«ГЯЗЯНФЯР ПАШАЙЕВ СЕЧИЛМИШ ЯСЯРЛЯРИ ЙЕДДИ ЪИЛДДЯ VII ЪИЛД БАКЫ–2012 Елм яввяли эюрцнян, сону эюрцнмяйян бир алямдир. ...»
In the early nineteenth century Oxford and Cambridge were the only two Universities in England. The cost of education at these universities was so high that only the sons of the wealth ier classes could afford to attend. In 1827, in Gower Street, London «University College» was founded. The long Victorian period saw many and rapid changes in the University. Medical schools of the various teaching hospitals, Bedford College for women, Imperial College of Science and Technology, and many other schools and colleges became a part of the federal univer sity. The famed London School of Economics was a new-comer in 1895. Today the University of London is a federation of col leges, each nearly independent.
Total London enrolments are about 40.000 full-time stu dents, about 35.000 part-time students.
With the University of London associated such names as L.Alex Fleming, a famous bacteriologist, A.E.Housman, a phi lologist and a poet, Thomas Huxley, a biologist, A.N.White head, a mathematician, Michael Faraday, a physician, J.B.C.Haldane, a biologist, and others.
Сечилмиш ясярляри In many ways the University has departed from the tradi tions of Oxford and Cambridge. London was the first to abolish religious tests, to admit women in England for degree, to grant degree without residence.
Vocab u lar y Notes to be faily new – быть to become the part – стано довольно новым виться частью with the advance of – с total enrolmen – зачисление ростом индустриализации to play an important part full-time students – студен – играть важную роль ты-очники Faculty of Arts – факуль- part-time students – студен тет гуманитарных наук ты-заочники a staff of teachers – пре- to be departed from – быть подавательский состав оторванным от wealthier classes – бога- to grant degree – давать тые классы степень Answer the questions How many Universities are there in Great Britain?
What Universities are the old ones?
When did London University appear?
What are the faculties of the University of London?
What scientists graduated from the University of London?
Is the University of London a federation of colleges?
LETTERS, INVITATIONS, ANNOUNCEMENTS Everyone likes to receive letters, but practically no one likes to write them. For most people letter writing is one case in which it is far to receive than give. Each of us has a hundred reasons why he can not write a letter.
Гязянфяр Пашайев But just stop a minute and think how vital letters are to us.
Through letters we meet friends, make friends and keep alive the warm glow of love.
All letters are made of five parts: the heading, salutation, body of the letter, closing, and signature. An additional part is the address on the envelope.
The heading consists of your address and the date. The cor rect form is a three-line heading placed in the upper right-hand corner of the first page:
Address City and Country Date The salutation is a greeting to the person to whom you are writing the letter. Except for love letters and intimate family let ters, the form of the salutation is governed by tradition: «My dear Mrs. Cortland». For a less formal letter, «Dear Mrs. Cortland».
Unlike business letter: «Dear Sir», «Dear Madam».
A married woman is addressed as Mrs., followed by her husband’s first name: «Mrs. John Saunders».
A divorce is addresses as Mrs., unless she indicates other wise. A widow is addressed as Mrs., followed by her husband’s first name: «Mrs. John Saunders» or her own (Mrs. Sylvia Saunders), according to her preference.
The body of the letter is, of course, the most important part, and its contents are a matter of your own choosing. The closing is a complimentary ending with which you finish your letter. It is placed two or three spaces below the body of the letter and begins toward the centre of the page.
The formal closing may be: Sincerely, Sincerely yours, Very sincerely yours, Truly yours.
For informal letters, closing varies according to the degree of friendship with the person addressed. The forms of closing most usually used are:
Сечилмиш ясярляри Yours cordially, Faithfully yours, As ever, Fondly, Yours affectionately, Lovingly yours, Devotedly Your signature, written legibly in ink, is placed below the closing and somewhat to the right.
Name and address are written on the envelope in full.
The return address is placed in the upper left-hand corner on the front of the envelope.
INVITATIONS AND ANNOUNCEMENTS Invitations and announcements play an important part in the life of the English. A formal invitation is addressed to husband and wife if both are expected. A single daughter may be includ ed in the parents’ invitation, but two or more daughters must be invited individually or as a unit.
With the exception of the husband, the men of the family receive separate invitations.
Engraved invitation to a formal dinner:
Mr. and Mrs. John Cortland, request the pleasure of your company At dinner On Friday, June the second at eight o’clock 100 Grove Street Most social occasions today are informal and require only simple notes, in some cases only an invitation by telephone.
However, the are certain rules all invitations should follow, for both the hostess and the guest.
Гязянфяр Пашайев Indicate what kind of party is planned – shower, open house, birthday, dinner, lunch, dance, tea, etc. Make it clear where the party is to take place and what time the guests are expected to arrive. The invitations are mailed at least a week or two in advance (ahead of time).
Informal invitation to dinner:
Dear Miss Mannering, Will you and Miss Nemins have dinner with us at our house on Wednesday, April the seventh, at seven o’clock?
It has been a long time since we have had the pleasure of seeing you, and we do hope you will find it possible to be with us.
Yours sincerely, Informal invitation to tea:
Dear Mrs. Adams, I have asked a few friends to come for tea on Friday. May the tenth, at six o’clock. Will you join us?
I know that the women’s club occupies much of your time, but I hope of seeing you.
Cordially yours, Occasionally it is necessary «to recall» an invitation.
Recalling of invitation has many reasons. One of them could be of the kind given below:
Mr. and Mrs. James Saunders regret that they are obli ged to recall their invitation, owing to the illness of their son.
WEDDING INVITATION AND ANNOUNCEMENTS Invitations and announcements for a formal wedding must be engraved on paper of the very best. All the invitations should be mailed out at the same time – at least three weeks in advance of the event. A separate invitation is sent to each Сечилмиш ясярляри adult member of the family, except the husband and wife. The young children’s names, if they are invited are written under their parents’ names.
Unless the parents are divorced or one of them is dead, the wedding invitation is issued in the name of both parents.
If neither parent is alive, the nearest relative or closest friend issues the invitation.
The accepted form for a formal wedding issued by the bride’s parents is:
Mr. and Mrs. James Saunders request the honour of your presence at the mar riage of their daughter Margaret to Mr. Thomas Cortland on Wednesday, the 14th of June, 1980 at twelve o’clock.
Saint Ann’s Church and afterwards at 100 Grove Street ACCEPTANCE AND REGRETS While receiving the invitation card one is promptly to answer.
If one is able to come or not. One must give a prompt and def inite answer, to imply a «thank you» and to convey the thought that one has pleased at being invited. A note of regret should give the reason for declining and imply one’s sincere regrets.
The followings are the traditional forms for a letter of acceptance and a letter of regret.
Mr. and Mrs. Sidney Kent accept with pleasure the kind invitation of Dr. and Mrs. Silvers to a dinner on Friday, the fifteenth of October, at half after ten.
Гязянфяр Пашайев FORMAL REGRET Mr. and Mrs. Johnston regret exceedingly that because of a previous engagement they are unable to accept Dr. and Mrs. Silvers Kind invitation for the 15th of October.
INFORMAL ACCEPTANCE TO DINNER Dear Mrs. Cortland, Miss Nevins and I will be delighted to dine with you on Wednesday, the 7th of April, at seven o’clock.
Thank you so much for asking us.
We are both looking forward to seeing you and Mr.
Very Sincerely, INFORMAL DINNER REGRET Dear Mrs. Cortland, How nice of you to ask us to dinner on Wednesday.
We only wish we could be with you. Unfortunately, We already have an engagement that evening.
We do appreciate your asking us and hope we will have the opportunity to say «yes» at some future time.
Sincerely yours, BIRTH ANNOUNCEMENTS There are many novel ways other than by letter to announce the birth of a child. A charming way is to attach a small engraved card bearing the baby’s name and date of birth to the parents’ calling card with a pink, blue or white ribbon:
Сечилмиш ясярляри Mary Ann Walters May tenth, Mr. and Mrs. Gay Walters.
LETTERS OF CONGRATULATIONS The key to success in writing a letter of congratulation is promptness. Write the letter as soon as you hear the good news of the birth of a child, engagement, marriage etc.
