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2. Environment state in Republic of Yemen En iro mn d fo a n o rs, local, reg n g b l vio n of o e v n e t e rmtio ccu io al, lo a latio s n arisea aresu ofan m d mte n lo ie ap lica n A te n lo ye p y s lt y o e ch o g s' p tio. ny ch o g m lo s e e y fo d o m ircct m cn u o e v n e t. It n rg r irect r d flu cc p n n iro mn | |3 iu aw w un i v lu of e e y u d b u it a a a in g l in ex of a th p g n in e ce a e n rg, se y n re, s te ra d n ro o e ic flu n [K tljako a d o e 1 9 ]. A rd g to [Losev, 1 9 ] co o v n th r, 9 5 cco in 9 6 efficien of t a th p g n in en () is calcu db th n x w n ro o e ic flu ce late y e e t ay:

Energy consumption on the unit territory o f any country m \XJ Average global Energy consumption A first it w revealed ra b tw e co t as tio e e n efficien of a th p g n ts n ro o e ic in ce(K o te ryofte A co n sa dp p la nd n (PD fluen ) n rrito n sian u trie n o u tio e sity ):

K* = 0.33(PD 27 = 0 3 D/4.6).3 (P 1 2 (2) D en n valu ofp p la nd n PD*is a u te b fo u :

im sio less e o u tio e sity cco n d y rm la PD*=PD /4. 1 (3) H rePD- a a p p la nd n, p n 2 4,6- a e g g b l p p la n e ctu l o u tio e sity erso.ian ;

1 v ra e lo a o u tio d n, p rso, ' e sity e n.

A th t w e a a d th d n m of a th p g n tic in e ce u o fter a e v lu te e y a ics n ro e e flu n p n Y m nte rysin 1 5 ye to2 0 year(T le3 It fo w fro th sed ta e e rrito ce 9 0 ar 0 3 ab ). llo s m e a sin 1 5 year to2 0 year, th t co ce 9 0 03 a efficien of a th p g n tic in e ce u o t n ro e e flu n p n Y m n te ry h s in a d 7 tims in co n ctio w h h te p of e e rrito 7 a cre se.5 e n e n ith ig m s p p la n in asin. D m g p y fo ca th t 2 7 3 1 p rso s will live in o u tio cre g e o ra h re st a 4 9 7 2 e n Y m n to 2 1 year, b t 3 1 8 0 p rso s - to 2 1 ye r. In th se ca s ee 00 u 3100 e n 05 a e se acco n carried o t b fo u (2), sh w th t K* will b e u l 0 3 to2 u ts, u y rm la o, a e q a.0 8 0 year, b t 0 5 - to2 1 y P se te valu s ofK* u o Y m nte rya u.0 6 0 5 ear. re n d e p n e e rrito re very sm a dc n o le dtose u eco g co se u n s. B h hp p la n all n a n t a rio s lo ic n q e ce ut ig o u tio increase ca ca se se u p b min co n ctio w d k g w te se rity, n u rio s ro le n e n ith rin in a r cu b ca sen w6 %ofp p la nh v a m ntofre w te o ly eu o 9 o u tio a e d issio sh a r n.

T le3 D am ofa th p g n in e ceu o Y m nte ry ab. yn ics n ro o e ic flu n p n e e rrito Year P p la n PD p rso K * Year P p la n PD p rso o u tio o u tio,e n,e n K* KM'2 ' 4 6,0,4 1 90 0 0 1 9 1,8 2.0 4 9 3 3 9,1.4 2,. 6.0 5 8,0,4 3 90 1. 0 0 0 1 9 1,3 4.0 6 9 4 4 9,7 0 2. 7.0 90 6 2,0,6 8 0 0 0 1 9 1,8 1.0 7 9 5 4 6,6 2 2. 12.6 0. 90 8 2,3,5 7 9 1. 6 0.010 1 9 1,3 8 9 6 5 4,7 7 2. 9 0. 1Q V.Uli 1 9 97 1 /, 3. 1Q6 11 j U / 1 A 0 / 8T iO.U 0. 1 9 1,0 3 9 0 2 2,2 0 0 1 1 9 1,3 7.0 5 9 8 6 8,9 3 3. 1.0 22. 1 9 1,8 8 9 1 2 8,5 4 0 1 2000 1,3 9.0 7 8 4,0 0.0 2. 4 3. 1 9 1,3 9 9 2 3 7,2 4 2. 5 0 1 2 0 2,3 6.0 8 0 3 0 5,7 0 8.0 In sp of co p ra e lo valu of K* u o Y en te ry, se u ite m a tiv ly w es p n em rrito rio s eco g p b m ca arisea d p ssib h v arisena yinco n ctio w lo ic ro le s n n, o ly, a e lread n e n ith Ap p licatio ofd re tp n iffe n esticid sina ricu re e g ltu.

