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training or strength training only.

Key words:

one repetition maximum, maximal повторення, максимальна, сила, чо- повторения, максимальная, сила, муж strength, male university student, leg ловічий, університет, ноги, плечі. ской, университет, ноги, плечи.

press, shoulder press, bench press.

Introduction1 to as ‘concurrent training’. However, these two methods From physiological point of view, the purpose of involve different levels of training volume, intensity and training on improvement of different systems of body duration. Strength training is defined as a low number of functions is to optimize athletic performances. Training repetitions performed on a load that is of high resistance, causes an increase of work capacities and skill abilities producing a maximal or near-maximal contraction In of the athletes. Every training has a main and prevailing contrast, endurance training is defined as repeated sub ability. In a training or sport, rarely only one main and maximal contractions with loads of low resistance (2).

prevailing ability is considered, because one prevailing When performed independently, these two distinct forms movement often needs a combination of two or more of training induce for the most part, opposite physiological abilities (1). adaptations within the muscle.

Countless numbers of athletes and recreational workout Strength training reported to be responsible in muscle enthusiasts complete their endurance and strength training fiber hypertrophy, associated with an increase in maximal workouts during the same training session, or within hours contractile force (3). Strength training also reduces of one another. This sequential exercise regime is referred the mitochondrial density and decreases the activity of oxidative enzymes, which can impede the endurance © Aydin Valizadeh, Hamidreza Azmoon, ФИЗИЧЕСКОЕ ВОСПИТАНИЕ СТУДЕНТОВ Maximal oxygen consumption capacity but has a minimal effect on capillary density or Maximal oxygen consumption was used to identify the conversion from fast (type ) to slow twitch (type the level of fitness and classify the subjects into two I) fiber types (2, 4, 5). In contrast, however, endurance homogenized groups. Maximal oxygen consumption was training usually induces little or no muscle hypertrophy, calculated through Astrand Treadmill Test. In Astrand but increases the mitochondrial content, citric acid Treadmill Test, the subjects ran with a speed of 8.05 km.h enzymes, oxidative capacity, and the possibility of muscle (5-mile. hour) and with gradient of 0% on treadmill;

fiber conversion from fast to slow twitch (5).

after 3 minutes gradient of the treadmill increased 2.5%, Athletes involved in many sports often perform then every 2 minutes, gradient of the treadmill increased strength and endurance training concurrently in an effort to 2.5%. The test continued until exhaustion. Testing time achieve adaptations specific to both forms of training. Up was measured and recorded up to two decimals in minute to now, researches on the neuromuscular adaptations and and was used considering the following assessment performance improvements associated with concurrent equation in functional form to evaluate maximal oxygen strength and endurance training has produced inconsistent consumption.

results (6).

Maximal Consumed Oxygen (milliliter.kilogram.

In 1980, Hickson found that strength development minute) = (1.444min) + 14. negatively affected by endurance training (7). Similar Maximal Strength detriments to strength have been supported by other Maximal Strength in four moves of bench press researches (4, 8, 9). In contrast, however, studies have also (BP), shoulders press (SP), squat (SQ) and leg press found that endurance training has no detrimental effect on (LP) calculated by using Berezicki equation. In this test, strength development (2, 11, 12, 13, 14). Interestingly all subjects choose a heavy weight fairly that was able to agreed that concurrent strength and endurance training has lift for over one and less ten repetitions. Then repetitions no negative effect on endurance. Strength and endurance number and the moved weight in the following equation training regimes represent and induce a distinctly different was used to calculate one maximal repetition (16).

adaptive response when performed individually. Typically, One max repeat = moved weight (kg) (1.278 – strength-training programs involve large muscle group 0.0278 number of repeats) activation of high-resistance low-repetition exercises to Fat Percentage:

increase the force output ability of skeletal muscle (2).

Fat percentage was calculated by using Lange caliper On the other hand, endurance-training programs utilize and through 3-point equation of Jackson-Pollock (for low-resistance, high-repetitions exercises such as running men) after measurement of under the skin fat thickness in or cycling to increase VO2max. Accordingly, the adaptive three areas of abdominal, thigh and pectoral folds and by responses in skeletal muscle to strength and endurance using the following formula:

training are different and sometimes opposite (15).

Density = 1.1093800 – S 0.000826 + S3 0. Abernerthy and Quigly (1993) noted that lower body – age 0. strength development appears to be compromised when Fat percentage = 495 (density – 450) S = total fat the lower limbs are engaged in simultaneous endurance Training Protocols and strength exercises (3). However, concurrent Each group, performed three sessions of training in training may not restrict the development of upper body a week and during eight weeks maximum 24 sessions of strength. Base on literature reviews surveys done in this training were done. These 24 sessions were divided into particular area, only two studies published on the upper three 8-session sections that in every of these sections body adaptations (3, 12) and therefore, more research specific training program were done. ES, E and S training is necessary regarding the effect concurrent training on groups on Sundays, Tuesdays and Thursdays did their upper strength development. The purpose in this study training programs. Endurance-Strength (ES) group at was investigation on the strength gains of the upper and the beginning of each training session and after general lower body during three different training programs after warming up the body that lasts 15 minutes performed eight weeks strength, endurance and concurrent training.

Methods endurance training and after 10 minutes of taking inactive Subjects rest, performed strength training.

Endurance Training Program Thirty-two male university students participated in the Endurance training was performed in the form of study. They did not do any in any regular training program running and during the 8-week of training time and for at least one year. All subjects gave written consent after intensity of activity was increased. In the first 8 sessions having being informed about the study protocol, without (1-8), the subjects trained for 25 minutes with 65% of being informed of the goal of the study. Then they allocated maximal heart rate and in the second 8 sessions (9-16) for in four groups of: strength-endurance (SE) training, 35 minutes with 65%-75% of their maximal and in the last endurance training (E), strength training (S) and control 8 sessions (17-24), the subjects trained for 40 minutes with (C) based on biomotor abilities obtained from the tests.

75% to 85% of their maximal heart rate. All the subjects Individual particulars of the subjects presented in Table 1.

Material and Methods: during endurance program, worn a heart rate monitor chest strap (Polar Electro, Finland) for determination of The following measurements done before starting the intensity of their training. Also, the subjects were trained training program and after completion of eight weeks of to get their pulse from radial artery so that in case of training:

Table Subject characteristics in four groups LBM(kg) kg(%)Fat (kg)weight (cm)Height (yr)Age N Group 54.13 ±3.57 9.03 ±2.62 59.48 ±4.10 170 ±4.49 21.5 ±1.60 8 SE 54 ±5.58 12 ±4.63 62.61 ±4.72 170 ±8.91 21.57 ±1.71 8 S 56.07 ±7.58 11.27 ±4.34 66.41 ±4.75 173 ±5.16 20.75 ±1.83 8 E 44.89 ±6.85 11.07 ±2.12 62.58 ±7.41 173 ±5.86 21.63 ±1.71 8 C Values are given as mean ± SD.

SE = Strength-endurance training E = Endurance training.

S = Strength training C = Control Group N = number of subjects.