We all like to share someone’s good fortune, and for that rea son the letter of congratulation is especially pleasant to write.
Congratulations on the arrival of a baby are to the mother.
In general they are cordial and gay.
Dear Peggy, Congratulations on the new baby.
I couldn’t be more excited if it were my own!
I can’t wait to see you and Susan, so please let me know when you will be able to have visitors. In the meantime, all my love to you both.
Affectionately, CONGRATUATION ON AN ENGAGEMENT Only the man receives «congratulations» on his engage ment. The woman receives «best wishes».
Dear Dick, Your brother told me the great news about your engage ment to Anne. All I can say is that some men have all the luck!
Anne is a wonderful girl in every way, and I con gratulate you on your good fortune and wish you both the best of everything in life.
As ever, Гязянфяр Пашайев CONGRATULATIONS ON A MARRIAGE Congratulations are sent to the bride and groom when a wedding announcement is received.
Dear Isabel and George, Tom and I were thrilled to hear about your wed ding! It is really wonderful, since we can’t think of two people more suited to each other than you.
We both send you our love and best wishes for all the good things in life.
Affectionately yours, BIRTHDAY CINGRATULATIONS Dear Isabel, If only you lived a little closer I could come and bring my happy birthday wishes to you in person. But I will do the next best thing and send you my love, congratulations, and warmest wishes for this day and every day Fondly, Dear Aunt Sophie To most people March is a reminder that spring is on its way. But to me it means the month that holds the birthday of my favourite aunt. Near or far, you know, Aunt Sophie, that on your birthday as on every day we are all thinking of you with love and affection. A very, very happy birthday and many, many more of them to come.
Your ever loving, There are many other letters such as letters of condolence, let ter of sympathy and good cheer, thank you letters and acknowl edgements, letters of apology, friendly letters, business letters, fam ily letters, good-will letters, credit letters, claim letters and so on.
Сечилмиш ясярляри No need to speak about all of them. But we would like to men tion here letters of condolence as they are particularly difficult for some people to write. Write such a letter promptly while the shock of the news is still with you. Be brief, tactful, and sincere.
Avoid gushy sentiment, morbid details, and discussions of the philosophy of death. Don’t say «She was too young to die»
or «Life will be desolate without him». A letter of condolence has only one purpose – to give comfort tactfully and sincerely.
Dear Sid, I heard of the loss of your father today, and I know how you must feel.
I just can’t tell you how sorry I am.
I know that nothing I can write can dull your sor row since only time can do that – and it will, Sid.
Please call me if there is anything I can do to help.
Sincerely, Dear Mr.Cortland, Mrs. Tompkins and I are deeply sorry to hear of your great loss.
Please accept our sincere condolences and call on us if there is anything we can do.
Sincerely BRITISH UNIVERSITY LIFE Universities in Britain are different from those in many other countries.
Until the nineteenth century, England had only two univer sities – Oxford and Cambridge. Both Universities are residen tial, students must belong to one of the colleges. The modern Universities such as the Universities of London, Manchester, Leeds, Birmingham, etc. are not residential.
Гязянфяр Пашайев Some students can study art subjects such as history, lan guages, economics, or law, the others can study pure or applied sciences such as medicine, dentistry, technology or agriculture.
This is how a student spends his day. His working hours are from 9 to 1. At 9 o’clock he will see the tutor or go to the library, or to the lecture. From 2 to 5 he is engaged in sport and all kinds of exercises. From 5 to 7 he usually either works in the library or in the laboratory. At 7 o’clock the undergraduates and tutors gather in the hall and have dinner. After dinner the stu dents have club activities, debating societies etc.
By 10 o’clock the student must be in the college, as most of the student live in the college. At about 10 o’clock the student sits down to work again and works about 2 hours. At 12 o’clock p.m. he goes to bed.
A person studying for a degree at a British University is called an undergraduate;
one who has taken a degree is called a graduate. B.Sc. stands for Bachelor of Science, the first degree M.Sc. – denotes Master of Science. One can become a B. after three years of hard study, and M.Sc. at the end of five years.
D.P. stands for Doctor of Philosophy the highest degree. The abbreviations of English degree must be written after the fami ly name, e.g. Henry Sweet, B.Sc.
There are three terms from eight to ten weeks in the British University year.
Vocab u lar y Notes Bachelor of Science – residential Universities – Уни бакалавр верситеты Оксфорда и Кем Master of Science – бриджа, в колледжах кото кандидат наук рых студенты учатся и живут Сечилмиш ясярляри Doctor of Philosophy – applied sciences – естествен доктор наук ные науки undergraduate – студент уни- Doctor of Philosophy (medicine) – доктор меди верситета, который учится цинских наук на степень бакалавра It is interesting to know that… In 1608 the English traveler Thomas Coryate made a jour ney to Italy. During the journey he wrote down in his notebooks everything which he found interesting.
He wrote about the wonderful palaces of Venice and the beautiful ancient buildings of Rome. But there was one thing which astonished him more even than the palaces of Venice. On one of the pages he wrote the following:
«When the Italians eat meat they use little iron or silver pitchforks. They do not eat with the fingers because, they say, people do not always have clean hands».
Before returning home Coryate ordered some of these «pitchforks» and took them back home. The fork he bought did n’t look very much like ours. It looked much more like a tuning fork than a table fork.
When he got home Coryate decided to show the fork to his friends. He gave a dinner party, and when the servants put the meat on the table, he took out the fork and began to eat like the Italians.
All eyes were on him. When he told the guests what it was, they all wanted to take a closer look at the strange thing. The fork passed from hand to hand, and the guests all said that the Italians were very foolish, because the fork was very incon venient.
Гязянфяр Пашайев But Thomas Coryate didn’t agree with them. He said it was not nice to eat meat with the fingers, because people didn’t always have clean hands.
Everybody was very angry at this. Did Mr. Coryate think that people in England didn’t wash their hands before eating?
And weren’t the ten fingers we had enough for us?
Let him just show how easy it was to use this pitchfork – the first piece of meat he took with the fork fell to the table. The guests couldn’t stop laughing and joking about it. So the poor traveler had to take the fork away.
Fifty years passed before people in England began to use forks.
GREENWICH OBSERVATORY Greenwich is a town on the South bank of the river Thames.
It is at a distance of 5–6 kms. of London and now is included the territory of Greater London. It is famous for its astronomi cal observatory. Greenwich is a beautiful place. It has a large palace, built long ago and now is a museum where models of every kind of ship can be seen. Beyond it is a park and on the top of a hill is the line which marks the meridian nought. If you stand on this line you are on the division between east and west, and you check your watch by Greenwich time. Greenwich time, meantime for the meridian of Greenwich adopted as a standard time by English astronomers. You go to Greenwich from West minster Bridge by a boat. Those boats are called river buses and they go up and down the River Thames. There is a guide on the boat who tells the passengers about all the interesting places they pass as they sail down the river. The journey takes you about an hour. It is interesting to know that the first railway came to London in 1836, when the Rocket-1 started running from London to Greenwich.
Сечилмиш ясярляри Vocab u lar y Notes to be famous for – сла- to adopt as a standard time – виться чем-либо установить норму времени meridian nought – нулевой to start running – начать меридиан рейс, начать ходить Answer the questions Is Greenwich a town?
For what is Greenwich famous?
What is kept in the Greenwich palace?
By what can one go to Greenwich?
What Do You Know About Greenwich Mean Time?
How did the name of a pleasant part of London situated by the river Thames become synonymous with international time keeping? The reasons go back into history. Thousands of years ago, people had no reason to divide their lives into hours and minutes. Their time was the movement of the sun, which creat ed day and night, and the rhythm of the seasons. Gradually, a 24-hour cycle was introduced, based on the point when the sun was in the middle of the sky which became midday. But, because the earth rotates, midday in another town a hundred miles away. So each area of the world kept its own time. The obvious solution – a national standard time so that every town could set their watches and clocks by it. The electric telegraph was the key to success, for a simultaneous signal could be sent along to it to any part of the country. So, in 1852, the first sig nal went out from the astronomers of Britain’s Royal Observatory which was then situated at Greenwich. From then on, Britain followed Greenwich Mean Time.