N wth minfa r ofch n in th sta ofY enaerial b is ah mn o e a cto a g g e te em asin ua e n m l activity;

n tu l so rce of a o h ric p llu n a n lig le a d co o ica a ra u s tm sp e o tio re eg ib n m ly co e to te p ra in sificatio of its d stin in th resu of w d ain m m o ry ten n ug e lt in y e sio in th d se re io s. T e min so rce of air p llu n a d e lo ic ro n e e rt g n h a u s o tio n co g situ tio 's w rse in a th n x in u a n o n g re e e t: d strial mn fa re tra sp rt, d mstic a u ctu, n o o e h mnactivity.

ua O e h lm gm rityofelectric sta n ce e tp n a do e in u v rw e in ajo tio s, mn la ts n th r d strial e te rise a ru n gw u g ofth fu oil a dh fu Ag a a o n of n rp s re n in ith sa e e el n eavy el. re t mu t su h ro s a h d e (SO ca o -m n x e (CO), a do e p iso o s a d lp u u n y rid 2), rb n o o id n th r o n u n h rm l g se a th wofftoa o h reinth resu ofth b rn gu th o e a fu a s re re tmsp e e lt e u in p e n s.

M re v r ce e t p n a so rce of th e te gin m ly g a a o n of o o e mn la ts re u e n rin ad issib re t mu t ce e t d st ina o h re By this, m rity ofin u p n h v n sy m mn u tm sp e. ajo d strial la ts a e o ste s forp rificatio th g s, b in th w toa o h reinth resu ofth b rn g u n e ase e g ro n tmsp e e lt e u in offth sety e offu alsoth re is n sy mtic co tro ofth co p sitio. It e ps el, e o ste a n l eir m o n co ce stomn Y ento n a dtocap e e. A o gla eth rm lectric n rn a y em w s n ital v n m n rg e al-e sta n o lyM sta nisru n ga u g ofn tu l g s. Brickp n ru n g tio s n a'rib tio n in t sa e a ra a la ts, n in w fu oil also p m tea o h ricp llu na dth wofftoa o h ren t ith el, ro o tm sp e o tio n ro tm sp e o o lyp iso g se b tb d st, h v rin inth air d rin lo gtim. Alsoit'sn n o n a s, u rick u o e g e u g n e o b arrier fro th e te g th sto e d st to a o h re th d st arises d rin m e n rin e n u tm sp e ;

is u ug ex ctio ofb ild gm ria in th q an n m e mreth nfifte na u d tra n u in ate ls e u ies, u b r o a e ro n S n 'a N wY m ntra sp rt ma s mreth n3 0 0 u its, w icha ru n g a a. o e e n o e n o a 5,0 0 n h re n in w p tro co ta in m chle d- h mta d n e u fo alive o a ism ith e l, n in g u a eavy e l, a g ro s r rg n s.