Table The comparison of maximal strength before and after 8-weeks of training significance t-value Posttest Pretest Group variable 0.014 -3.265 0.908 ±0.094 0.841 ±0.070 E 0.000 -15.216 1.035 ±0.183 0.849 ±0.182 Bench press S 0.003 -4.174 1.100 ±0.121 0.917 ±0.139 (kg/body weight) SE 0.000 8.257 0.784 ±0.096 0.850 ±0.104 C 0.002 -4.619 0.683 ±0.082 0.611 ±0.073 E 0.000 -7.984 0.760 ±0.084 0.543 ±0.054 Shoulder press S 0.000 -6.782 0.839 ±0.056 0.602 ±0.050 (kg/body weight) SE 0.001 5.837 0.543 ±0.048 0.586 ±0.040 C 0.000 -11.380 3.479 ±0.498 2.456 ±0.571 E 0.000 -21.790 3.954 ±0.257 2.452 ±0.167 Leg press S 0.000 -10.721 4.146 ±0.477 2.735 ±0.370 (kg/body weight) SE 0.001 5.968 2.081 ±0.310 2.291 ±0.376 C 0.000 -11.896 2.024 ±0.371 1.630 ±0.330 E 0.000 -13.003 2.165 ±0.157 1.456 ±0.212 Squat S 0.000 -9.274 2.401 ±0.515 1.788 ±0.370 (kg/body weight) SE 0.003 10.412 1.466 ±0.214 1.642 ±0.246 C The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level.

Table Statistical results between groups Bench Shoulder Leg Squat press press press Intra-group differences Sig. Sig. Sig. Sig.

F F F F 0.029 0.004 0.001 0. E S 0.027 0.000 0.003 0. E ES 0.000 0.000 0.000 0. E C 16.2 23.8 64.5 55. 0.966 0.541 0.486 0. S ES 0.000 0.000 0.000 0. S C 0.000 0.000 0.000 0. ES C The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level.

appearance of any problem in polar, the subjects could last 8 sessions [17-24] of training, the subjects performed assess the accurate intensity of their training (17). strength training with a load of 70-80% of a maximal Strength Training Program repeat in 3-5 sets with 8-12 repeats in every session (8).

Statistical analysis Strength trainings were done 3 times in a week and included bench press, leg press, shoulder press, flexion In this research, we employed paired t-test to assess inter and extension knee, push up, Squat and forearm by halter. group difference and One Way ANOVA test for assessment During the first 8 sessions [1-8] of training, the subjects of intra-group changes, and at the moments that F measures trained with a load of 50-60% of a maximal repeat. 10- in ANOVA test got significant, LSD following test was used 15 repeats in every set and 3-4 sets in every training for determination of differences between the groups. It must session were done. During the second 8 sessions [9-16] of be mentioned that study on intra-group changes were done training, the subjects trained with a load of 60-70% of a based on differences of average of each group in pretest and maximal repeat in 3-5 sets and 10-12 repeats. During the post-test. All statistical analysis was done by SPSS Software ФИЗИЧЕСКОЕ ВОСПИТАНИЕ СТУДЕНТОВ and drawing of the diagrams was done by Excel software. A In the present study gains strength on upper body S significant level was set at p0.05. and ES group showed a little difference while discrepancy Results in strength gains lower body between two groups was Measurements related to the studied variables presented higher. Results of the present study is in agreement with in the table 2. There was no significant difference between studies that expressed lower body strength development S, E, SE, and Control groups in pretest that would show appears to be compromised when the lower limbs are random distribution and homogeneity in the research engaged in concurrent endurance and strength training (3, sample. After 8 weeks performance of training programs, 13). Factors related to lower strength in the concurrent measurements were repeated in the LP, SP, SQ and BP group than the strength group may possible related to groups. Table 2 shows statistical results related to changes the endurance training protocol. In the concurrent group, of variables from pretest until after test in three research muscle fatigue in result of endurance training performed groups. just before strength training would conflict with Table 3 shows statistical results related to intra-group physiological adaptations, endocrine changes and altering differences in the studied variables according to differences the balance of anabolic and catabolic hormones.

of average of each group in pretest and post-test. The mode of endurance training has a considerable Discussion role in strength improvement. When primary form Maximal strength: of endurance training is running, it may make more As a result of 8 weeks of training, all training groups noticeable performance hindrance in strength training showed a significant increase in strength. In this relation, than other forms of endurance training. Because running Glowacki (2004) obtained the same results and expressed is very physically demanding on the lower body muscle, significant increase of strength in all training groups strength training of the lower body will be affected, and (18). On the other hand, results of the present research strength and power output levels will most likely not be are contrary to the results that reported by Leveritt (2003) as great as they would be affected in strength training by fulfillment study on 26 active students who trained 3 alone. Studies done comparing the mode of cycling or days per week. In this study, author reported significant rowing have shown inconsistent results on performance increase in the strength in the strength and concurrent affects (6).

groups (19). Probable mechanisms of strength increment Residual fatigue has been suggested to occur following in follow of strength training can be a result of increment the endurance component of a concurrent program, which in number of neural impulses of movement units, increase may compromise the ability of muscles to develop tension of size of muscular fibers type I and type II and increase in during the strength element of concurrent training. If anabolic hormones (8). In addition, plausible mechanisms sufficient tension cannot be generated during the strength of increase in strength during endurance training can be component of the concurrent program, optimal strength related to neural-muscular adaptations and better blood development and adaptations may not occur. It has been pumping to the muscle that occurs in result of fulfillment of suggested by Craige et al (1991) that if the endurance endurance trainings and increase of strength in concurrent training is performed prior to the strength training, training group. residual fatigue may impair muscular force output and Strength group was at the highest level in the thus impairs strength development (22). Conflicting development of strength in bench press, leg press, shoulder physiological adaptations as a result of concurrent training press and squat among the groups, and after that the in skeletal muscles levels can be an effect on gain strength.

highest increase showed in the concurrent training group Furthermore, endocrine changes can be responsible in less after the eight weeks. Additionally, in strength between the development of strength in the concurrent training group.

strength and concurrent groups, there was not a significant Concurrent training altering the balance of anabolic difference. Lack of significant difference between these and catabolic hormones may reduce fibre hypertrophy and two groups represents this fact that the combination of consequently, strength development (6). Kraemer et al strength training and endurance training is not an inhibiter (1995) showed that strength training interventions altered factor in improving and increasing the maximal strength. testosterone: cortisol ratio levels in favor of anabolism.

The results are consistent with studies that expressed They also suggested that the endurance element of concurrent training does not have significant effect on concurrent training programs could create a more catabolic improving strength (8, 18, 20, 21). One possible reason environment (relative to strength training in isolation), might be short training period in two groups. and this in turn may inhibit strength development (10).

12. Bell G.J., Syrotuik D., Martin T.P., Burnham R., Quinney H.A.

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concurrent strength and endurance training. Journal of Applied 13. Hortobagyi T., Katch F.I., Lachance P.F. Effects of simultaneous Physiology. 1990. vol.68(1), pp. 260-70 training for strength and endurance on upper and lower body 3. Abernethy P.J., Quigley B.M. Concurrent strength and endurance strength and running performance. The journal of sports medicine training of the elbow extensors. Journal of Strength and Conditioning and physical fitness. 1991, vol.31(1), pp. 20-30.

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Feki Y., Millet G.P. Amri M. Effects of intra-session concurrent 15. Tanaka H., Swensen T., Impact of resistance training on endurance endurance and strength training sequence on aerobic performance performance, pp. A new form of cross-training? Medicine & Science and capacity. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2005, vol.39(8), in Sports & Exercise. 1998, vol.25(4), pp. 191-200.

pp. 555-560. 16. Brzycki M. Strength testing-predicting a one-rep max from reps-to 6. Leveritt M., Abernethy P.J., Barry B.K., Logan P.A. Concurrent fatigue. Journal of physical education, recreation and dance. 1993, strength and endurance training, pp. Sports Medicine, 1999, vol.68, pp. 88-90.

vol.28(6), pp. 413–427. 17. Dolezal B.A., Potteiger J.A. Concurrent resistance and endurance 7. Hickson R.C., Interference of strength development by simultaneously training influence basal metabolic rate in non dieting individuals.