Гязянфяр Пашайев The word «Mean» refers to something which is in the mid dle – an average. When the noonday sun at its highest point was directly over a particular place (the Meridian Line in Green wich), the Astronomers defined this as noon, Greenwich Time.
Thus Greenwich Time was used for the whole country, so it became the «Mean» by which time was calculated in Britain.
Do You Know That… …the first locomotive constructed by George Stephenson brought the first passenger train from Liverpool to Manchester and knocked down the old deputy of Parliament –first victim of the railway transport in the world.
WINDSOR It is an old town on the right bank of the Thames, at which is Windsor Castle, a royal residence of the Queen and the King.
Windsor is at a distance of 5–6 kms. of London and now is included in the territory of Greater London.
The Castle stands on a small hill and is seen from afar. For generations it was and still is the residence of the English mon archs. One after another they came here and enlarged it, adding new section building towers and halls. It is a very beautiful town. Windsor is famous for Eton Public School too. Eton is one of the twelve great Public Schools of England.
It is the most exclusive, the most aristocratic, the most famous and the most expensive school in the world.
Windsor is more than 800 years old.
Vocab u lar y Notes to be seen from afar – royal residence – резиден видно издалека ция короля и королевы to be included – включаться to be the most exclusive – самый недоступный Сечилмиш ясярляри Answer the questions Is Windsor a royal residence of the Queen and the King?
On what river is it situated?
At what distance is it of London?
How old is Windsor?
What school is Windsor famous for?
Is Eton Public School the most famous and the most expen sive school in the world?
LIVERPOOL Liverpool has grown up on commerce and is now the sec ond port of the country after London. It originated as a hamlet besides a small creek known as Pool, depended on the slave mar ket. With opening of the new World (America) Liverpool became prosperous. Liverpool is engaged in flour-milling, sugar-refin ing, chemicals, soap, tobacco, ship-building as well as ship repairing. Liverpool is the centre for traffic with America. It is also the home of the famous philharmonic orchestra.
Vocab u lar y Notes to have grown up – стал, to become prosperous – стать вырос процветающим, преуспе to be originated as – быть вающим созданным to be engaged in – занимать to be depended on – быть ся, быть занятым чем-либо зависимым от Answer the questions Is Liverpool the second port of the country after London?
As what was it originated?
What is Liverpool engaged in?
What is Liverpool famous for?
Гязянфяр Пашайев Read and Translate Weather January comes with frost and snow, February brings us winds that blow, March has winds and happy hours, April brings us sun and showers.
Pretty is the month of May June has flowers sweet and gay, July begins our holiday, August bears us all away.
September takes us back to school, October days begin to cool, November brings the leaves to earth, December – winter with its mirth.
BIRTHPLACE OF WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE IN STRATFORD ON AVON Stratford is a very interesting town, right in the centre of England. It is nice to think that Shakespeare was born right in the heart of England. There are beautiful woods, green fields, around it with the quiet gentle river Avon and lovely houses in it. Though the town is small, it is quite a busy one, especially on market days. It is true that no town of comparable size enjoys such universal popularity.
From April till October thousands of people «pilgrims» from all over the world come to the little town to enjoy the plays of the greatest dramatist of all times – William Shakespeare.
«The Birthday» (this is April 23rd), the day when W. Shakes peare was born at Stratford in 1564 (the writer died as well on April 23, 1616 on his birthday 52 years later).
Сечилмиш ясярляри «The Birthday» always begins early in the morning with the ringing of the bells of Holy Trinity Church where Shakespeare was buried. There are flags on all the shops and houses. Along the main streets about 100 poles have been put up. In the after noon a band playing music and followed by many people marches up the street. Soon bugles are blown and then one after another a flag appears at the top of each pole. Each flag is of a different country. After seeing this ceremony people go to Henley Street to see the house where Shakespeare was born.
The house is still the same as it was when he lived in it. As well they visit the school, where he studied, then they go to see the grave in the church. Then at night they go to the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre to see one of his plays. People coming to Stratford by all means visit Anne Hathaway’s Cottage in the vil lage of Shottery, which is a mile out of Stratford across the fields. Anne Hathaway was the woman that Shakespeare mar ried in 1582 at the age of 18, and the cottage is just as it was in Shakespeare’s time. There are the old chairs by the fire-place where Shakespeare must have sat, the plates from which he probably ate his dinner.
Vocab u lar y Notes quiet gentle river – тихая, to march up – ходить, дви спокойная река гаться, маршировать to enjoy popularity – обла- bugles are blown – трубить дать популярностью в рог, играть на горне to be put up – быть подня тым, быть установленным Answer the questions In what city was Shakespeare born?
On what river is Stratford situated?
Гязянфяр Пашайев Why is Stratford so famous?
When was William Shakespeare born?
When does the «Birthday» ceremony begin every year?
THE ROOM WHERE W. SHAKESPEARE WAS BORN Shakespeare was born in a small house with small rooms in the centre of Stratford in Henley Street. One can see the very room where Shakespeare was born. Lots of people who visited the house have written their names on the walls. It seems a wrong thing to do – although among the names are Walter Scott, Dickens, Thackeray and Browning.
A little wooden desk, the very desk that Shakespeare sat in is kept till now in the room. There is a garden behind the house where all the flowers, trees and plants that mentioned in Shakespeare’s plays are planted there.
The second thing one likes is that there is a very old hotel in Stratford probably from Shakespeare’s time the rooms of which haven’t numbers on the doors as most hotels do have. Instead every room has the name of a Shakespeare play on it – the «Hamlet» room, the «Romeo and Juliet» room and so on.
Another (and most pitiful) thing is that when Shakespeare became successful in London he bought the biggest house in Stratford, a house called New Place, to retire to. But there is nothing left of it but some bricks and a garden. The man who owned it after Shakespeare’s death, Mr. Gastrell by name, was so bad-tempered, because so many people came to see the house that in 1758 he pulled it down.
Сечилмиш ясярляри Vocab u lar y Notes the very room – та самая a pitiful thing – грустная комната (печальная) вещь to seem a wrong thing – to become successful – иметь казаться неверным успех to be mentioned – быть to retire to – уйти (удалиться) упомянутым на пенсию number on the door – to be bad-tempered – иметь тя номер на двери желый характер, дурной нрав Answer the questions In what street is the house where Shakespeare was born?
Who have written their names on the walls of the room where Shakespeare was born?
Are there numbers on the doors of the old hotel?
What is the name of the house Shakespeare bought when he became successful in London?
Who bought the New Place after Shakespeare’s death?
Why did Mr. Gastrell pull the house down and when?
THE CHURCH WHERE SHAKESPEARE WAS BURIED Shakespeare was buried in Holy Trinity Church. It is a very nice church. There is a bust of Shakespeare that was carved by a Dutch sculptor and on the stone of Shakespeare’s grave are the lines:
«Good friend for Jesus’ sake forbear to dig the dust enclosed here.
Blessed the man that spears these stones and cursed be he that moves my bones»
Thanks to these lines nobody dares to move his bones to Westminster Abbey in London. At any rate, the inhabitants of Гязянфяр Пашайев Stratford are pleased that above verse has been successful in keeping anyone from «moving his bones».
Vocabulary Notes to be carved – быть вы- to dare to move – отважиться сеченным из чего-либо перенести thanks to – благодаря at any rate – во всяком чему-либо случае to keep from – удержать от Answer the questions Where was Shakespeare buried?
What is written on the stone of Shakespeare’s grave?
Why is Shakespeare not buried in the Poets’ Corner in London?
SHAKESPEARE MEMORIAL THEATRE The Shakespeare Memorial Theatre is the centre of the Shakespeare Festival occupying a commanding position on the banks of the Avon, the brick-built theatre was erected in to the design of Miss Elizabeth Scott to replace an earlier the atre destroyed by fire. It is without doubt one of the best equipped theatres and its Shakespearian productions attract an international audience.
From April till October every night every seat in this theatre is filled by people from all parts of the world. They come to see Shakespeare’s plays performed by some of the greatest actors in the country.
