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E..M h rr mov, tarix elml ri namiz di KOMMUN ST Q ZET V AZ RBAYCAN SSR K ND T S RRFATININ B RPASI M S L L R (1921-1928-ci ill r) XLAS Sovet imperiyasnn dalmasndan sonra mst qillik yen onunluna xm yeni dvl tl r kimi Az rbaycan Respublikas da ada dvrd xalqmzn arzu v ist kl rinin realladrlma sna xidm t ed c k sosial-iqtisadi v ictimai-siyasi institutlara malik olan suveren dvl tiliyinin yaradlmas istiqam tind r fli olduu q d r d mr kk b v oxsah li f aliyy t yoluna q d m qoymudur. Bu taleykl tarixi-siyasi v zif nin uurla yerin yetirilm si n XX yzillikd xalqmzn kediyi siyasi iqtisadi inkiaf yolunun ibr t d rsl rinin m yy nl dirilm si, dvl t quruculuu sah sind tarixi t crb nin obyektivc sin iqlandrlmas son d r c aktual bir m s l dir v m li-prak tiki h miyy t malikdir.

Oxucularn s r ncamna t qdim olunan monoqrafiya da bu baxmdan mhm elmi-praktik h miyy t malik olub, giri, drd f sil, n tic v biblioqrafiyadan ibar tdir.

Girid mvzunun aktuall saslandrlr, t dqiqatn m qs d v v zif l ri m yy nl dirilir, mvzunun yr nilm d r c si, el c d problemin yeniliyi, t dqiqatn metodoloji sullar v m nb bazas, onun praktiki h miyy ti aqlanr.

Girid mumil dirilmi elmi-t dqiqat s rl ri, monoqra fiyalar v baqa ynml s rl r rh olunur, bu sah d il mi mt x ssisl rin m yi layiqinc qiym tl ndirilir. Kommunist

q zetinin yr nil n dvr zr t dqiqats olmu C mil M h r r mlinin q zetin nsx l rinin axtarlb-taplmas v t dqiqi sah sind ki xidm tl ri yks k qiym tl ndirilir. Q zetin n r edildiyi dvrn qalan ill ri zr h l d xsusi t dqiqat il rin byk ehtiyac olduu v bel t dqiqat aparlarsa, Az rbaycan tarix naslnn ondan yalnz xeyir gr c yi n z r atdrlr.

M llifin znn apard t dqiqat il ri v xard n ti c l r d diqq t layiqdir. Eyni zamanda sovet hakimiyy ti ill rin d formalam v m lum s b bl r znd n birt r fli aparlm t dqiqat s rl ri elmi s viyy d t hlil v t nqid edilir. M llif h min s rl rd Az rbaycana sovet hkum tinin v Rusiyann birt r fli v t m nnasz yardm gst rm l rinin sl mahiyy ti ni ar, bu yardmlarn he d birt r fli olmadn, ksin yar dm ad il onun klli miqdarda var-dvl tinin lk d n dand n tutarl d lill rl gst rir.

M s l n, Rusiyann tabeliyind olan Rusiya-Az rbaycan pambqlq irk tinin qardalq yardm ad il Az rbaycana qar apard ayr-sekilik v onun mlakn mxt lif yollarla m nims m k siyas ti, Az rbaycan r hb rliyinin buna qar q ti mqavim ti, bel siyas t cavab olaraq h min t kilat nmayi karan kild t rk etm si, el c d onu Az rbaycandan qov mas fakt ilk d f olaraq elmi dvriyy y m hz bu s rd daxil edilmidir. Az rbaycann o vaxtk h tta rusp r st dvl t xadim l rinin bel bir addm atmaq m cburiyy tind qalmas h min m s l nin n d r c d ciddi olduunu yani sur td sbut edir.