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Physiology, 1980, 45(2-3), pp. 255-63. 18. Glowacki S.P., Martin S.E., Maurer A., Baek W., Green J.S., Crouse 8. Hakkinen K., Alen M., Kraemer W.J., Gorostiaga E., Izquierdo M., S.F. Effects of resistance, endurance and concurrent exercise on Rusko H., Mikkola J., Hakkinen A., Valkinen H., Kaarakainen., Romu training outcomes in men. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise.

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during concurrent strength and endurance training versus strength 19. Leveritt M., Abernethy P.J., Barry B.K., Logan P.A. Concurrent training. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 2002, vol.89(1), strength and endurance training, pp. the influence of dependent pp. 42-52. variable Selection. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning 9. Hennesy L.C., Watson A.W.S. The interference effects of training Research, 2003, vol.17(3), pp. 503-508.

for strength and endurance simultaneously. Journal of Strength & 20. McCarthy J.P., Agre J.C., Graf B.K., Pozniak M.A., Vailas A.C.

Conditioning Research. 1994, vol.8(1), pp. 12-19. Compatibility of adaptive responses with combining strength and 10. Kraemer W.J., Patton J.F., Gordon S.E., Harman E.A., Deschenes endurance training. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 1995, M.R., Reynolds K., Newton R.U., Triplett N.T., Dziados J.E. vol.27(3), pp. 429–436.

Compatibility of high-intensity strength and endurance training 21. Wood R.H., Reyes R., Welsch M.A., Favaloro-sabatier J., Sabatier M., on hormonal and skeletal muscle adaptations. Journal of Applied Matthew L.C. Johnson L.G., Hooper P.F. Concurrent cardiovascular Physiology. 1995, vol.78(3), pp. 976-89. and resistance training in healthy older adults. Medicine & Science in 11. Bell G.J., Petersen S.R., Wessel J.,Bagnal K., Quinney H.A. Sports & Exercise, 2001, vol.33(10), pp. 1751-1758.

Physiological adaptations to concurrent endurance training and 22. Craig B.W., Lucas J., Pohlman R. Effect of running weightlifting low velocity resistance training. International Journal of Sports and a combination of both hormone release. The Journal of Applied Medicine, 1991, vol.12(4), pp. 384-90. Sport Science Research, 1991, vol.5, pp. 198-203.

Information about the authors:

Информация об авторах: Aydin Valizadeh Айдин Вализадех Valizadeh@uma.ac.ir Valizadeh@uma.ac.ir University of Mohaghegh Ardabili Университет Мохагхех Ардабил Daneshgah st. 56199-11367, Ardabil, Iran.

Hamidreza Azmoon ул. Данешгах 56199-11367, г. Ардабил, Иран Hамидреза Азмоон azmoun_hamidreza@yahoo.com azmoun_hamidreza@yahoo.com University of Mohaghegh Ardabili Университет Мохагхех Ардабил Daneshgah st. 56199-11367, Ardabil, Iran.

ул. Данешгах 56199-11367, г. Ардабил, Иран Came to edition 09.04.2012.

Поступила в редакцию 09.04.2012г.

ФИЗИЧЕСКОЕ ВОСПИТАНИЕ СТУДЕНТОВ Long-distance running as a social phenomenon Blazej Stankiewicz, 1Miroslawa Cieslicka, 2Jakub Kortas, 3Sergii Iermakov Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz Academy of Physical Education and Sport in Gdansk Kharkov State Academy of Physical Culture Annotation:

Станкевіч Блазей, Цесліцька Миросла- Станкевич Блазей, Цеслицка Мирослава, In recent years the leisure ва, Кортас Якуб, Єрмаков Сергій. Біг Кортас Якуб, Ермаков Сергей. Бег на длин activities that do not require на довгі дистанції як соціальне явище. ные дистанции как социальное явление. В any special qualifications, Останніми роками формою проведення последние годы формой проведения свобод equipment or talents вільного часу, яка придбала популярність, ного времени, которая приобрела популяр have gained the greatest є недороге заняття, що не вимагає ность, является недорогое занятие, не требую popularity. People living in a civilized, urbanized world full спеціальної підготовки, оснащення або щее специальной подготовки, оснащения или здібностей. Люди, що проживають в пев- способностей. Люди, проживающие в опреде of growing problems need a них зростаючих цивілізаційних проблемах ленных возрастающих цивилизационных про form of escape from the daily routine, and running provides урбанізації миру, вимагають відпочинку від блемах урбанизации мира, требуют отдыха от такого щоденного життя, а біг дає їм таку такой ежедневной жизни, а бег дает им такую an excellent opportunity for можливість. возможность.

this.

Objective. The objective of Мета дослідження – охарактеризувати Цель исследования – охарактеризовать щільні соціальні групи, що займаються плотные социальные группы, занимающиеся the present paper was to рекреаційним бігом на довгі дистанції. До- рекреационным бегом на длинные дистанции.

characterize a small social кладна інформація, що отримана таким Подробная информация, полученная таким group going in for recreational long-distance running. чином, може надати допомогу в організації образом, может оказать помощь в организа вільного часу для людей, які шукають но- ции свободного времени для людей, ищущих Detailed information gained вих форм рекреації. Також це може ста- новых форм рекреации. Также это может стать this way might prove helpful ти джерелом коштовної інформації для источником ценной информации для уже за when organizing leisure осіб, що вже займаються і шукають нових нимающихся лиц и ищущих новых решений в activities for people seeking new forms of recreation. Also, рішень в програмуванні власних трену- программировании собственных тренировоч вальних навантажень. ных нагрузок.

they might be a precious Матеріал і методи. Проведено анкету- Материал и методы. Проведено анкетирова source of information for those вання 68 спортсменів, що стартують на ние 68 спортсменов, стартующих на дистан who already practice and are дистанції 21,1 км., а також 42,2 км. під час ции 21,1 км, а также 42,2 км во время мара looking for new solutions марафону мегаполісів Торун-Бидгощ. Опи- фона мегаполисов Торун-Быдгощ. Опрошена when developing their training тана група спортсменів у віці 20-60 років. группа спортсменов в возрасте 20-60 лет. Ме loads.

Materials and methods. Методом дослідження справжньої роботи тодом исследования настоящей работы был був запитальник анкети. вопросник анкеты.

A survey that was carried Результати. Бігуни і аматори, які брали Результаты. Бегуны и аматоры, которые при out included 68 competitors участь в анкетуванні, віднеслися до цьо- нимали участие в анкетировании, отнеслись к enrolled in the Metropolis marathon Bydgoszcz-Torun го дуже серйозно, також як і спортсмени. этому очень серьезно также как и спортсмены.

Більше 50% респондентів тренуються для Более 50% респондентов тренируются для and running at the distances of 21,1km and 42,2km. The поліпшення результатів в спортивних зма- улучшения результатов в спортивных соревно competitors in the 20 to 60 ганнях. Майже половина досліджуваних ваниях. Почти половина исследуемых ищет в шукає в бігу спосіб позбавлення від зайвих беге способ избавления от лишних килограм age bracket were examined.

кілограмів. Більшість бігаючих обґрунтовує мов. Большинство бегающих обосновывает The research method applied своє заняття бігом в плані, що запропоно- свое занятие бегом в плане предложенном was a survey questionnaire.

Conclusions. Long-distance вано фахівцями. Опитувані стверджують, специалистами. Опрашиваемые утверждают, що біг дозволяє їм заповнити вільне місце что бег позволяет им заполнить свободное ме running is undoubtedly в їх житті, дозволяє забути про проблеми, сто в их жизни, позволяет забыть о проблемах, a developing social укріпити їх упевненість, стає альтернати- укрепить их уверенность, становится альтер phenomenon that attracts вою для щоденних проблем. нативой для ежедневных проблем.

more and more followers.