The Shakespeare Memorial Theatre has the best stage in England.
Сечилмиш ясярляри Vocabulary Notes Memorial Theatre – to attract audience – пленять, мемориальный театр привлекать зрителей commanding position – brick built – кирпичное зда господствующая пози- ние ция (положение) to be filled – быть полным Answer the questions In what city is the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre?
When was it erected?
What theatre has the best stage in England?
It is interesting to know… …That in Shakespeare’s time love of England people for theatre was great.
It is not in vain that a writer of James’s reign (1605) who had travelled in other countries declared that «in order to pass over grief, the Italians sleep, the French sing, the Germans drink, the English go to plays».
What Do You Know About Bronte Sisters?
The story of the famous and talented Bronte family is strange, unusual and sorrowful.
The Bronte children – five girls and a boy, all were in poor health. Two of the girls died while they were still at school. The boy – Bramwell died at the age of 31. Anne, who wrote poetry and two novels, died at 29.
Emily who became World famous as the author of Wuthering Heights (Грозовой перевал) died a year later the book was published in 1847.
The other daughter was Charlotte, the author of the wonder ful novel «Jane Eyre». It was published in 1847 and brought her Гязянфяр Пашайев fame and placed her in the rank of the foremost English realis tic writers. It is indisputably her best literary production. In 1849 she published her second big novel «Shirly», which dealt with the life of workers. Then appeared a new novel «The Professor» and her last novel «Vilette» appeared in 1853.
Like Dickens, she believed that education was the key to all social problems, and by the improvement of the school system and teaching most of the evils of capitalism could be removed.
Charlotte was the only one strong enough to go out into the world and live her own life for a while. But even she died at the early age of 39. It is nearly impossible to believe that above – men tioned wonderful books were written by young women, who had not seen anything of the world except the life of their own family.
Scotland is a Country of Traditions Scotland is a country with an international tradition. Scot land is a part of Britain, but it isn’t England. Scotland has its own typical musical instruments, its own national Drink– Whisky, its own national dances, its own songs, its poetry, its own sports–Golf for instance, and its distinctive national dress, the Kilt. It should be worn only by men. The women have some other national dresses. The Scottish officers and soldiers also have their bright national dress. Strictly speaking the Scottish are fond of bright colours.
The Capital of Scotland – Edinburgh is a fine old city. Edin burgh has gained the name «Modern Athenes» or «Athenes of the North» because of its seven hills. The city is the centre of art and literature in Scotland.
Rope-making, glass works, wool and silk industries exist about 300 years. Now there are banks, paper mills, Whisky plants, etc. in Edinburgh. (Scottish whisky is the best in the world).
Сечилмиш ясярляри There are over a hundred products manufactured in the city:
glue, leather, carpet, glass, iron, tin-boxes, organs, furniture and so on. It is a city of monuments, schools and fine old buildings.
Edinburgh is an interesting place to visit. People who come here like to see the Floral clock, which is made of growing flowers.
For three weeks every summer in the capital of Scotland there are performances of operas, dancing, music and plays.
There are Edinburgh art Festivals. The Scottish people like to sing and dance. They like music very much. Edinburgh has one of the oldest universities in Europe which was founded in 1582.
It is one of the most famous universities in Great Britain.
Vocabulary Notes strictly speaking – прямо distinctive national dress – своеобразная нацио- говоря нальная одежда to be fond of – любить, for instance – например обожать Athenes of the North – to be manufactured – про Северные Афины извести Answer the questions Is Scotland a part of England?
What can you say about national Scottish dresses?
What are the Scottish fond of?
What city is the capital of Scotland?
What city is Edinburgh?
What products are manufactured in Scotland?
When was Edinburgh University founded?
Glasgow – One of the Biggest British Cities With a population of near 1.5 million people Glasgow till the last years was the second large city after London.
Гязянфяр Пашайев Glasgow became famous in the country for its tobacco, sugar, cotton and timber and when after the Union of Parlia ments of Scotland and England in 1707 Scotland was able to trade lawfully with the English colonies, great fortunes were made and half of the tobacco smoked in Europe had first passed through the hands of the Glasgow merchants. Glasgow is an industrial and commercial town.
Glasgow has a great shipyard and is a port city. It is on the river Clyde. One can see ship engines, air-conditions, scientific instruments, refrigerators, radios, sewing machines, vacuum cleaners etc. made in Glasgow. Today Glasgow is bigger than Edinburgh, Aberdeen, and Dundee put together and one person out of every five in Scotland lives in Glasgow. In brief Glas gow, the third largest city in Britain has a university, great industries, a trade which places it 6 among the British ports, a lively, energetic and skilled population.
WELSH PEOPLE – THE FIRST INHABITANTS OF BRITAIN Wales is one of the countries of the United Kingdom. The act of union was passed in 1536. Its population is about 3 mil lion people. For centuries it developed its own language and culture. Though almost everybody commands English in Wales, they speak Welsh too.
Agriculture is the main occupation of people here. Wales has become a popular holiday resort, where a great number of people derive their livelihood from tourists and holiday-makers.
Wales is noted for its music and culture. The Welsh are proud of their language, of their national traditions, customs, of their national dresses etc. They love and take care of everything, which is their own.
Сечилмиш ясярляри Vocabulary Notes act of union – закон о при- to be noted for – быть соединении известным чем-либо to command English – вла- to be proud of – гордиться деть английским to take care of – забо to derive one’s livelihood – титься о ком-либо, получать средства о чём-либо к существованию Answer the questions Is Wales one of the countries of the United Kingdom?
When was the act of union passed?
What is the capital of Wales?
What is the language of people living in Wales?
Do You Know the Days of the week?
If You don’t, Learn this Poem and You’ll Never Forget them Solomon Grundy Solomon Grundy Born on Monday, Christened on Tuesday, Married on Wednesday, Took ill on Thursday, Worse on Friday, Died on Saturday, Buried on Sunday.
This is the end Of Solomon Grundy.
Гязянфяр Пашайев NORTHERN IRELAND Ireland is divided into two parts now: Northern Ireland as a part of the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland. This is how it happened: There were different wars between England and Ireland at different times. But «Anglo-Irish War» which began in January 1919 and ended in May 1921 brought about a dominion status for 26 counties in Ireland and 6 counties (Northern Ireland) remained to be a part of the Union Kingdom.
It has a certain measure of local self-government. The capital of it is Belfast.
Agriculture is one of the principal industries of the country and large quantifies of butter, eggs and general agricultural products are exported to Great Britain.
The main industries of Northern Ireland are the manufacture of linen, shipbuilding, engineering, rope-making and distilling.
Northern Ireland is represented in the Parliament of the United Kingdom by 13 members. For the purpose of local self government it has a parliament consisting of two houses:
1. the Senate– 26 members;
2. the House of Commons, composed of 52 members.
Belfast is the capital of Northern Ireland. Population of it is over half a million people. It is a sea port of the first rank. Ship building began in this city in 1791. There is a regular sea com munication with Glasgow, Liverpool and other ports. There is an important railway root between Belfast and Dublin – the capital of the Republic of Ireland. Now Belfast is a modern city with modern conveniences. Belfast is an important centre of ship-building, linen, tobacco, rope-making etc. The University of Belfast exists since 1909 and gives degrees in arts, science, law, medicine, commerce etc.
Сечилмиш ясярляри Vocabulary Notes first rank – первая катего- railway root – железнодо рожный узел (железнодо рия (разряд, класс) рожная линия) sea communication – морское сообщение, связь modern conveniences – современные удобства Answer the questions What city is the capital of Northern Ireland?
Is Belfast a port city of the first rank?
When did ship-building begin in Belfast?
Since what time does the University of Belfast exist?
PROMINENT PEOPLE REMINISCENCES OF MARX (PAUL LAFARGUE) The first time I saw Karl Marx was in February 1865. The International had been founded on September 28, 1864. I came from Paris to bring him news of the progress made there by the young organization.
I was twenty four years old. Never in my life shall I forget the impression made on me by that first visit.
Karl Marx was one of those rare men who are fit for the front rank both in science and in public life.