Eyni szl ri Leninin yaratd Muqmelstroy (y ni Mu an meliorasiya tikinti) t kilatnn f aliyy ti haqqnda da syl m k olar. Mvcud elmi d biyyatda bu t kilatn f aliyy ti yalnz msb t c h td n qiym tl ndirilmi, onun nin he vaxt gst rm diyi xidm tl rl bal t rifl r syl nilmidir. Tutarl d lill rl sbut edilir ki, indiy q d rki elmi d biyyatda olan materiallar yalnz Bakinski raboi q zetind n v dig r rusdilli m nb l rd n, o cml d n rusdilli arxiv m nb l rind n gtrl dynd n elmi d biyyatda byk yanlla yol verilmi, fakt lar v hadis l r t hrif olunmudur. slind h min t kilat Az r baycanda zn q tiyy n aid olmayan il rl m ul olmu, su varma tikintisi m s l l ri tamamil unudulmu, Az rbaycann varidat sad c olaraq Boqdatyev, Badamyan v s. kimi frl daq erm nil r t r find n talan edilmidir. Bu m s l l r ilk d f bu s rd aqlanr.

Tarixnaslq blm sind Az rbaycann guya sovet haki miyy tinin ilk ill rind partiyann atalq qays say sind vergid n tam azad edildiyi iddias q tiyy tl r dd edilir v Kommunist q zetind n g tiril n d lill rl sbut edilir ki, Az rbaycan SSR n inki onun boynuna qoyulmu ar vergi y kn artqlamas il d midir, h tta onun n baqa ad altnda anaq ad il daha bir vergi nv d taplm, onun da tam yerin yetirilm si t min olunmudur. Btn bunlardan lav, Az rbaycan SSR bolevik siyas ti n tic sind Rusiyann aclq dan qrlan Volqaboyu vilay tl ri n d kifay t q d r rzaq yardm gst rmidir.

Kommunist q zetinin yaranmas v inkiaf adlanan birinci f sild 1919-cu ild Kommunist q zetinin ilk nmr si nin, aprel evriliind n sonra is ktl vi n r balamasnn gediat iqlandrlr. Xsusi olaraq gst rilir ki, Az rbaycan Cmhuriyy ti devrildikd n sonra onun n r etdiyi Az rbay can q zetinin ad d yidirilib Kommunist qoyulmu v milli hval-ruhiyy li btn m kdalar da o dvrd kadr atmazl znd n redaksiyada saxlanlmdr. El bu s b bd n d q zet sl milli q zet evril bilmidir. Q zetin znn v redaksiya nn strukturu, redaktorlarn v iil rin adlar v v zif l ri, q zetin Bakda v q zalarda olan f hl -k ndli mxbirl rinin bir qisminin t x llsl ri m yy nl dirilir. Bu f sild Kommu nist q zetinin bolevik partiyasnn orqan kimi qarsnda du ran ktl vi t bliat v zif sini yerin yetirm kl b rab r eyni zamanda geni ktl nin milli znd rki n grdy byk m li t bliat ii d yks k qiym tl ndirilir. T sadfi deyildir ki, t dqiq edil n dvr rzind AK(b)P MK-nn gst rii v li heyd r Qarayevin r hb rliyi altnda mill ti ilan yuvas ad landrlan Kommunist q zeti redaksiyasnda mill ti nsr l rd n d f l rl t mizl m m liyyatlar aparlmdr.

T qdir layiq haldr ki, trk v ms lman xalqlar arasnda latn lifbasna ilk d f Az rbaycanda keildiyi kimi, o dvrd kifay t q d r maddi imkanlara malik ms lman dvl tl rinin mvcud olduu bir halda, r b lifbas il linotipl s tir yan ilk makinalar da Az rbaycann sifarii il 1925-ci ild AB-da yaradlm, r b lifbas il ilk linotip s tri yaz da m hz Az r baycan dilind ap olunmudur.