T n o ma s' e h u g se co ta alsosu h ro s a h d e(SO ca o ra sp rt e n x a st a s n in lp u u n y rid 2), rb n m n x e(CO), so ta do e h rm l fo aliveo a ism c m o e ts.

o o id o n th r a fu r rg n s, o p n n D ofY ene v n e ts' p te nco n sh wth t2 0kgofCO, ata em n iro mn ro ctio u cil o a 0 kg ofn g no es, 2 kgofh d ca o s, m reth n3k g s of su h r itro e xid 0 y ro rb n o a ilo ram lp u d x e, 10 kg of so su e sio s a b in th w off in air b s ofla e io id lid sp n n re e g ro n asin rg st Y ento n everym u inth resu ofth u gth h a yfu a dfu l oil. By em w s in te e lt e sin e e v el n e this, airb softo n S n 'aa dAl H d y a a feelin m stp llu n asin ws a a n u a d h re g o o tio.

In sp oflim rese e ofw rreso rces, w rk a carriedo d g g ite ited rv s ate u o s re n ig in th w e h u gth sereserves, m re v rd rin sim w rk in e a n e ells, x a stin e o o e u g ilar o s v stig tio s o th su je w ich w re d u db th in co sp n e t sta a dn t sta n is b ct, h e istrib te o rre o d n te n o te o a iza n o a iza n a n t ta e in a u t SO fo in n, last rg n tio s rg n tio s, re o k n to cco n, r sta ce in e a n of S n 'a w r level (u d rg u dw rs) reveals lo e gw te v stig tio a a ate n e ro n ate w rin a r level, w ichflu a s b twe 6 m e r, b th t co m nn m e ofw in h ctu te e e n -7 /y a y a m o u b r ells S n 'a b re ch s 1,0 0 A th sa e tim su ce w te re a a asin a e 3 0. t e m e rfa a rs serves ca n t no satisfya a yg w gn lre d ro in ecessityino e w icha th a n db p llu n A n s, h re re te e y o tio. lso it's n ecessarytoa u t fo th tu d r a u dw rs, p te na a stp llu n cco n r a n e ro n ate ro ctio g in o tio b g satsu cew te p te na a st so ety e ofh mnactivity, resu g e in rfa a rs' ro ctio g in m p s u a ltin in u d sira le co se u n s in h d ch ical relatio a d in relatio w te ne b n q e ce y ro em nn n ar Q a ;

th se co se u n s a ! b thfo w te o ucu u iu ciu , in u lity e n q e ce re o r a r u v O u.

th resu ofg w gn e lt ro in ecessities inw te S rfa w rs, reservesw ree h u d a r. u ce ate e x a ste a o mresh rpa n nb g ntop fo u d r g u dw rs, w ichd lm st, o a tte tio e a ay r n e ro n ate h iffers n m e p p rtie a co p riso o e w o e so rce offreshw te (A md u b r ro e s t m a n n s ith th r u s a r. h a sh san n w. A am, e sp l-Saura, 1 N v m e 2 0 y, N 1 2 ).

7 oe br 0 3 i 4 M stofe p rts co sid rsy t Y m nsh rere io s o eofth p re p in o xe n e e e e o g n n e u st lace th w rld H w ve e e o ed verseasilyth all vio n inth e v n e t e o. o e r v ry n isco e latio s e n iro mn p te n w ichmyb d v re esp ro ctio, h a e isco e d eciallyinth sesh rere io sa u dla e o o g n ro n rg to n a dre gzo e b in flo db d re t w ste M re d u dw ste w s n stin n s e g o y iffe n a s. o istrib te a s w g w ga o n of o e a d re t p ith ro in mu t n s re iffe n lastics w ste S m kin s ofp a s. o e d lastic ca b p se e inth se d rin 4 0ye n e re rv d e a u g 5 ars.

In sp of th t, m st of co n s a p th sp law su m te ls ite ao u trie cce ts e ecial s ch a ria co tin etoco eu o seae v n e t, a dp llu nb p w ste co tin e nu m p n n iro mn n o tio y lastic a n us tore a asase u p b mfo e v n e t.

min rio s ro le r n iro mn U ton wY enfeels sh rpn p o em a ecessityinso tio softh se u ma re fo lu n e rio s e su s r so tio sth p b mb fo itwill b c m th a n g lu n is ro le e re e o e re te in.