He disliked his books to be arranged by anybody for he always counted on them to be where he had laid them. In fact everything was in its proper place, and without searching he could put his hand on any book he wanted, so that the disorder was only apparent. Books were intellectual tools to him. He used to say they were his slaves and wanted them to serve his will. So he underlined passages and made marks on the margins. I found this system of underlining to be of great help to him. It enabled him to find with great ease any passage he needed.
Гязянфяр Пашайев Everybody knows Marx to have read all the leading Euro pean languages and Italian, Russian, Spanish among them and to have written in three (German, French and English). He liked to say «a foreign language is a weapon in the struggle of life».
He knew Heine and Goethe by heart and there was a great love for Shakespeare in his family. Dante and Burns were among his favourite poets, and it was always a great pleasure for him to hear his daughter recite Burn’s satirical poems or sing Burns’ love songs. K. Marx was already fifty when he began to learn Russian and he had made such progress in six months as to be able to read Pushkin, Gogol and Shedrin in the original.
For many years Marx regularly attended the British Museum Reading-Room whose catalogue he greatly prized. Even his opponents are compelled to acknowledge him to be a man of profound and wide erudition;
and this not merely in his own speciality on economics, but also in the history, philosophy and literature of all countries.
FREDERIC ENGELS (1820–1895) Frederic Engels, co-founder with Karl Marx of scientific socia lism was born in 1820, died in London in 1895 at the age of 75.
Philosopher, economist, journalist, socialist, propagandist, scholar, soldier and political leader, Engels was a living exam ple of the unity of theory and practice.
His being at once a thinker and a man of action helped him to lead the working-class movement of the world for half a century.
His literary work was great, his interests extremely broad.
We know of his having mastered many languages and of his learning Norwegian at the age of 70. He was a polyglot and com manded: Latin, Greek, German, French, English, Italian, Spanish, Danish, Russian, Polish, Rumanian, Portuguese, Dutch, Norwegian, Czech, Serbo-Croatian, Slovenian, Irish and so on.
Сечилмиш ясярляри From the age of 24 he put his genius and his very life at the service of the working-class movement.
In 1844 Engels met Marx, and they became friends. From that time the truest friendship bound together the lives of these two geniuses. Their having become the leaders of the revolu tionary workers in Germany in 1848 is a well-known fact. They were the first revolutionary communists. And together with Marx until the latter’s death in 1883 and after it by himself, Engels gave day-by-day instruction in letters and in personal contacts – to the leaders of the Socialist movement of Europe and America.
Engels was a great theorist whose style, humour and fiery polemical skill have made theoretical understanding for gener ations of young workers easier.
«The Origin of the Family» and «Ludwig Feuerbach» quick en our interest in history and philosophy;
«Dialectics of Nature»
is a treasury of ideas for natural scientists for the future.
Engels’ lively interest in every new scientific discovery in history, philology, philosophy and the daily lives of the com mon people, is a shining example to all who want to become all-round, cultured people.
LENIN IN LONDON Vladimir Ilyich Lenin and Nadezhda Konstantinovna Krupskaya first came to London in the middle of April, 1902.
Lenin came to London to continue the publication of «Iskra»
after the German police had made it impossible to publish in Munich.
«Iskra» was printed in a small building. Now it is known as Marx House. Lenin prepared the materials for «Iskra» in a little room in this house.
Гязянфяр Пашайев The house can still be seen to-day and the room where Lenin worked is kept as it was in Lenin’s time. Many visitors from all countries come to see the memorial place in London.
Though Lenin did not like visiting museums, because he quickly grew tired in them, he went with great pleasure to the British Museum where he spent half his time. It is one of the most famous museums in the world. But what Lenin really liked in the museum was not the museum itself but the richest library in the world at that time.
While in London Lenin was known under the name of Jacob Richter.
When Lenin came to London in 1902 he and his wife took a room near Regent Square. They stayed there for about a week, and then took two rooms at 30 Holford Square, Finsbury, because they were much cheaper. Today it is impossible to visit the house where Lenin lived because it was destroyed by a bomb during the Second World War. But in March 1942 soon after the bombing the English working people placed a memorial board on the half-destroyed building about Lenin’s stay in the house.
In April 1905 Lenin again came to London for the Third Party Congress. At that time he lived in Pursy Circus, 16.
Lenin was in London again for the Fifth Party Congress in April 1907. There Lenin met Gorky for the first time. Gorky wrote that Lenin spent every free minute with the workers and asked them the smallest details of their lives. From that time on Lenin and Gorky became great friends.
Lenin’s next visit to London was in April–May 1908. He came to work in the Library of the British Museum gathering materials for his famous book «Materialism and Empiriocriti cism». Lenin needed works by English scientists of the 19th century. In order to write his famous book «Materialism and Empiriocriticism» Lenin studied more than two hundred books.
Сечилмиш ясярляри Ilyich studied living London. He loved to climb to the top of an omnibus and go on long rides about the town on the upper deck.
At times it seems incredible that these huge double deckers should be able to maneuver through the narrow streets without running into one another or the pedestrians. Smoking is allowed on the upper deck of the double decker. Smoking is also allowed in the Tube. He liked the movement of this huge com mercial city. The quiet squares, the rich homes with their shin ing windows and green lawns and near them the dirty little streets, inhabited by the London working people, where lines with washing hung across the street, and pale children played on the doorsteps, could not be seen from the bus-stop. In such districts he went on foot, and seeing these striking contrasts in richness and poverty, Ilyich would mutter through clenched teeth, and in English, «Two nations!».
LENIN AND FOREIGN LANGUAGES Lenin knew many foreign languages. He had a good knowl edge of German, French and English, studied them, and read Polish and Italian. For «recreation» he would sit for hours with a dictionary.
Though there is a difference in studying foreign languages and studying one’s own, yet the two things have much in com mon. Studying foreign languages enriches the native language, makes it clearer, more flexible and expressive. Those who have made a study of Lenin’s language know how rich, warm and expressive it is. What languages did Lenin study during his school years? Lenin finished the classical gymnasium. The lan guages taught there included Russian, Slavonic, Latin, Greek, French and German, that is six languages: three living and three dead languages.
Гязянфяр Пашайев In addition to his knowledge of French, German and English, Lenin studied Polish and Italian and understood Czech and Swedish.
ISAAC NEWTON The Great English scientist Isaac Newton was born in the little village not far from the old university town of Cambridge on December 25, 1642. His father, a farmer, died before his son’s birth. Little Isaac was left to the care of his mother, uncle and grandmother. They sent him first to primary school. At the age of twelve he was sent to the small town of Grantham, so that he might attend the Grammar School.
Once there was a very strong wind in Grantham, and Newton decided to measure the force of the wind. He tried to do it in an interesting way. First he jumped with the wind mark ing the longest distance he could cover. The difference between the two distances he considered as the force of the wind.
At the age of eighteen Newton was sent to Cambridge University where he became one of the best students.
…Young Isaac Newton was peacefully sitting in the garden of his home. The sun was warm and the grass lay like a rich green carpet under his feet. How pleasant it was to forget the terrible plague which had ravaged London. (Even the University of Cambridge was closed because of the plague).
The young student was half asleep. He could smell the sweet odour of the apples of the tree under which he was sitting.
Suddenly a ripe red apple fell on young Newton’s head. He woke up and rubbed his head for a moment. Then he picked up the apple which had struck him.
Anyone else would have been angry, or would perhaps have laughed. But Newton did neither;
he looked at the apple him self, «Why does the apple fall down? Why doesn’t it fall up Сечилмиш ясярляри instead? I know that the earth has an attraction for things and that its attraction is called gravity. But why, no matter how high a thing is, does it fall to the ground? Could this great attraction of the earth reach far out into the heavens? Could it reach up to the Moon? If so, then the Moon is subjected to the same laws of gravity that made the apple fall. Perhaps the only thing that makes the Moon turn around the earth is this great force of gravity! And if so, then the planets, the stars, even the Universe itself, may be bound by this force!».
Young Isaac’s imagination has been sat aflame… He gave much of his life to determining the laws which rule the Universe. He was one of the greatest minds of his time. But perhaps his main discovery is the discovery of the law of gravity.