Az rbaycan ziyallarnn o vaxtk qayma m hz Kom munist q zeti redaksiyasnda c ml nmidi. Bunlardan bdr r him b y Haqverdiyev, M mm d S id Ordubadi, C f r Cab barl, zim zimzad, H n fi Zeynall, Salman Mmtaz, liab bas Mznib, Seyid C f r Pi v ri, ziz rif, Almas ldrm, Xudadat b y zizb yov, Bykaa Talbl, Aababa Yusifzad, H bib C biyev, Mir C lal Paayev, Ruhulla Axundov v ba qalarn gst rm k olar. liaa Vahid, frasiyab B d lb yli, hm d R c bli, Murtuza Nayev, zeyir b y Hacb yov, H seyn Cavid v bir ox baqa yazarlarmz q zetl sx m kdalq etmi, onu z gz l s rl ri il daha da rvn ql ndirmil r.

M hz onlarn say sind Kommunist q zeti trafnda milli ruh da t rbiy alan mxbirl r yetimidi. H min mxbirl rin yazlar Kommunist q zetini dig r q zetl rd n v t np rv rlik hissl ri il f rql ndirirdi.

Kommunist q zeti v kiniliyin b rpas adl II f sil d torpaq quruculuu, k nd t s rrfatnn b rpa v inkiaf etdi rilm si n maddi-texniki bazann yaradlmas, k nd t s rrfat texnikasnn alnb g tirilm si, t miri v sat il bal m s l l r iqlandrlr. F slin diqq ti c lb ed n n mhm paraqraflarn dan biri su t s rrfatnn b rpasna h sr olunmuudur. st r Muqmelstroyun, ist rs d Zakvodxozun, y ni Zaqafqaziya su t s rrfat idar sinin Az rbaycandak yartmaz f aliyy ti Kommunist q zetind d rc olunmu tutarl materiallar sasn da t nqid edilir, eyni zamanda Az rbaycann znn tabeliyind yaradlm su t s rrfat idar sinin qsa mdd t rzind h min x talar islah etm si v ox qsa mdd td su t s rrfat sis temini tam b rpa etm si, bu sah d Kommunist q zetinin h miyy tli rol oynad trafl iqlandrlr. Bu yenilik elmi dvriyy y ilk d f daxil edilir. Eyni szl ri vergi m s l l rinin sahmana salnmasndan b hs ed n paraqraf bar sind d sy l m k lazmdr. Bu paraqrafda Az rbaycann normadan artq vergi d m k m cburiyy tind qalmasndan, h tta Az rbaycann rusp r st r hb rl rinin d bu m s l y z etirazlarn bildirm sind n, n hay t aparlan islahatlar n tic sind Az rbaycann k nd t s rrfat v vahid k nd t s rrfat vergil rind n yaxa qurtararaq mlakdan vergi sistemin kem sind n trafl b hs edilir. lk d f elm g tiril n yenilik say sind m lum olur ki, Zaqafqaziya Federasiyasnn bdc si bldrl rk n Az r baycana ayrlan v sait h mi qonu respublikalarn payndan az olmu v st lik h min v saitin z d Az rbaycana k sirl verilmi, maliyy nin qalan hiss si is Grcstana v Erm ni stana trlmdr. H tta i o yer atmd ki, adambana d n verginin ylmasnda bel, ayr-sekiliy yol verilmidi.

Kommunist q zetind n g tiril n m lumata gr az rbaycan ldan alnan vergi grcd n alnan vergid n 2,1 d f, erm nid n alnan vergid n is 1,7 d f artq olmudur. Erm nistan v Gr cstann he vaxt vergi normasn d m dikl ri halda, Az rbay can Zaqafqaziya Federasiyas fonduna onlarn ikisinin birg d dikl ri vergid n artq vergi d midir. Kommunist q ze tind gst rildiyi kimi, vergi sistemind ki islahatlar, n hay t ki, Az rbaycan qonu respublikalarn v zin vergi verm kd n xilas etmidir.