W n d liv ra ce of oil a dch ical w ste th a n th R S a b sin ro g e e n n em a s re te s e ed e a e v n e t. Oil h d ca o sa th m std n e u so rce ofw te p llu n n iro mn y ro rb n re e o a g ro s u s a r o tio, b t sh re p llu nb oils a db -p d cts ofp tro u - ch ical in u is a u o o tio y n y ro u e le m em d stry th a fo se flo a dfa n.

re t r a ra n u a 3. Modern state of the water supply in Republic of Yemen P rso a w te co su p n in Y enR u lic co p se o ly 2%of th e n l a r n m tio em ep b m o s n e ma g b l in e a dis e u l 2 3 cu.mo ly We a o th N e sta din e n lo a d x n q a 2 b n. h re s n e ear a n th N rthA e o frica-m ly 1 5 cu. M Y m nis lo ofth W a isth ca seof ean 2 0 b. e e st irst. h t e u su sh rp w te sh rta e C lla o r of Y en w te p ly D p rtmn ch a a r o g ? o b rato em a r-su p e a e t G m l Mh m e A d says: Y m n p p la n h g t u d to p b mof a a o a md b u e e o u tio as o se ro le w te sh rta e First of all th p b mis co n cte w n tu l p liarities of ar o g is ro le n e d ith a ra ecu o rco n. B its im o n h wo rp p la nu sth p se tin w r.Its u u try ut p rta t o u o u tio se e re n g ate n tu l th t min co su e is a ricu re (fig re 2), w e o n n ffe e a ra a a n mr g ltu u h re ld o -e ctiv irrig tio sy m a u da b fo.

a n ste s re se s e re Fig re2. D u nofY m nw te co su p ninth R u licofY en % u istrib tio e e a r- n m tio e ep b em, (I - a ricu re In u -m n al e n m) g ltu, - d stry, 1 u icip co o y Y m nM e e inistry ofag ltu in rm th t its u d4 0 ofw te o ly, ricu re fo s a se 0-5 % a r n i.e. half of w te is lo sim ly. T e level of su so w te in Y m n falls ar st p h b il a rs ee co sta tly in o e reg n to 6m e r;

Y m n e p rt a u ts th t it is a nn, th r io s- /y a e e x e cco n a frig te in p rsp ctiv.

hnge e e P ce w to a s p icio s co se u n s d v lo s sin 7 t ye ro ss ith d y ern u n q e ce e e p ce 0h ars.

B rin th d e slits sta d a th t tim, p w rfu p m s d p m in o t o g e ep rte t a e o e l u p id u p g u e o o sa o n ofw rtosu ce Ina rd n w U se a n w te n rmu mu t ate rfa. cco a ce ith no stimtio s, a r so rce inY encap S n awill e h u co p te to2 1 y (QUIVER, u s em ital a a x a st m le ly 0 0 ear 2 0 ).

C n n w te co rse a a se t actu Sm rivers a d stre m o sta t a r u s re b n ally. all n as o in tin in th m u ta o s P of co n, co p se a exclu n m st of rig a g e o n in u art u try m o n sio, o o e d o t d rin d se so. T e m st co sid ra le rivers o th N rth- a n s ry u u g ry a n h o n e b neo re M o a d Md b in th so th reg n asila. U al w a d a sia w or n aa, eu io s-M su ells n rte n ells re a a th minso rceofw te - su p fo lo min s e a u a r p ly r calities. A p se ttim a e g t re n e v ra e a n a c n m tio ofre re w te fo o ep rso co p se n m re th n2 n u l o su p n sto d a rs r n e n m o s o o, a cu. m a r 3 y a th fo ca din e will re u to7 -1 0 m., th t is less b. fte 0 e rs is re ste d x d ce 6 0 3 a sig ifican th np ysio g n e s. A n al v lu eoffallin p cip tio s in n tly, a h lo ical e d n u o m g re ita n R u licofY m nco p se a o t6 billionm.

ep b e e mo s b u 0 M st of o e e a o te p rt of o e is flo in to e e o a, a d so e o n s v p ra, a n w g g th r ce n n m a o n re-sto s u d rg u dw te Last a minw te su p so rce ofth mu t ck n e ro n a rs. re a a r p ly u s e all e n m a dm n al n e s.

co o ic n u icip e d Y m nw te re u sa d u da du dveryirreg larly. 9 %Y m n e e a r so rce re istrib te n se u 0 ee p p la ne p n sn t mreth n9 cu ic mte ofw te in year fo o emn o u tio x e d o o a 0 b e rs a r r n a.