Gravity had been known long before Newton’s time. His discovery was that he extended the law of gravity to the whole Universe. he suggested that it was gravity which bound the Moon to the Earth and the other planets to the Sun.
Isaac Newton formulated the law of gravity, discovered why the prism breaks up sunlight into colours and invented the reflecting telescope. It was he who said that light is a combina tion of different rays of different colours, and that white light is a mixture of all these.
Isaac Newton has solved one of the great riddles of the Universe.
JAMES WATT (1736–1819) James Watt was born on January 19, 1736. He liked mathe matics and was fond of designing and making things. At school he learn a lot of subjects. He became good at languages as well as at mathematics.
When James was fourteen he read the famous book by Isaac Newton «Elements of Natural Philosophy». He liked the book Гязянфяр Пашайев very much and read it many times. He made a small electrical apparatus with which he gave his friends shocks that made them jump. He studied how steam could be condensed. Soon after reading Newton’s book on natural philosophy he began to read books on other scientific subjects – chemistry, medicine and anatomy.
It so happened that Glasgow University needed putting some valuable instruments into good working order for a new observatory. James Watt was given that job. His work was so good that he was allowed to call himself mathematical instru ment – maker of the University.
Once Watt was asked to repair a small working model of an atmospheric-steam engine that was used for demonstration at engineering lectures at the university.
Watt soon started to think out ways how to improve this model. It took Watt two years to find a way of how to do it. One Sunday afternoon in April 1765, while he was out for a walk, he suddenly found the answer to his problem. Watt had made a great discovery – the using of a separate condenser in an engine for condensing the steam into water, so that the temperature of the cylinder was not lowered at each stroke of the pistol.
At the factory Watt continued to improve his engine, he put new cylinders on it, and with their help the engine at last became really efficient. More and more orders for the engine from other parts of the country began to come, one order was from France for an engine for supplying Paris with water.
Watt made several other inventions. The most important of them was a copying machine. He invented this machine in the first place to help him with his correspondence and other writ ten work. Watt’s copying machine was used all over the coun try for about 100 years. Then the typewriter took its place.
Сечилмиш ясярляри In October 1781 James Watt made a still better engine that could do much more than merely pump water put in mines. This was a rotative engine. It could run machines. It was a great invention of that time. The rotative engine became the basis of industry, it could do many things James Watt lived to the age of eighty-three. He received many honours in recognition of his valuable work. He was elec ted a Fellow of the Royal Society of both London and Edinburgh. Glasgow University, the university, where he began his successful work, conferred on him the honorary degree of Doctor of Law;
and France made him a member of her famous Academy of Sciences.
On August 19, 1819 James Watt died at his home. A few years later a monument was erected to his memory in West minster Abbey.
GEORGE STEPHENSON (1781–1848) The man whose name is connected with the first railway is George Stephenson. He was the son of a poor English worker who had to support six children. The Stephenson lived in one room of an old house. They were too poor to pay for their children to go to school and very often they could not even buy clothing for them.
So George and his brothers and sisters grew up illiterate. But in spite of their poverty, they were a unite family. When George was eight he began to work in a mine. He learnt much by watching the work of the older men and asking them questions.
George Stephenson began to dream of becoming a great engineer like James Watt. He understood that he had to study and that the best way he could do this was to read about the inventions and experiences of such engineering as Watt. So he decided, when he was seventeen, to learn to read and to spend Гязянфяр Пашайев part of his weekly wage and all his spare time on educating himself. He worked hard and on his eighteen birthday he could write his own name for the first time. Then he began to study arithmetic, a most important subject for an engineer. Stephen son devoted all his free time to his lessons. He knew the engine and boiler very well. And when anything went wrong with the engine the other engineers always sent for Stephenson.
Besides being responsible for the pit engines, Stephenson had also supervise the transport of the coal from the pits. It was this duty that started him thinking about movable engines. The new factories needed coal for driving their machines and the demand of coal was becoming so great that a quicker and cheaper method of transport was very important.
So he decided to try to build an engine with two vertical cylinders and a boiler. On July 25, 1814 his locomotive was tested. It hauled eight loaded wagons weighing more than thir ty tons at a speed of four miles an hour.
No engine had done such a thing before, but Stephenson considered this engine only a beginning.
On September 27, 1825 the new railway was opened. It was built by George Stephenson. Several thousand people came to see the ceremony. The train consisted of six wagons loaded with coal and flour and twenty-two trucks had benches for the use of any members of the public who wished to ride. Stephenson himself drove the engine. By the time the train reached Stockton, it was carrying more than six hundred passengers.
Soon he was invited to build a still larger railway, this time between Liverpool and Manchester to serve the expanding cot ton industry.
On September 15, 1830, when the railway between Liverpool and Manchester was opened, thousands came to see the new Сечилмиш ясярляри engine. The Rocket did not blow up and no one died of fear.
People began to see the usefulness of the new invention. It was not long before Stephenson was asked to make engines and to build railways for other parts of England. Now it was clear that engines would make travelling not only faster, but safer.
In 1815 George Stephenson got a large sum of money for his invention of a miner’s lamp. So he could send his son Robert to Edinburgh University for a six-month course. From that time on, for many years father and son worked closely together.
Father and son worked together when they built the Liverpool to Manchester Railway, then Robert built the Birmingham to London Railway, the first line to the British capital.
A monument to father and son was erected in Westminster Abbey.
MICHAEL FARADAY (1791–1867) He was born in a small village near London on September 22, 1791 in a poor family. His father, a blacksmith, could feed his family with difficulty, and could not even dream of an edu cation for his boy.
As a boy Michael did not have much schooling. He had to work, and he had to learn a trade. So in 1804, when he was thir teen, he went to work in a bookbinder’s shop. The work was not very interesting. At first he delivered the ready books. Later he learn how to bind books.
He lived among books. Some of the scientific works which passed through his hands aroused his interest in science and he started to read. The boy could not read every book in the shop because he was busy and had not much time. He began to take home the books which he liked best. Once he ran across the article on electricity. When Faraday began to read it, he knew Гязянфяр Пашайев nothing of the subject, but it struck his imagination. Soon his chief interest was in science, and especially in electricity and chemistry. He read as much as he could, on these subjects. He made careful notes from the books that interested him most.
Like all true scientists Faraday wanted to make experiments. He was poor but found some money to buy a cheap and simple apparatus and some materials.
During his lifetime Faraday made than two thousand differ ent experiments and made countless discoveries in chemistry and physics. But the most interesting discovery of his is the generation of electricity from magnetism.
It was known at that time that an electric current could mag netize iron. Faraday placed wires near magnets in different ways. He made coils of wire and put them round magnets. He wanted to get an electric current. At last he decided to move the magnet near wire. And then he got what he wanted: an electric current in the wire! He was already forty years old at the time, but his age did not stop him from dancing with delight on a table… This was a great moment in the history of man’s electrical experiments. But Faraday continued his work: he got a current when he moved the wire instead of the magnet.
Faraday placed two separate coils round the iron and passed a current through one coil. He found that when he started the current, or when he stopped it, or when he changed it, he got another current in the other coil. If nothing moved, and if there was not change, in the current in the first coil, he found no cur rent in the other.
After some more experiments of this kind he made a machine. The machine gave Faraday a current of electricity.
This was the beginning of all the great machines that make electricity today. These machines light and heat our houses, Сечилмиш ясярляри they make our radio sets work, they move our electric trains. It was the beginning of the electrical age, which has changed the face of the earth.
CHARLES DARWIN The famous naturalist and thinker, Charles Darwin was born on February 12 1809. Charles’ father was a well-known physi cian, he hoped that his son also would become a doctor.
As a boy, Charles liked to observe nature and compare his observation with everything he had read in natural science books.
At sixteen Charles was sent to Edinburgh University to become a doctor. But he was not interested in medicine, he was interested in the natural history. Charles collected various sea animals on the shore and he studied them. While he was still a student, he made two discoveries concerning sea ani mals. His report about the discoveries was met with interest by specialists.