Виводи. Поза сумнівом, це є соціальним Выводы. Несомненно, это является социаль The results presented might явищем, яке весь час розвивається і ным явлением, которое все время развивается provide a valuable source притягує кожного разу більше прихильників. и притягивает каждый раз больше сторонни of information for those who Отримані результати можна представити ков. Полученные результаты можно предста already practice and are як джерело коштовної інформації для осіб, вить как источник ценной информации для уже looking for new solutions що вже тренуються і які шукаючих нових тренирующихся лиц и ищущих новых решений when developing their training рішень в програмуванні своїх власних тре- в программировании своих собственных тре loads.

нувальних навантажень. нировочных нагрузок.

Key words:

run, distance, long, time, free. біг, дистанція, довгий, час, вільний. бег, дистанция, длинный, время, свободный.

Introduction1 human live, but whether we will live longer, depends only on us. Neutral attitude to own body and the act of In the last few years some forms of spending free being subjected to different facilities is a tacit contest time have gained a bigger popularity. These are forms both on the curtailment of a human’s life and a habit that which are relatively cheep, which neither demand any we can do little motor activity. Jacek Gracz and Tadeusz specific qualifications, equipment or talents. People are Sankowski [2] recall the fact that physical activity not surrounded by dozens of different problems, because they only strengthens physical viability, diminishes the risk of live in a hectic, urban world. Hence, they need an escape osteoporosis (the reduction of bone mineral density) and from their everyday lives and it is the running which gives diabetes, but also strengthens the heart and circulatory them such an opportunity. Running is becoming a way system, tempers and depurates the organism, improves of live and one of the most popular forms of recreation.

blood supply and invigorates the nervous system. On the Running is a recreation and a physical activity taken up other hand, the lack of physical activity is a risk factor for in leisure time for rest, pleasure and self-improvement.

many disturbances [3].

Contemporary medicine contributed to the extension of Both pleasure, which is given to a human being by © Blazej Stankiewicz, Miroslawa Cieslicka, Jakub Kortas, physical activity and the state of contents which results Sergii Iermakov, from it have a soothing, however, very often underrated, races during the Torun – Bydgoszcz Metropolis Marathon, influence on a human being [3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]. Hence, a which took place on July 6th, 2010 and gathered a few man should take care of their physical activity taking hundred people at the start line.

into consideration the needs of their organism. Regular A group of contestants who are between 20 and 60 sixty activity should be an element of men’s live because in years old was examined (picture 1) by the authors. The this way a men does not degrade them [1, 4]. Running respondents who are between 30 and 40 years comprised has been being a part of human life since ever. In the past 34% of the population, almost 24% were people at the it used to be a fight for survival and life. Then, thanks age between 20 and 50 years. Only 3% of the respondents to the Ancient Olympic Games, running was one of the were contestants who were 20 years old at that time. The main attractions. The past and the present of running method applied in this paper was the diagnostics survey.

are ups and downs. It is, for instance, the heroic run of a It is a technique which gathers information through messenger from the Battle of Marathon – Pheidippides, independent fulfillment of special questionnaires by a through such great scandals as the one of Ben Johns’ start respondent. This questionnaires are highly standardized, in the final race during the Olympic Games in Seul. These the interviewer was not present when the questionnaire are great stories written by Bronislaw Malinowskiego was answered.

Results during the memorable final race in Moscow or Bikili Abebe’s barefoot deed in 1960 in Rome. Simultaneously, It is probably the specification of long-distance races we should think about the tragedies of numerous amateur- which decides about such factors. Only two participants runners, who paid their starts in long-distance races were younger than 20. The biggest group is comprised with their own health or even with lives. What makes by people between the age of 30 and 40 which is people take up extreme efforts? Where does the running people. 10 contestants were older than 50 years. There phenomenon come from? It is undeniable that running is a was nobody who was born before the year 1950. Among social phenomenon which is still developing and attracting all the amateur-runners only two confirmed that they are more and more followers. In the past, a person running at chain-smokers.

the side of a road was a joke object, now they gain respect Picture 2 will present a better understanding of the and admiration. The promotion of healthy lifestyle, the meaning of running for the contestants.

increase of social consciousness of the positive influence Although the respondents did not represent a high of motor activities on many diseases, caused a real boom sport level, which will be revealed further in this paper, in this sphere. Running is a way of life and one of many almost 42% of the respondents treats running as a form of recreational forms. Running is a recreation and a physical training before a start in a race, which is a serious attitude activity taken up in leisure time for rest, pleasure and self- toward mass races, and are consciousness of the dangers improvement. Physical recreation is directly entwined which can emerge during running without a specific with the somatic sphere, it is concerned with the body and former preparation. Every fifth respondent wants to lose its functions [10]. on weight some additional kilograms through running, People started to meet each others in the parks, forests every tenth respondent wants to relax after a tiring day at and at the housing estates. They walk, run, take part in work. A relatively big group (24%) selected the answer competitions, in which, as in the West, a great number others, which covers such statements that running is a of runners participate (sometimes even a few thousand of pleasure, passion and fun derived from training, a way people). The marathon used to be described as an exclusive of spending free time, and for some of them just a kind competition for high-endurance participants. Today it is of habit. It is important that almost everybody claims that one of the most popular discipline in the world. What jogging is such a form of activity that every healthy person is more, a great number of people runs in the marathon. can perform. Surely, respondents did not get their interest Thousands of marathons are held throughout the world in long-distance running during Physical Education every year. The participants who run in the marathon are classes at school. More than 60% claim that classes of of different sport level. Amateurs run together with the this type were sporadic, usually during tests and school biggest masters. The professional preparation of some of competitions. Only 18% of the respondents recalls classes them meets the lack of experience of the others. However, devoted to field athletics during their education at school.

the aim is common for everyone – to finish the race, win, For a better recognition of the area the respondents improve the result or to overcome own inaccuracies. live in, the authors posed a few questions connected with this aspect.

Aim The aim of this paper was to characterize a tight social The question was whether our runners’ parents group which runs in long-distance races. The peculiar performed any sport discipline. The majority – 91% information gained in this way can become helpful during answered negatively, and only 40% confirm that other free time organization for people who seek new forms people from their families do other sport disciplines.

of recreation. The results can be a source of important The situation is different in their neighborhood. Here, information for people who already train but look for new more than 70% confirm that someone from their closest solutions while programing own training loads. neighborhood goes jogging.

Material and method The next question is concerned with motivation.

The research was conducted among 68 contestants The first question concerned its source. The answers are who start in 21,1 kilometers races and 42,2 kilometers depicted in drawing number three.

ФИЗИЧЕСКОЕ ВОСПИТАНИЕ СТУДЕНТОВ do 50- 3% 15% 20- 24% 40- 24% 30- 34% Drawing 1. The age of amateur-runners who participated in the research light run for distress after hard day others 10% 24% lose weight current fashion 20% for healthy lifestyle 4% training to prepare for competitions 42% Drawing 2. The meaning of jogging for the participants Need for better results I do not have, it is a in competitions stable point during 17% my average day 13% My family and friends motivate me 3% I motivate myself 67% Drawing 3. Motivational sources for recreational training fashion other 20% 14% a role model 5% Professional needs 2% Health needs 59% Drawing 4.What is, in your opinion, the main reason for starting healthy running training?

A kind of getting Pleasure derived out from pathology 5% from physical activity Stress 43% prevention 16% Circulatory system diseases prevention 22% Prolongation of active life in the old age 14% Drawing 5. Factors which convinced respondents to go jogging 1-2 trainings every day 0% a day 6% 5-6 trainings a week 38% 3-4 trainings a week 56% Drawing 6. The frequency of trainings performed by the sportsmen asked in a micro period of one week realized by the runners surveyed.