nc f sil Kommunist q zeti v k nd t s rrfat bit kiiliyinin b rpas m s l l ri adlanr. F sild d nli bitkil rin, pambqln v s. b rpas v inkiafndan, bu m s l l rin h l lind Kommunist q zetinin oynad roldan b hs edilir. s r d torpaq sah si alm k ndlil rin qsa mdd t rzind d nli bit kil ri b rpa etm si, h tta qonu respublikalara da ixrac etm si haqqnda m lumat verilir. Kommunist q zeti kiniliyin qay dalar haqqnda k nd z hm tkel rin tvsiy l r verir, vaxtar k nd t s rrfat istehsaln t kil etm k bar d xrda h cmli kitabalar n r ed r k onlar k ndlil r arasnda pulsuz payla yrd.


Pambqlq sah sind qazanlm nailiyy tl r d diqq ti c lb edir. Kommunist q zetinin d rc etdiyi m qal l rin say sind Az rbaycan ona qar ayr-sekilik ed n, respublikann mlakn l keirm y alan Rusiya-Az rbaycan pambq lq irk tinin caynandan yaxasn qurtara bilir, respublikann h tta rusp r st dvl t v hkum t r hb rl ri irk tin r hb rliyi nin Az rbaycandan qovulmasna nail olur. Bu, o dvr n ta mamil gzl nilm z bir hal idi v indiy d k elmi d biyyata m lum deyildi. Bu f sild k nd t s rrfat z r rvericil rin qar aparlan uurlu mbariz d n d b hs edilir. Bu sah d Kom munist q zeti, dem k olar ki, h r gn z s hif l rind mate riallar d rc edirmi.

Monoqrafiyann drdnc f sli Kommunist q zeti maldarln b rpa olunmas urunda mbariz d adlanr. Bu f sild maldarln v ziyy ti v otlaq m s l si, maldarln b rpa s, mal-qaradak x st likl r qar mbariz d n v h min v zif l rin yerin yetirilm sind Kommunist q zetinin oynad rol dan, z s hif l rind bu sah d gnn n mhm probleml rinin iqlandrlmasndan b hs edilir.

N tic d mumil dirm l r aparlr.

ada Az rbaycan Respublikasnda m tbuat v k nd t s rrfat sisteminin iinin qurulmas v yaxladrlmas istiqa m tind ir li srl n t klifl r, bizim fikrimizc, uzunmdd tli t dqiqat v aradrmalarn m ntiqi m hsulu olub konkret m li h miyy t malikdir.

E.A.Maharramov, Candidate of history The newspaper Kommunist and problems of restoration of agriculture of the Azerbaijan SSR (1921-1928s) SUMMARY The Azerbaijan Republic like the new states which after collapse of the soviet empire became independent has started the honorable way of complicated and multiple-field activities in the direction of creation of sovereign statehood having socio economic and socio-political institutes that will serve to the re alization of wish and desires of our people in the modern time.

For the successful realization of this very urgent historical- po litical problem the determination of lessons of political-eco nomic development that our people have passed in the XX cen tury, objective elucidation of the historical experience in the area of state building is very topical problem and is of constructive practical importance.

From this point of view the monograph represented to readership is of scientific-practical importance and consists of the introduction, four chapters, conclusion and the bibliography.

In the Introduction the urgency of the theme is groun ded, goals and objectives of the investigation are defined, de gree of studying, as well as novelty of the problem, methodo logical methods and source base of the investigation and its practical importance is elucidated.

Generalized scientific-research works, monographs and works of another aspects are commented in the introduction;

la bor of the specialists which have worked in this area is appreci ated decently. A service in finding and investigation of copies of the newspaper of Jamil Maharramli who has been the researcher of the newspaper "Kommunist" in the studied period is highly appreciated. It is notified that still there is a great need for spe cial research on the rest of years of the newspaper and if such research, the Azerbaijan historiography only will gain benefit from it.

Research works carried out by the author himself and their results are also noteworthy. At the same time research works which in the years of the Soviet power for known reasons had been formed and investigated one-sidedly are analyzed and criti cized in the scientific level.