Wte re u sp b mis sh rpe tre e o th w st ofco n. Wte rese e a r so rce ro le a x mly n e e u try a r rv, fit fo u g inw Y en is e a a da o t3 m cu ic mte a de e r sa e est em, v lu te b u 5 illion b e rs, n v n a p se t te p of w te u g th se re u s will e h u co p te d rin t re n ms a r sa e e so rce x a sts m le ly u g n a st 5 ye S a ninth d n lyp p la dre io sis g tw rse S a o t e re 0 ars. itu tio e e se o u te g n e o. o b u 1 %ofco n p p la nlives inS n 'ab.

0 u try o u tio a a asin % A o t 2 4 m cu ic mte of u d rg u dw te d w e tra d b u 2 illion b e rs n e ro n a rs id as x cte h re in 1 9 year, b t su p mn n t e ce d 4 m n cu ic mte i. e e 94 u p le e t o x e 2 illio b e rs,.

e p n itu e ce d d receip m re th n 5 tims. D rin n a st ye it is x e d re x e e to a e u g e re ars fo ca d full e p n itu of u d rg u d w te in R u lic cap S n 'a, re ste x e d re n e ro n a rs ep b ital a a w e a e g a n a p p la nin h re v ra e n u l o u tio creaseco p se 8% mo s.

T e o ly h p y (w u d rg u d w te re u s) p in Y en is h n a p ith n e ro n a r so rce lace em Hd m u reg n lo te inth sp a ra o t io, ca d e arselyP p la dso th a p rt ofco n, a o u te u -e st a u try t d n a o t5 0k fro cap H rere e w re u sreach2 0m n ista ce b u 0 m m ital. e n w ater so rce 8 illio cu ic mte e r, a dth serese e a e o g fo so em n iu s a p se t b e rs/y a n e rv s re n u h r m ille n m t re n te p ofw ru g.

m s ate sa e T e min cau s of p se t w te crisis in Y en a th n x co sta tly ha se re n a r em re e e t: n n in asin d mn fo w te a aresu ofco n p p la nin cre g e a d r a r s lt u try o u tio crease (Larg...., e 2 3 e te sio ofag ltu a a d mn in. T eartificial irrig n a se ce 00 ), x n n ricu ral re s, e a d g h atio, b n of sta co tro a r p ce s of e tra g a d co su p n th u d rg u d te n l fte ro sse x ctin n n m tio e n e ro n w te a rs.

Possibility of co tro a r u d rg u dw te u g is co p te b th n l fte n e ro n a rs sa e m lica d y e itk W VUUV u w u i i A^ lUYJ toUle D tra uWHO Wi/ * _ 11P U lU U U V l 3 1*1 V rvU U tr f l ^ iV Uiion J. A 1A VUVV VV lloa1 1V~UViW U iS ms n fa ra t 1// 1 111 n U fr.

U imJ* G v rn e t a mts of licen th u g ofp a w a dsp a dofsta o e mn tte p se e sa e riv te ells n lits n te in e gth o e w re fo n tob u su ssfu inth resu ofim e ctio of sp ctin e n s e u d e n cce l e lt p rfe n o a iza n a m istra e sta stru re Y m n is th o ly co n, w e rg n tio - d in tiv te ctu s. e e e n u try h re u d rg u d w te a e h u g w su h h te p S n 'a ca re a s n e ro n a rs re x a stin ith ch ig m s. a a n min w o tw te inth n a stfix re ith u a r e e re tu.

