him, perhaps with two or three other students, and he discusses with the students the work they have done and sets them the next weeks work.

Vocab u lar y Notes twice as many as before Director of Studies , , to be crowded - to be treated a fine is imposed - Don or Proctor , tutor - (, ) , bulldog , - LONDON UNIVERSITY London University There are about 31 Universities in Great Britain: 25 in England, 5 in Scotland and 1 in Wales. In Northern Ireland there is a University in Belfast. All English Universities, except Oxford and Cambridge, are fairly new. With the advance of industrialization in the 19th century, technicians and scientists were needed. The older Universities did not produce them.

Therefore, science classes were set up in industrial centres and they developed into either technical colleges or the Modern Universities.

So appeared London University in 1836. It is the biggest of Modern English Universities and plays an important part in the life of the English people. The University of London has both faculties and departments. The faculties are: law, medi cine, arts, science, etc. The departments include engineering, economics, commerce, technology and so on. At the head of each faculty there is a professor. A.Staff of teachers, called lecturers help him. After three years of study a student may proceed to a Bachelors degree, and later, to the degrees of Master and Doctor.

The main building of the University is near the British Mu seum. It has a number of colleges in different parts of London.

London University is the principal centre of postgraduate stud ies and research work.

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