In the same work the author reveals the real essence of one-sided and disinterested assistance of the Soviet gover nment and Russia to Azerbaijan and that this help was not one sided. On the contrary, with irrefutable arguments he proves that a great number of her wealth was taken out from the country.

For instance, the fact about the Russian-Azerbaijan Cot ton-Growing Company had been under the administration of Russia. For the first time in this work have been included to sci entific circulation how under the pretext of brotherly assis tance this company carried out discriminative policy against Azerbaijan and how using different tricks misappropriated her wealth;

and how Azerbaijan government resisted decisively and demonstratively left this organization and drove it out from Azerbaijan. Making of such decisive step by even Russian lover statesmen of Azerbaijan at that time proves visually how serious was the problem.

The same should be said about the activities of "Mugh melstroy (Mughan Reclamation Construction Company) created by Lenin. In the existing scientific literature activities of this or ganization had been only valued from the positive side, it was praised for services which had never been done. It is proved with irrefutable arguments that as the materials which are in the scientific literature up to now were taken only from the newspa per "Bakinskiy rabochiy" and other Russian-speaking sources, including Russian-speaking archive sources, have been made a great erroneousness in the scientific literature;

facts and events have been distorted. In reality, the organization had been en gaged with works which did not concern to it absolutely, prob lems relating to the construction of irrigation system had been completely forgotten;

and simply the wealth of Azerbaijan had been robbed by fraudulent Armenians like Bogdatyev, Badam yan, etc. These problems are elucidated for the first time in this work.


In the section of historiography the claim as if in the first years of the Soviet power thanks to paternal care of the party Azerbaijan was absolutely free of the tax is rejected decidedly and with arguments quoted from the Kommunist newspaper is proved that Azerbaijan SSR not only had paid wholly the heavy tax, but in addition even had provided them with another kind of tax found for her under the name of chanag. Besides it all, in the result of Bolshevik policy of Russia Azerbaijan SSR had also supplied with enough food-stuffs starving from hunger the coastal provinces on the river Volga.

In the first chapter called Foundation and development of the newspaper Kommunist, publication of the maiden number of the Kommunist newspaper in 1919 and the course of mass publication after the April revolution is elucidated. It is empha sized in particular, that after overthrowing of the Azerbaijan Re public the Azerbaijan newspaper was renamed to Kommu nist and all the employees with national mood were kept in the editorial stuff because of cadre insufficiency at that time. Just for this reason the newspaper could become the real national newspaper. Structure of the newspaper and editorial stuff, names and positions of the editors and workers, pseudonyms of a part of the worker and peasant correspondents of the newspaper in Baku and districts is defined. In this chapter the great practical propaganda for national self-consciousness of wide masses of people, at the same time fulfilling the duty of mass propaganda activity of the Kommunist newspaper as the organ of Bolshe vik party is highly appreciated. It is not accidental, that during the researched time under the instructions of AC(b)P Central Committee and Aliheydar Garayev's leadership in the editorial office of the newspaper Kommunist called the snake pit of nationalists repeatedly had been carried out the cleansing opera tions from the nationalist elements.

It is estimable that Azerbaijan was the first among Turkic and Moslem people who transferred to Latin alphabet. Although there existed Moslem states financial position of which was good enough, but the first type-writers writing with linotype line was made in the USA with order of Azerbaijan in 1925, and the first linotype line writing with Arabian alphabet also had been printed just in Azerbaijani.

The best Azerbaijan intellectuals had gathered together at that time just in the editorial stuff of the Kommunist newspa per. Abdurrahim bey Hagverdiyev, Mammad Said Ordubadi, Ja far Jabbarly, Azim Azimzadeh, Hanafi Zeynally, Salman Mum taz, Aliabbas Muznib, Seyid Jafar Pisevari, Aziz Sarif, Almas Il dyrym, Xudadat bey Azizbeyov, Boyukagha Talibly, Aghababa Yusifzadeh, Habib Jabiyev, Mir Jalal Pasayev, Ruhulla Axun dov and others were among them. Aliagha Vahid, Afrasiyab Ba dalbeyli, Ahmad Rajabli, Murtuza Naghiyev, Uzeyir Hajibeyov, Huseyn Javid and some other writers closely cooperated with the newspaper, and with their beautiful works they made it more readable.