R n w du d rg u dw te re u sa e a da p se ta p x a ly e e e n e ro n a r so rce re stimte t re n p ro imte as 1 b n cu ic mte e r. V lu e of a e g a n a u d rg u dw te.2 illio b e rs/y a o m v ra e n u l n e ro n a rs co su p n co p se a o t 8.2 billion cu ic mte i.e. se e fo v lu e of n m tio m o s b u b e rs, v n ld o m a n a re m tio. It is co n d u th t b d in level of u d rg u d w te n u l su p n u te p a e d g n e ro n a rs co e d w in th m st of co n re io s b 1 ma n ally So in Kaa ms o n e o u try g n y -6 n u., A o n (n a A ra ) u d rg u dw te level fell d w b 6 mro g ly a r lb o e r m n n e ro n a rs o n y 0 u h fte last tw n y a a d b 3 m afte e st 5 ye T m s of e h u n th e ty e rs n y 0 ra ars. e p x a stio e u d rg u d w te rese e a in n e ro n a rs, rv s re creasin q g uickly p artly, in co n ctio w n e n ith q ick p p la n in u o u tio crease a d activizatio of d re t ty e of its e n m n n iffe n p s co o ic activity.

T e n g tiv m mn co n cte w w r u g, is n t o ly its sh rp h e a e o e t, n e d ith ate sa e o n a d eficit, b t a th la e d n e ofp llu nb d v tio s fro h mnactivity, u lso e rg a g r o tio y e ia n m u a esp ecially, in co d n of a se ce w te p rifyin b ild g a dw te e a d n itio s b n a r u g u in s n a r-lin n se e g n tsa.

w ra e e lso P d m a t mth dof d liv ra ce fro se a e is th irs d o l inw re o in n e o e e n m w g s e isp sa ells b d p to 2 m As a resu su w a th so rce of p llu g th y e th 0. lt, ch ells re e u s o tin e u d rg u dw te Even in cap S n 'aw te p rifica n is realized still in n e ro n a rs. ital a a a rs u tio th te p ra o id tio reservo w ichreceive se a e in v lu e e ce d g e m o ry x a n irs, h w g s o m s, x e in itsp d ctiv cap ro u e acity. As aresu p llu dw te a fo n ine v n e t, u d lt, o te a rs re u d n iro mn se of te fo irrig tio of field th t le d to d cre sin of a ricu ra p d cts nr an s, a a s e a g g ltu l ro u q alitya dtop llu gth o e o n S ch m a db rio g l an u n o tin e n s fte. o e ical n acte lo ica alyses of w rs, ta e o t ofth w in th re io ofA aw a (a in rn tio a ca o ate k n u e ells e g n l-R d t te a n l rp rt S n a g e id n co ce in its p llu n b n te p o h te iro a d a a ) ive v e ce n rn g o tio y itra s, h sp a s, n n a o tg a co te tofp th g n b cte m also T eS m p reis typ fo b u re t n n a o e ic a riu s. h a e ictu ical r th w a n e inth ce treofto na dn arse a e reservo InA e o ly e ells, rra g d e n w n e wg s irs. d n n 2 %of se a e a co 5 w g s re llectedin o id g reservo In fu re th se w te a x izin irs. tu e a rs re u dfo irrig tio ofth n a sta ricu ra ye se r a n e e re g ltu l ars.

H reit is p p rtore a, th tv lu eofth w rldse a e is e a a da e ro e mrk a o m e o w g s v lu te s 1 0 k 3B 1Lofse a e mk su fitfo d k8 L ofth fre wte 5 0 m. ut w g s a e n r rin e sh a r.

A p se t o ly 3 %of Y m np p la nreceives w te fit fo d k This t re n n 5 e e o u tio a r, r rin.

in e co fo s a o t 74%in to n b t inru a a a o t 1 %C n q e ce d x n rm b u w s, u ral re., b u 4 o se u n s ofu gth w te ofp o q alitya u fo n te A o t7 %d a sofin n in sin e a rs o r u re n rtu a. b u 0 e th fa ts a sisp v k db d re tillnesses, d riv dth u hw te rm ro o e y iffe n e e ro g a r.