In December 1831, on board the «Beagle» Charles Darwin went on a trip to South America. The expedition was away almost five years. He saw many new plants and animals, all of the greatest interest to him.
When Charles came home he was given a warm welcome by his father, his brothers and sisters and many friends. He made lectures about his specimens as many of them had never been seen in England.
In 1839 Darwin went to live in Kent. There he continued his search of the causes of change in nature.
Darwin gradually became convinced that plants and living organisms really changed and so did their surroundings.
At last, in 1859 Darwin finished his book «The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection». It caused a sensation.
Гязянфяр Пашайев Copies of the books were burned by people who objected to the idea that men were descended from apes. But later more and more scientists agreed with Darwin and began to support him.
In 1871 he published another book – «The Descent of Man», which became almost as famous as «The Origin of Species».
There was much argument following this book. But Darwin couldn’t take part in the discussion, he was in poor health, and died in 1882.
The beautiful 18th century house in Kent, Down House, where Charles Darwin lived for 40 years – from 1842 until his death in 1882, stands in a quiet country lane.
Among the relics of Darwin’s scientific and family life, there is an interesting thing to be seen – it is a correspondence between Darwin and Marx.
In one of the letters which seems only to have been pub lished in Russian, Marx asks Darwin for permission to dedicate a new edition of «Capital» to him.
Perhaps the most interesting room in the house is his study.
Visitors to the house from Eastern Europe are fairly fre quent, and the contents of a very interesting room, showing the history of life as disclosed by Darwin, have been entirely con tributed from Czechoslovakia.
ERNEST RUTHERFORD (1871–1937) Ernest Rutherford was born on August 30, 1871 in South Island, New Zealand in the family of English settlers.
In 1861 gold was found and, the country began to increase its export. Many foreigners came to live there, among them the Rutherfords.
Little Ernest was the fourth child in the family. When the boy was five he was sent to primary school. He was one of Сечилмиш ясярляри the best pupils there. After finishing primary school he went to the secondary school. He liked to read at school very much, his favourite writer was Charles Dickens. He made models of different machines. Especially he was interested in watches and cameras. He liked to take photos and construct ed a camera himself. At «Nelson College» (that was the name of the school) Ernest distinguished himself in physics, math ematics, English, French and Latin. He became the best pupil at school.
He paid much attention to chemistry, too. Chemistry was not obligatory but Rutherford was the only pupil to study chem istry at nelson College. At the age of 19 he finished the school and entered the only New Zealand University. The University was founded in 1870.
Later Rutherford went to Cambridge where he continued his researches. In the early years of Soviet power in our country Rutherford helped our scientific institutions in preparing young talented scientists. The famous Soviet academician Kapitsa was a pupil of Rutherford in Cambridge from 1922 to 1934.
Rutherford’s famous work is «The Scattering of Alpha and Beta Particles of Matter and the Structure of the Atom». The book deals with so-called «atom models».
The atoms had always been regarded as the smallest invisi ble units of which matter was composed. Further research showed that the atom was made up of smaller parts and that its structure was very complex.
The great scientist died in the autumn of 1937 after an oper ation at a Cambridge hospital. He was 66. Ernest Rutherford was buried at Westminster Abbey not far from the graves of Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin and Michael Faraday.
Гязянфяр Пашайев ALEXANDER FLEMING Alexander Fleming (1881–1955) came from a Scottish farmers family. He was born in August 1881, the youngest of eight children.
It was quite by chance that he came into contact with the man who was to affect his whole life – Sir Almroth Wright, a famous bacteriologist. Fleming became interested in antibacter ial drugs.
After military service he returned to laboratory work. His epochal discovery in 1928 of the antibacterial powers of the mould from which penicillin is derived was a great triumph.
A telegram from Stogholm told him that he had been given the Nobel Prize for Medicine.
«My only merit is that I did not neglect an observation, and that I pursued the subject as a bacteriologist, – said Fleming. – Everywhere I go people thank me for saving their lives. I don’t know why they do it. I didn’t do anything. Nature makes peni cillin – I just found it».
Сечилмиш ясярляри VOCABULARY –A– abandon – покидать, оставлять apparatus – аппарат abbreviation – сокращение apparent – кажущийся, abound – находиться, изо- явный, очевидный биловать, кишеть appeal – призыв, просьба, academician – академик обращение accompany – сопровождать appear – появляться according – согласно, в соот- applaud – аплодировать ветствии appoint – назначить, устраивать accounting – счетоводство archer – стрелок из лука acknowledge – признавать argue – спорить, обсуждать admission – допущение, argument – спор, довод признание;
уступка arithmetics – арифметика advance – продвигаться, armoury – арсенал, склад повышаться оружия advantage – преимущество arouse – пробуждать advertisement – объявление arrange – приводить affair – дело в порядок affect – повлиять arrogance – высокомерие, aflame – в огне самонадеянность alas – увы arrow – стрела allow – разрешить art sciences – гуманитарные ambition – стремление, дисциплины цель, мечта assistance – помощь, содей ancient – древний ствие anecdote – анекдот atheist – атеист anniversary – годовщина, attend – посещать юбилей attendance – присутствие attract – привлекать antiquated – старомодный, attraction – притяжение, устарелый тяготение ape – человекообразная audience – зрители, публика обезьяна Гязянфяр Пашайев bound – связывать –B– bourgeois – буржуа, бур basement – подвал;
фунда жуазный мент, основа bow – лук, нос корабля bay – залив, бухта breathe – дышать, вздохнуть bean –боб, фасоль breathtaking – захватываю bear – носить, нести груз, щий дух тяжесть brewery – пивоваренный behavioуr – поведение завод behead – обезглавливать, bridle – узды отрубить голову burial – похороны belong – принадлежать, bury – похоронить относиться bust – бюст beloved – возлюбленный, bustop – верхний этаж любимый beneath – под, ниже омнибуса benefit – выгода, прибыль butcher – палач;
мясник besiege – осаждать, окружить betroth – обручить, помол- –C– вить cape – мыс bias – уклон, пристрастие carnation – красная гвоздика bill – законопроект carpet – ковёр bind – переплетать, привя- castle – замок зывать cemetery – кладбище blacksmith – кузнец century – век blazer – спортивная куртка chemistry – химия bleak – суровый, мрачный cherish – лелеять (надежду, blind – слепой мысль) blow up – взорваться, взрывать childlessness – бездетность boastful – хвастливый chime – отбивать (часы);
boiler – паровой котёл перезвон bone – кость chimney – дымоход, дымовая bookbinder – переплётчик труба bookkeeper – бухгалтер, citadel – крепость, убежище счетовод claim – требование, иск a born teacher – врождённый clenched – оттиснутый учитель Сечилмиш ясярляри construct – строить, соору clergyman – священник жать, сделать clerk – чиновник, приказчик contain – вмещать, содер climb – подниматься жать в себе coast – морской берег contribute – отдавать, делать coil – катушка вклад co-founder – основополож control measuring – конт ник в сотрудничестве рольно-измерительный column – колонна, столбик convenience – удобство commemorate – служить converse – беседа, общение напоминанием convince – убеждать, убедить commercial – торговый, ком cook – готовить;
повар мерческий cooperator – соратник commence – начинать copying machine – копиро commerce – торговля вальная машина commune – общаться, coronation – коронация беседовать countless – бесчисленный comparable – сравнимый county – графство, адми comparison – сравнение нистративная единица compel – заставлять, в Англии принуждать crane – журавль complain – жаловаться create – творить, создавать complications – осложнение, creator – создатель запутанность creek – залив, бухточка compose – успокаивать crop – урожай comprise – охватывать, crowd – толпа включать cunning – хитрый, коварный, comrade-in-arms – товарищ ловкий по оружию, соратник curious – любопытный compulsory – обязательный curiosity – любопытство, condense – конденсировать антикварный condenser – конденсатор curiosity shop – антикварный confer – присуждать магазин conqueror – завоеватель current – ток consider – рассматривать custom – обычай, привычка Гязянфяр Пашайев dispensation – разрешение –D– брака dare – отважиться discreet – осторожный, бла dangerous – опасный горазумный;