ФИЗИЧЕСКОЕ ВОСПИТАНИЕ СТУДЕНТОВ Among all respondents, almost 52 people said that and only four respondents train once or twice a week. The they motivate themselves on their own. The need for better time devoted to a particular unit is illustrated in picture results in competitions and everyday habits gained only, 7.

respectively, 17% and 13% of all voices. Only three people Almost a half of the competitors devotes 60 minutes say that they are being motivated by their friends or family every time to each training. Almost 40% of the population members. The question whether someone encouraged the surveyed always trains about 90 minutes. 12 runners trains respondents to take up recreational training, was answered more than 90 minutes, and only 2 runners train about by 74% of the respondents in a negative way. Similarly a minutes. Drawing 8 presents the average volume of each high level of negative answers (68%) was obtained when training unit among amateur-runners who participate in the authors asked about sport success achieved by people our survey.

from their closest companionship. It is the television and The training of nearly a half of the interviewees is mass media which influence the respondents in a direct between 10 and 20 kilometers on average. Only two of the way. Almost 53% of the respondents derives motivation people surveyed declared that their training is not longer from these sources, identifying themselves with the than six kilometers. Only a little more then 30% of the success of family sportsmen. It is really positive that respondents runs distances between 6 and 10 kilometers.

100% of the respondents surveyed is not ashamed of their Comparatively a big group of respondents runs more than appearance while going jogging in sport outfit. 20 kilometers at once as their training. Two respondents The next question posed was the following: Which claim, that they run more than 30 kilometers during each factor is, in your opinion, the biggest cause of starting and training.

continuation of health running training? The answer is The next very interesting information is included in visible in picture 4. drawing 9 which shows the week volume expressed in Drawing 4 points to health needs, as the main cause for kilometers.

starting a running training. It is a factor which confirms Weekly loads tend to space proportionally. 34 of the the thesis about high consciousness of health importance respondents (50%) realizes between 30 and 60 kilometers in the society. Every fifth respondent is steered by fashion. during each week. 14 interviewees run up to 30 kilometers Only four people take pattern after public people, two are a week, and 16 run between 60 and 90 kilometers. Among modeled by the improvement of health condition from the whole population surveyed there were only four professional reasons. Twelve people said that such factors people who train up to 120 kilometers in one micro period as good mood, need for competitive behaviors and a way of one week. Nobody declared loads exceeding of spending free time are the main reasons for staring kilometers each week. It should be indicated that the loads physical activity. of professional runners who prepare for participation in Pleasure derived from physical activity is a sentence the marathon seldom amounts less than 200 kilometers which found the biggest number of followers (43%). a week. It is a next confirmation for amateur attitude Sixteen people are convinced by the statement that running towards this tough sphere of the marathon.

will help them prevent different diseases connected with The character of work done at different trainings by the circulatory system. Smaller groups of respondents are the runners surveyed are presented graphically in picture in favor of the remaining answers. Only four people claim 10.

that the jogging training is an aid to fight with different A half of the sportsmen surveyed diversifies their kind of pathology. exercises and very often trains changing the distance and The next part of the research was concerned with the route. 35% of the respondents realize their trainings the training itself. According to 75% of the running according to the sport training theory and does exercises respondents, their activity is not planned in a special which involve elements of special endurance, speed and training schedule. However, a half of the whole population strength. Only16% of respondents claim that they train on follows a previously outlined plan. Such a plan is usually the same route with constant or changeable speed.

created by themselves. They take into consideration While being asked about a specific diet which should information gained from different publications or via the boost the number of better results 62% of the interviewees Internet (48%), 28% plan their training taking into account claim that they do not follow any died, however, 38% their previous experience. It is alarming that the smallest answered this question positively. Similar proportions group is comprised by people who seek professional can be noticed while analyzing the answers about the advice of former participants or professional trainers, so application of special support for sportsmen. 41% of people who are conditioned to give professional advice the sportsmen surveyed confirm that they use special about the running training. productive supplements for athletes. Diverse proportions The frequency of trainings performerd by the were obtained, when the respondents were to asses their sportsmen asked in a micro period of one week is presented usage of special liquids drunk during endurance trainings.

in drawing 6. 65% of the amateur-competitors drink special liquids The number of training units realized by the respondent during their endurance trainings. 35% do not make use confirms the recreational attitude towards long-distance of any supplementary elements. Satisfying is the situation running, the majority of them (56%) practices jogging 3 presented in drawing 11 which is concerned with the or 4 times a week. Almost 40% trains 5 or 6 times a week. amount of liquids which should be drunk during the Nobody does the training every day or several times a day, marathon.

about over 90 minutes minutes 3% 16% about minutes 43% about minutes 38% Drawing 7. Average time devoted to one training unit by the competitors surveyed over 30km up to 6km 3% 3% 20-30km 6-10km 17% 31% 10-20km 46% Drawing 8. Average volume of a training unit realized by the respondents surveyed over 120km 0% 90-120km 6% up to 30km 21% 60-90km 24% 30-60km 49% Drawing 9. The number of kilometers run in the micro period of one week.

ФИЗИЧЕСКОЕ ВОСПИТАНИЕ СТУДЕНТОВ I always run the same distance with the same My training is similar speed to professional training 11% and contains elements of endurance, strength and speed I always run the 35% same distance with different speed 5% I run different distances 49% Drawing 10. The way of realization of running training by respondents up to 0, 1-2 liters litre regulary at every 0% 5thkilometer during 15% running and till 3-4 liters total satiation 15% after competition 70% Drawing 11. Amount of liquids which should be drunk during the marathon according to respondents’ opinion over 45' 35'-40' 27% 38% 40'-45' 35% Drawing 12. The level of results in 10 kilometers run among the sportsmen surveyed 1h10'-20' over 2h 9% 9% 1h20'-30' 14% 1h40'-50' 32% 1h30'-40' 36% Drawing 13. The level of results in the race of 21,1 kilometers among the runners surveyed pow.5h 2h30'-3h 5% 14% 4h - 4h 30' 14% 3h-3h30' 27% 3h30'-4h 40% Drawing 14. The level of results in the marathon race among the runners surveyed over up to years 1 year 5-10 years 3% 26% 18% 1-5 years 53% Drawing 15. Training experience of the recreational athletes who participate in the research.

ФИЗИЧЕСКОЕ ВОСПИТАНИЕ СТУДЕНТОВ A vast majority of the interviewees (70%) think that The above presented drawing confirms the fact that liquids should be drunk regularly during the marathon, at the amateur running is still a new sport discipline in our every fifth kilometer, and after the end of the competition country. Only not a very numerous group of 21% runs until the total satiation. Ten people claim that one or two regularly longer than five years. A vast majority of 53% liters drunk at this distance are enough. The same number has been training between one and five years, and almost of respondents is in favour of the opinion that three or 30 % go jogging regularly shorter than twelve months.

four liters are enough during the race. There are not any For 56% of the athletes surveyed the season of the respondents who claim that a runner should not drink year does not influence their mobilization for a training, anything during the race. 38% prefer spring to other seasons, and two people prefer The next questions were focused on the designation summer, the same number is in favour of winter, as of the sport level in the group examined. The first of them periods which offer them optimal conditions to run. The was concerned with the participation in competitions runners asked train most likely in the forest (59%), 26% different than the marathon. Only 8 sportsmen answered prefer paths in parks, and 15% trains on roads, mainly this question negatively. They claim that they have away from the urban area. No respondents pointed to never started in races at different distances. A group of an athletics stadium as a place for their trainings. All sixty people participated in races on shorter distances. respondents claim amicably that systematical jogging can In the group surveyed there were 24 people who have exert a positive influence on life expectancy, health and participated in the marathon and in the half-marathon for physical fitness.

the first time. Among the whole group of respondents 18 Over 60% of the respondents are aware of the basic people did competitive sport before. performance-enhancing tests, the biggest group lists the Drawings number 12, 13, and 14 depict the level of Cooper Test. However, such answers as Conconi Test or the results in races at distances of 10 kilometers, 21,1 PWC 170 appeared as well. Almost 80% of the people kilometers and 42,2 kilometers. The distances of 10 who participated in the research can describe the pattern kilometers and the half-marathon are two of the most 3x30x130. 1% of the respondents say that the sometimes basic elements of training in the start form, applied in the suffer from the most common health problems, among marathon training. which the lower limbs trauma is the most popular. Only The above presented drawing confirms the not very 9% list problems with the joints of the spine.