Just due to them, correspondents in the national spirit had been brought up. Writings of these correspondents with patriotic feelings were distinguishing the Kommunist newspaper from other newspapers.

Problems connected with soil construction, creation of fa cilities and equipment for the restoration and development of ag riculture, purchasing and bringing, repairing and selling of the agricultural engineering are elucidated in chapter II called The Kommunist newspaper and restoration of the husbandry. One of the most important paragraphs drawing attention has been de voted to the restoration of water economy. Remiss activities of both Mughmelstroy and Zakvodkhoz (Transcaucasia Water Economy) in Azerbaijan is criticized on the basis of pointed materials published in the Kommunist newspaper, at the same time, correction of the mistakes in brief space of time by Water Economy Office created under management of Azerbaijan, complete restoration of water economy at breakneck speed, the important part played in this by the Kommunist newspaper is elucidated in details. This innovation is included to the scientific circulation for the first time. The same should be said about the paragraph dealing with regulation of the tax problems. In this paragraph is dealt in details with surplus tax that Azerbaijan was obliged to pay, objection of even Russian-lover chiefs of Azer baijan to this issue, at last due to the reforms carried release of Azerbaijan from paying agricultural and unique agricultural taxes and passing to property tax system. Thanks to innovation brought to science for the first time it becomes clear that when the budget of the Transcaucasian Federation was divided, Azer baijan had less share than neighbor republics, in addition, the share was not always given in full amount;

the remainder of the finance was transferred to Georgia and Armenia. Besides, even such discrimination occurred in gathering of the tax for per head. According to the quotation from the Kommunist news paper appears that the tax collected from the Azerbaijani was 2. times more than levied from the Georgian, and 1.7 times more than the tax levied from the Armenian. Although Armenia and Georgia had never paid the tax norm, Azerbaijan had paid taxes to the fund of Transcaucasian Federation more than they two to gether.

As it was shown in the Kommunist newspaper, at last reforms in the tax system saved Azerbaijan from paying taxes instead of neighbour republics.

Chapter III called The Kommunist (Communist) news paper and the problems of restoration of agricultural plant-gro wing deals with the restoration and development of plants, cot ton-growing, etc;

the role of the Kommunist newspaper in the solution of these problems. Information is given how in a short period of time grain-crops were restored by the peasants having gained lots. The Kommunist newspaper gave recommenda tions to village workers about rules of husbandry, periodically were distributed them free of charge small booklets about the organization of the agricultural produce. Achievements earned in the cotton-growing draws attention. Thanks to the articles published in the Kommunist newspaper Azerbaijan could es cape from the claws of Russian-Azerbaijan Cotton-Growing Company which discriminating against her, strived to take pos session of the republic. Even Russian-lover state and govern ment chiefs of the republic achieved driving out of the admini stration of the company from Azerbaijan. It was a completely unexpected event for that time and still not been known in the scientific literature. This chapter deals with successful combat ing against the agricultural pests. The Kommunist newspaper published materials on pages roughly every day.

Chapter IV of the monograph is called The Kommunist newspaper in struggling for restoration of cattle-breeding. In this chapter is dealt about the state of the cattle-breeding and pasture, restoration of cattle-breeding, combating with cattle diseases and the role of the Kommunist newspaper in fulfill ment of these tasks, and lightening of the most important prob lem of the day on its pages.

In the Conclusion is made generalization.

Offers proposed for the organization and improvement of works of the system of press and agriculture in modern Azerbai jan Republic, to our mind, having been logical result of the long term researches and analyses are of concrete practical impor tance.

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