сдержанный, dean – декан не болтливый debate – дебаты, дискуссия dissolve – роспуск (парламен declare – заявлять та и т.д.) dedicate – посвящать, подпи distinguish – разглядеть, сывать различить deepen – углублять, уси divide – делить ливать divine – божественный defeat – разгром, наносить descent – происхождение поражение dominion – доминион defence – оборона doorstep – порог degree – учёная степень, double decker – двухэтажный звание автобус delay – отсрочка drug – лекарство dence – густой duel – дуэль dentistry – лечение зубов, зубоврачебный –E– descent – происхождение earl – граф deserve – заслуживать ease – покой, досуг design – проектировать effigy – изображение destroy – разрушать emancipate – освобождать determine – определять embark – вступать, грузить develop – развиваться, раз на корабль рабатывать eminent – выдающийся, зна divorse – расторжение менитый devote – посвящать employ – нанимать, держать dim – тусклый, смутный, на службе туманный enable – давать возможность disarmament – разоружение enemy – враг disclose – раскрывать enjoy – наслаждаться discover – обнаруживать enormous – громадный discovery – открытие enrich – обогащать disorder – беспорядок Сечилмиш ясярляри enterprise – предприятие fancy – фантазия, представ epic – эпическая поэма лять себе epoch – эпоха, период fear – страх equip – снаряжать, обору- fee – плата за учение довать feed – кормить equipment – оборудование fiery – пламенный era – эра fine – штраф erect – сооружать, монти- fit for – соответствовать, ровать подходящий erudition – учёность, эрудиция flame – пламя, пыл, любовь establishment – учреждение flay – беспощадно крити evil – бедствие, зло, вред ковать exaggerate – преувеличивать fleet – флот, эскадра, парк except – кроме flexible – гибкий, подат excommunicate – отлучать ливый от церкви flour – мука exchange – обмениваться flow – течь, поток exclusive – недоступный, fog – густой, туман исключительный foremost – передовой execute – казнить formulate – формулировать exile – ссылка, изгнание founder – основатель exist – существовать foundry – литейный завод expand – расширяться freeze – замерзать, покры expectation – ожидание ваться льдом expensive – дорогой frills – брыжи experience – опыт, переживание frost – мороз exploiter – исследователь function – функция, назна explore – исследовать чение exploration – исследование funeral – похороны extend – простираться furious – неистовый, взбе extent – притяжение шенный –F– –G– faithful – преданный, верный gambler – игрок faithfully – с почтением gas-stove – газовая плита Гязянфяр Пашайев generation – поколение huge – огромный genius – гений hum – гудение, гул gifted – одарённый humour – юмор glory – слава –I– glue – клей, клеить goods – товар, имущество idle – густой, холостой, gossips – сплетня незанятый gravity – тяготение illegal – нелегальный greediness – жадность illiterate – неграмотный gregarious – общительный;
человек, неуч стадный illustrious – знаменитый, grief – горе известный groping – идти ощупью, искать image – образ, изображение growth – рост imagination – воображение guard – охрана impatient – нетерпеливый, раздражительный –H– impossible – невозможный impressive – впечатляющий, hamlet – деревушка выразительный handicraft – ручная работа impression – впечатление harbour – гавань, порт improvement – улучшение hatred – ненависть increase – увеличить halt – стой! (команда) incredible – невероятный haughty – надменный, высо indignant – негодовать, комерный возмущаться haul – тащить, перевозить indisputable – бесспорный health – здоровье industrious – трудолюбивый, heat – теплота усердный, прилежный height – высота, степень infant – младенец, ребёнок hopeless – безнадёжный infinity – безграничность hospitable – гостеприимный inhabitant – житель hostess – хозяйка island – остров host – хозяин isle – остров household – домашнее installation – установка, хозяйство проводка House of Lords – Палата лордов Сечилмиш ясярляри insult – оскорбление, обида manuscript – рукопись intellectual – мыслящий, marble – мрамор интеллектуальный marchers – маршировщики invent – изобретать margin – край, полоса invention – изобретение masterpiece – шедевр mate – помощник капитана –L– корабля labour – труд matter – вещество, материя lame – хромой measure – мера, марка lane – тропинка medieval – средний lathe – токарный станок Memorial Plaque – мемори latter – последний альная доска lawn – лужайка merchant – торговец, lawyer – юрист, адвокат торговый leap year – високосный год meridian – меридиан, leather – кожа высшая точка liberty – свобода merit – заслуга light-industry – легкая midnight – полночь промышленность midday – полдень limestone – известняк middle – середина linen – льняной mile – миля (1609 м), морская link – связь миля – 1853 м lead – груз, вагон mill – мельница, завод local – местный mine – шахта locomotive – локомотив, miner – шахтёр паровоз mint – монетный двор loveliness – красота, очарова- mirth – веселье, радость ние, прелесть missing – недостающий luxury – роскошь, наслаждение mode – мода, обычай mortal – смертный –M– mother-in-law – тёща, свекровь mould – форма, шаблон majority – большинство mouth – рот, уста manners – обычаи, нравы moveable – передвижной manufacture – производство, movement – движение изготовление Гязянфяр Пашайев murder – убийство omnibus – двухэтажный muse – размышлять, автобус задумываться opponent – противник musket – мушкет oppose – препятствовать, mutual – взаимный, обоюдный сопротивляться mutter – бормотать orchestra – оркестр mystery – тайна ore – руда overcoat – пальто –N– nail – гвоздь – P– natives – туземцы pack – заполнять, переполнять nautical – морской pale – бледный needle – иголка particle – частица neglect – пренебрегать passenger – пассажир newcomer – незнакомец patience – терпение, настой newsboy – газетчик, прода- чивость вец газет (мальчик или patchwork – лоскутная рабо подросток) та, одеяло, коврик nickname – прозвище pause – пауза, перерыв, noble – знатный, титулованный остановка nonsense – абсурд, пустяки, pavement – мостовая, вздор тротуар nought – ноль pedestrian – пешеход numerous – многочисленный pierce – пронзить, прони зывать –O– permission – разрешение oath – клятва per cent – процент oblige – обязывать, при perish – погибать, губить нуждать perseveringly – упорно obligatory – обязательный pigeon – голубь observation – наблюдение pillar – опора, столб obtain – получать, добывать pin – булавка, шпилька occupy – оккупировать, pincushion – подушечка завладевать для булавок offend – обижать, оскор pipe – труба блять piston – поршень, клапан officious – навязчивый Сечилмиш ясярляри pit – шахта, карьер publisher – издатель physician – врач pull-over – фуфайка, свитер plague – чума punishment – наказание plaque – доска purpose – цель plead – приводить в оправ- pursue – преследовать дание, отвечать –R– pleasure – удовольствие raincoat – плащ plinth – нижний обрез стены rapid – быстрый poetry – стихи, поэзия rare – редкий, необычный, physical training – физичес превосходный кая подготовка ravage – опустошать physics – физика rear – поднимать, возвы polyglot – полиглот шать, воздвигать population – население recite – декламировать, popularity – популярность, рассказывать известность recognition – признание post-graduate – аспирант recreation – развлечение, poverty – нищета, бедность отдых power – власть, сила red-lie – чистая ложь precision – точность, меткость reflection – отражение preference – предпочтение refuge – убежище privilege – привилегия refrigerator – холодильник prize – высоко ценить reinforce – подкреплять, procession – процессия укреплять proctor – инспектор студен refuse – отказать тов, проректор remove – устранять profound – глубокий, мудрый resist – сопротивляться proof – доказательство responsibility – ответствен pronouncement – объявление, ность решение repair – ремонт, починка prosperous – процветающий reserved – сдержанный, осто protection – охрана рожный prove – доказывать, удосто respected – уважаемый верять resign – отказаться (от долж provide – обеспечивать, ности), уходить в отставку доставлять Гязянфяр Пашайев retailshops – лавочка мелочи security – безопасность secure – спокойный, безо ribbon – лента пасный, надёжный richness – богатство seize – схватывать, хватать rickety-stairs – шаткие лест self-instructor – самоучитель ницы sensible person – здраво ride – кататься (верхом) мыслящий человек, riddle – загадка;