Conclusions high sport level. The biggest group which comprises 38% of all people asked, did not run the distance of 10 As it results from the above considerations, almost 42% kilometers faster than in 45 minutes. If a competitor of the respondents treats running as a kind of preparation wants to pass the route in the time mentioned before it is before a participation in a competition. It is a confirmation inevitable to run every kilometer at least with the same that the attitude toward mass running is serious and that speed of 4 minutes and 3 seconds. For those runners the participants are conscious of all the dangers they can who train medium and long-distance runs, the speed at 4 face if they are not well-prepared. Every fifth respondent minutes and 30 kilometers is a speed for training. A group would like to lose on weight some additional kilograms of 35% passes the distance of 10 kilometers in either 40 and every tenth wants top relieve stress, wind down after or 45 minutes and only 27% is able to run less in than 40 a tiring day spent in a workplace. A relatively big group minutes time. (24%) selected the answer others, which covers such A similar level can be observed during the half- statements that running is a pleasure, passion, fun derived marathon distance. While analyzing the results presented from training, a way of spending free time, and for some in drawing number 12, we can notice, that the biggest group of them just a kind of habit. It is important that almost all of the competitors reaches the results at the level between the respondents surveyed recognized the fact that jogging 1 hour 30 minutes and 1 hour 50 minutes, altogether 68%. is such a form of activity which can be practiced by all Only 23% of the amateur-sportsmen reaches results better healthy people. It indicates that health needs are still the than 1 hour 30 minutes, in this 9% run faster than 1 hour biggest motivation for starting a running training. It is a 20minutes. Also the run of 9% of the people surveyed confirmation for the fact that the society is characterized lasts more than 2 hours. by high level of consciousness about this issue. Every The results obtained during the marathon race are a fifth respondent is steered by fashion.

consequence of those which were discussed in drawing 11 Pleasure derived form physical activity is a statement and 12. The biggest group (40%), is comprised by people which gained the biggest number of followers (43%).


who obtain the results between 3 hours and 30minutes and A half of the whole population of the amateur-runners 4 hours. Less than 30% of the runners surveyed obtain diversifies their exercises and very often trains changing the results between 3 hours and 3 hours 30 minutes. Only the distance and the route, 35% of the respondents realize 14% ended their marathon race faster than in 3 hours time. their trainings according to the sport training theory The same group of respondents has never run faster than and does exercises which involve elements of special in 4 hours time. 5% of the competitors run the marathon endurance, speed and strength. Only 16% of respondents distance slower than in 5 hours time. claim that they train on the same route with constant or The level of the results obtained can be entwined with changeable speed. Amateur running is still a new sport the training experience of the people asked. This issue is discipline in our country. Only not a very numerous presented in drawing 14. group of 21% runs regularly longer than five years. A vast majority of 53% has been training between one and five mainly away from the urban area. No respondents pointed years, and almost 30 % go jogging regularly shorter than to an athletics stadium as a place for their trainings. All twelve months. respondents claim amicably that systematical jogging For 56% of the athletes surveyed the season of the can exert a positive influence on life expectancy, health year does not influence their mobilization for a training, and physical fitness. To sum up, we can conclude that 38% prefers spring to other seasons, and two people physical activity can be done an any stage of our lives.

prefer summer, the same number is in favour of winter, Physical activity is, undoubtedly, a social phenomenon, as periods which offer optimal conditions for them to run. which is still developing and which attracts more and The runners asked train most likely in the forest (59%), more followers.

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ул. Ходкевича 30, г.Быдгощ 85-064, Польша.

Цеслицка Мирослава Information about the authors:

rektor@ukw.edu.pl Stankiewicz Blazej Университет Казимира Великого в Быдгощ ул. Ходкевича 30, г.Быдгощ 85-064, Польша. rektor@ukw.edu.pl Кортас Якуб Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz rektor@awf.gda.pl Chodkiewicza str. 30, 85-064 Bydgoszcz, Poland.

Cieslicka Miroslawa Академия физического воспитания и спорта в Гданьске.

ул.Казимира Горскиего 1, 80-336 г. Гданськ, Польша. rektor@ukw.edu.pl Ермаков Сергей Сидорович Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz sportart@gmail.com Chodkiewicza str. 30, 85-064 Bydgoszcz, Poland.

Kortas Jakub Харьковская государственная академия физической культуры ул. Клочковская 99, г. Харьков, 61022, Украина. rektor@awf.gda.pl Поступила в редакцию 10.04.2012г. Academy of Physical Education and Sport ul. Kazimierza Gorskiego 1, PL-80-336 Gdansk, Poland.

Iermakov S.S.

sportart@gmail.com Kharkov State Academy of Physical Culture Klochkovskaya str. 99, Kharkov, 61022, Ukraine.

Came to edition 10.04.2012.

ФИЗИЧЕСКОЕ ВОСПИТАНИЕ СТУДЕНТОВ The assertiveness of people who practice karate Miroslawa Szark-Eckardt, Piotr Golebiewski, Miroslawa Cieslicka, Blazej Stankiewicz Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz Polish Union of Karate Annotation:

Шарк-Ецкардт Мирослава, Голебі- Шарк-Ецкардт Мирослава, Голебиевски Assertiveness is the ability to express євськи Петро, Чесліцка Мирослава, Петр, Чеслицка Мирослава, Станкевич your thoughts, beliefs and opinions Станкевіч Блазей. Ассертівность Блазей. Ассертивность лиц, тренирую without the feeling of internal tension, осіб, що тренуються карате. Ассер- щихся карате. Ассертивность это умение that is why it is a desired trait of тівность це уміння виражати свої думки, выражать свои мысли, убеждения, взгля character. One of the examples переконання, погляди, відчуття без від- ды, чувство без ощущения внутреннего of sports disciplines in which чуття внутрішнього дискомфорту, яке дискомфорта, которое свойственно тем assertiveness can play a desired role властиве тим бажанням. Прикладом желаниям. Примером спортивной дисци is karate. One of the aims of this paper was to answer the question, whether спортивної дисципліни, в якій ассертив- плины, в которой ассертивность может the act of doing karate influences the ність може грати бажану роль, є караті. играть желательную роль, является ка Метою роботи було проба відповісти на рате. Целью работы было проба ответа level of assertiveness among people питання, або заняття карате впливає на на вопрос, или занятие карате влияет на who practice it and to compare the підвищення рівня ассертивності у осіб, повышение уровня ассертивности у тре results with the level of assertiveness що тренуються, а також порівняння рів- нирующихся лиц, а также сравнение уров declared by people who do other sports.

ня ассертивності каратистів з особами, ня ассертивности каратистов с лицами, The method applied in this paper was the diagnostics survey, while the tool що тренуються в інших дисциплінах. У тренирующимися в других дисциплинах.

роботі використані методи діагностич- В работе использованы методы диагно was the questionnaire form based on ного зондування, в той же час як інстру- стического зондирования, вместе с тем the Rathus Assertiveness Scale.

50 students who practice karate мент використовувався запитальник ан- как инструмент использовался вопросник on regular basis and 50 students кети за шкалою ассертивності Ратуса. анкеты по шкале ассертивности Ратуса.


Дослідженням охоплено 50 студентів- Исследованием охвачено 50 студентов who do other sports participated in the research. It is undeniable that каратистів і 50 – з інших спортивних каратистов и 50 – в других спортивных дисциплін. Відмічена закономірність дисциплинах. Замечена закономерность the level of assertiveness among отримання вищого рівня у каратистів получения высшего уровня у каратистов в people who practice karate is higher у відношенні до решти осіб з інших отношении к остальным лицам из других in comparison to people who do other sports. Karate doers, both men спортивних дисциплін. Каратисти, як спортивных дисциплин. Каратисты, как жінки, так і чоловіки, отримали добрий женщины, так и мужчины получили хоро and women obtained better results результат в порівнянні з групами, що ший результат по сравнению с группами, compared to the second group of sportsmen/women. This regularity не тренуються в карате. Наголошуєть- не тренирующимися в карате. Отмечается can be observed among men, but it ся закономірність в групі чоловіків, але закономерность в группе мужчин, но осо особливо вона виявлена серед жінок. бенно она обнаружена среди женщин. На is more perceptible among women.

As the research presents, people На основі досліджень стверджується, основе исследований утверждается, что що каратисти при тренуванні 3 рази в каратисты при тренировке 3 раза в неде who attend karate trainings at least тиждень отримали значно вищий рівень лю получили значительно более высокий three times a week are characterized ассертивності порівняно з особами, що уровень ассертивности в сравнении с ли by a higher level of assertiveness in тренуються 1 раз на тиждень. цами, тренирующимися 1 раз в неделю.

comparison to those who attend the training once a week.

Key words:

carat, student, assertiveness, training. карате, студент, ассертивність, каратэ, студент, ассертивность, тре тренування. нировка.

Introduction 1 adept can show is the respect towards their partner, which Karate is one of the oldest kinds of marital arts in is expressed through dignity and rigorous adherence to the world. It derives from China and the word karate the etiquette. A karate doer is not obliged to assess others means ‘an empty hand’. In the opinions of many karate – he/she should be a specialist only in austere assessment masters over the centuries, karate has not only been a of himself/herself. Hence the mental and spiritual sphere part of marital art, but chiefly a school which formed the is such an important aspect in karate. It plays an important character. Nowadays, karate is mainly a sport discipline role in different marital arts, influencing the mental sphere with an Olympic status. Every year, this discipline attracts in a positive way and preserving the balance of the mind.

dozens of adepts who can notice not only the strength in it, There emerges a very interesting problem, whether karate, but also a deeply philosophical practice, in which there is thanks to its characteristic ability to control emotions no place for aggression, in fact. Although karate belongs and wide self-control, can influence the assertiveness of contemporary to the most popular sport disciplines, it is people who practice it.

still a marital art, which has its own ceremonial. These Assertiveness is a term which has gained a great ceremonials comprise both the forms of behaviour during popularity in the last few years. Assertiveness is the karate trainings and all the behaviors performed in everyday ability to express your thoughts, beliefs and opinions life [3]. Being a peculiar philosophy, karate appeals without the feeling of internal tension, that is why it is a to philosophy par excellence, but also to psychology, desired trait of character. Herbert Fensterheim’s theory of sociology and psyche, but mainly to spirituality. This assertiveness [1], contains five laws. Firstly, you have the assumption gives the karate adepts a feeling of a specific right to do what you want as far as it does not hurt anybody uniqueness. Karate adept should control their emotions, else. Secondly, you have the right to preserve their dignity especially at the level of affection or externalization of through assertive behavior even if it hurts someone else, them. They should not show any sign of anger or anxiety, as long as your intentions are not aggressive, but assertive.

triumph or pain, contempt or admiration. The only thing an The third law goes: you have the right to present your requests to another as far as you acknowledge it that the © Miroslawa Szark-Eckardt, Piotr Golebiewski, other person has the right to refuse. The fourth law says, Miroslawa Cieslicka, Blazej Stankiewicz, that there are such situations between people, in which the used to the comparison and assessment of the results of laws are not obvious. However, you have always the right the research conducted (2004) (table 2).

to discuss and clarify this matter with another person. Then, statistical inference concerned with the nature The last law goes, that you have the right to exercise your of assertiveness among the populations surveyed was per rights. If you do not use it use, you agree that someone formed. 123 people were surveyed in this examination, will withdraw them from you. According to Helena Sk however, the questionnaires of 100 respondents were [7] assertiveness is an attitude which gives an individual qualified in this paper. This number is comprised by an opportunity to function in a particular society and to people who practice karate and 50 respondents who prac form positive interpersonal relations. It is characterized by tice other disciplines. The respondents who are into ka precisely formed aspirations, need for self-improvement, rate came from the biggest karate clubs in Poland, where high level of self-esteem and consciousness of own the greatest number of adepts train in the senior category:

positive and negative sides. Assertiveness is comprised by Bushi in Bydgoszcz, Kaisho in Bialystok and Dynamic three main aspects – best self interest (the ability to assess from Poznan. All the persons who practice both karate what is worth your attention and time);

honest behavior, so and other sport disciplines were students of Physical Edu you say what you really think not hurting other people at cation. The group of karate adepts was comprised by the same time;

respect for laws – expressing own opinions men and 30 women. The second group of respondents without hurting others’ rights. An assertive man, expresses consist of 20 women and 30 men.

their thoughts, feelings and aspirations freely. They Results perform it in an honest and direct way, without paralyzing anxiety, accepts their restrictions regardless of the fact if The results presented on the first and the second bar he or she has achieved success in this situation or not. charts are characteristics of women’s assertiveness level An assertive person is able to say no, ask for something in different configurations. Bar chart number one depicts he/she deserves, is not afraid of assessments, criticism or the level of assertiveness considering the division into rejection. Such a person can commit mistakes, however women who practice karate and women who perform they notice their success and advantages. If they are in other sport disciplines.

the center of someone’s attention they can act without any Comparing the results of the level of assertiveness destructive fear. They accept changes in themselves and gained among women who practice karate and those who in other people. They can communicate with others, can practice other sport disciplines, it can be unambiguously materialize their rights and execute them. Assertiveness is concluded that women who are into karate are characterized an acquired ability which can be shaped. Of course, there by a far more higher level of assertiveness than women are people who seem to say no without any psychophysical who do other sports. The assertiveness declared by costs more freely, than others, but everyone can learn it. women who practice karate is at the level between Sufficient motivation and patience are two very important and 99 centiles, compared to women who do other sports aspects [2, 4, 5]. disciplines who achieved results at the level between So what joins karate and assertiveness? What divides and 55 centiles on the Rathus Assertiveness Scale.

and what differentiates them? The aim of this paper, while Bar chart number two presents data concerning considering the results of the research, is: the level of assertiveness among women who practice • to determine the level of assertiveness among people karate and women who perform other disciplines divided who practice karate;

taking into account the frequency of their trainings:

• to obtain knowledge about the assertiveness level women who train regularly (three and more times a week) among people who practice other kind of sport. and those who do it once a week.

• to compare the results of people who practice karate The results presented in the bar chart above, with the level of assertiveness declared by people who concerning women who practice other sport disciplines do other sport disciplines. than karate, were divided into groups according to the Material and method number of trainings every week. It can be concluded that For a better cognition of the issue, the method the number of trainings exerts a direct influence on the applied in this paper was the diagnostics survey, while level of assertiveness obtained by those people.

Women the tool was the questionnaire form based on the Rathus who practice regularly, at least three times a week or even Assertiveness Scale [6]. Each question posed to the more often, are characterized by a much higher level of respondents was presented on a scientific scale. The scale assertiveness in comparison to women who practice on 3, 2, 1, -1, -2, -3 was used to examine the attitudes and regular basis, but who restrict themselves to only one reaction to situations, where assertiveness can play an training every week. It should be noticed that people important role. The differentiation gave the researchers an who practice different sport disciplines at least three ample opportunity to quantify disparities in the meaning times a week obtained results at the level between of particular terms among people who practice karate. and 55 centiles, which is only the lower borderline of the It facilitated the process of determining the emotional assertiveness level for people who practice karate.

component of attitudes towards different objects, gave an Bar charts number 3 and 4 are devoted to the opportunity to asses the intensity of different emotional characteristics of the assertiveness level results obtained components of assertiveness and its cognitive structure. by men. Bar chart number 3 contains the results of Centile norms of the Rathus Assertiveness Scale were assertiveness level among men who were subdivided into ФИЗИЧЕСКОЕ ВОСПИТАНИЕ СТУДЕНТОВ Table 1.

Centile norms of the Rathus Assertiveness Scale Women’s results (points) Men’s results (points) Centil 70 60 50 40 -1 -4 - -8 - - - -17 - - - -34 - -39 - -48 NUMBER OF PEOPLE Women who practice karate 3 Women who practice other disciplines 99 97 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 CENTILE Bar chart. 1. The results of examinations among women who practice karate and other disciplines Women who practice karate NUMBER OF PEOPLE Women who practice other disciplines once a week Women who practice other disciplines systematically 99 97 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 CENTILE Bar chart 2. The collation of the results of assertiveness level obtained by women who practice karate and women who practice other disciplines three times a week and women who practice other disciplines once a week.

NUMBER OF PEOPLE Men who practice karate Men who practice other disciplines 99 97 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 CENTILE Bar chart 3. The collation of the assertiveness level of men who practice karate and men who practice other sport disciplines 5 Men who practice karate NUMBER OF PEOPLE 4 Men who practice other disciplines systematically Men who practice other 2 disciplines once a week 0 99 97 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 CENTILE Bar chart 4. The collation of the results of assertiveness level obtained by men who practice karate and men who practice other disciplines three times a week and men who practice other disciplines once a week.

ФИЗИЧЕСКОЕ ВОСПИТАНИЕ СТУДЕНТОВ NUMBER OF PEOPLE M en who practice 4 karate W om en who practice karate 0 99 97 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 CENTILE Bar chart 5. The level of assertiveness among the karate adepts surveyed considering their sex NUMBER OF PEOPLE Woman who practice 4 other disciplines Men who practice other disciplines 99 97 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 CENTILE Bar chart 6. The results of the assertiveness among women and men who practice other sport disciplines Table 2.

The collation of the results obtained by women who practice karate and women who practice other disciplines Number of women in the research Results (points) Centile Women who practice karate actively Women who practice other disciplines 55 99 48 97 45 95 37 31 26 80 75 19 14 60 55 11 8 50 1 6 45 1 2 2 -1 -4 30 -8 25 -13 -17 -24 10 -34 5 groups who practice karate and men who do other sport attitudes towards different objects, gave an opportunity to disciplines. asses the intensity of different emotional components of The research conducted in the group comprised by men assertiveness and its cognitive structure.

who practice karate and other sports disciplines, similarly Table 2 contains the results concerning the level of to the group of women, show significant differences in assertiveness among women who practice karate and those the level of assertiveness in favour of karate adepts. The who practice other disciplines compared with norms.

level of assertiveness among men who practice karate was Table number three contains data concerning the level between 40 and 99 centiles, while the level obtained by of assertiveness among women who practice karate and men who do other sport was relatively lower – from 15 to women who practice other sport disciplines. The data is 90 centiles. A half of the men who do other sport disciplines divided into respondents who train regularly – at least reached the results between 15 and 40 centiles. three times a week, and those who train once a week. The Bar chart number four presents data about the results are presented both in points and centiles.

assertiveness level among men who practice karate and Table four presents the results of the assertiveness level other disciplines concerning the division into men who among men with the division into men who practice karate practice regularly, at least three times a week, and those and other sport disciplines. The results are presented both whose training takes place only once a week. in points and in centiles.

Comparing the group of men who practice different Table number five contains data concerning the level disciplines, considering the division into groups taking of assertiveness among men who practice karate and men into consideration the frequency of training, it should who practice other sport disciplines. The data is divided be concluded that there is a huge difference in the into respondents who train regularly – at least three times assertiveness level in favour of men who practice sport a week, and those who train once a week. The results are systematically – the results oscillate between 20 and 90 presented both in points and centiles.

centiles. Men who train only once a week obtained the Table six presents a collation of results of the result at the level between 15 do 25 centiles. It should be assertiveness level among people who practice karate acknowledged that people who train other sport disciplines considering sex. The results are presented both in points at least three times a week obtained lower results than and centiles.

men who practice karate. The last table presents a collation of the results of Bar chart number 5 presents the collation of the results assertiveness level among people who practice other sport of assertiveness level taking into consideration the sex of disciplines considering sex. The results are presented both respondents. in centiles and points.

The analysis of the results of the assertiveness level The results of the research presented in centiles on among men and women shown, that men are more the Rathus Assertiveness Scale show us how many points assertive than women and they obtain higher results than were gained by the respondents in the questionnaires, and women as well. Men’s results oscillate between 55 and 99 at which level of assertiveness the obtained results are centiles, women’s results are between 40 and 99 centiles. on the centile scale. For instance, if women obtained The last bar chart is a collation of the assertiveness points, it means that her result exceeds the results of 95% level among people who practice other sport disciplines of women from the standardization sample. It means that considering their sex. the assertiveness of such a person is higher than the as The analysis of the results of assertiveness among sertiveness of 95% of statistical women.

women and men who practice different sport disciplines As the results of the research conducted in a group of revealed that men are more assertive in comparison to 100 people, in this 50 people who practice karate, show women and they achieve higher results than women as that the results are distributed differently.

well. The results of men’s assertiveness oscillates between It is an undeniable regularity that the level of 15 and 90 centiles, women’s assertiveness oscillates assertiveness among people who practice karate is higher between 5 and 55 centiles. in comparison to people who do other sports. Karate doers, The comparison of own research both men and women obtained better results compared to to norms and results. the second group of sportsmen/women. This regularity Questionnaire form based on the Rathus Assertiveness can be observe among men, but it is more perceptible Scale was applied as the tool in this research, whereas among women. Generally speaking, it can be stated that each question posed to the respondents was presented on people who practice karate are far more assertive than a scientific scale. The scale accepted (3 – yes it definitely other people. The results of the research conducted among refers to me;

2 – refers to me;

1 – rather refers to me;

people who train other disciplines three times a week or -1 – rather does not refer to me;

-2 – does not refer to more frequently and those who train regularly but only me;

-3 – definitely does not refer to me) was used to once a week show, that the first group of people is more examine the respondents’ attitudes and reactions to those assertive than the second group mentioned. The result situations in which assertiveness can be manifested. The show that the practice of any sport discipline results in differentiation gave the researchers an ample opportunity a higher level of assertiveness, in comparison to people to quantify disparities in the meaning of particular who do not practice any sport discipline.



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