P b m ofsu p in th p p la nb q a ro le s p ly g e o u tio y u litativew te a co p te ba r re m lica d y th q icka dirre u e mn l g w gu th to n th tis ca se b in n e e u n g lar le e ta ro in p e w s a u d y te siv in k of ru p p la n in o e M ra ts a se g in th to n in ta e ral o u tio n s. ig n re ttlin e w s, fra stru re ofw ich is n t re d toa p som ch ofth n win a ita ts. Larg ctu h o a y cce t u e e hb n e a o n of h u s is b in b ilt o su u a are w e is n w r-lin a d mu t o se e g u n b rb n as, h re o ate e n se e g n ts.

w ra e e A o t3 unp fiedw te ofth co sta to n a b in th w d b u /4 m a rs e a l w s rc e g ro n irectlym se, th t in e ce d ctively u o ich y fa n, ca se d rm-d a s a d a a flu n s estru p n th o u a u s e a ise se n mk s co d n l u o o e illnesses of p p la n It is exclu a e n itio a p n th r o u tio. sively se u rio s e lo ic p b m a th sta w sm a ah s th se co sta line a n R co g ro le, s e te ith all re a e a a l lo g ed a dA ianse sb le g ofm re th n2 0 k.

n rab a y n th o, a 0 0 m Fast te p of eco g p llu g th co se w te a ca se in th ms lo ic o tin e astal a a rs re u d e h h st d g e b p p la n in a a du co tro b g w of th co sta ig e e re y o u tio cre se n n n lla le ro th eal to n w o t b ild g th n cessary utility sy m fo w r-su p in th w s ith u u in e e ste s r ate p ly g e in u o je a dto n p p la na dfo b e a dp rificatio ofth u d d strial b cts n w s o u tio n r le d n u n e se w te a rs.

G w gd ro in eficit of th fre w te in Y en R u lic, its a se ce in e sh a r em ep b bn d u h o d se d reg n h in rich n tu l re u s a d p e e fo ro g ty r e rte io s, av g a ra so rce n ersp ctiv r assim n mk s th n ilatio, a e e ecessity of se rch g th re a d n l w r so rce a in e d itio a ate u s (d eficit of th fre w r is felt o th te ry of mre th n 4 co n s, e sh ate n e rrito o a 0 u trie d u dm ly in th a a da in d re io s a dco p sin a o t 6 % istrib te ain e rid n lso ry g n n m o g b u su ceofth all g b l la d rfa e lo a n ).

As is w k o n h mno a ismco sist ofw te b 6 %w te is less of ell n w, u a rg n n ary4 ar all inth b n s a din a ip setissu - 2 -3 %in m scle a din viscera- a o t e oe n do e 50 u sn bu 7 -8 % b tsalivaco sist ofw te b 99.5%(D itriev, Fru in 2 0 ). At lo of 00,u n ary m m, 04 ss 6- w te mnfalls intoh lf-sy co e lo of10%w te p v k sh cin n 8% a r a a n p, ss a r ro o e allu atio, vio sw w reflex. A loss ofw te b 1 %leth issu (d a ) is co in to lates allo - t ary2 al e e th mg.

A th sa etim p llu dw te u g is veryd n e u fo th h a a dlifeof t e m e o te a rs sa e a g ro s r e e lth n mna.

A o t 5,0 0 mnofth w rlda d s every d yofsu illnesses th u h bu 0 0 e e o re ie a ch ro g w te a ch le ty h id d se te a do e m re v rm stp rtis co p se b a r s o ra, p o, y n ry n th r, o o e o a mo d y ch rento5years. So o tb a ofch le w o se e inT zan w p g ild, u re k o ra as b rv d an ija ith ickin u th in ctio b w rw Sickn ra in p e fe n y ate ay. ess te creasedesp eciallysh lyinse so arp an ofrain th t is ca se b co d n ofsu sa u d y n itio s rvival for ch le ofrain th t is ca se o ra sa ud b co d n of survival fo ch le b y n itio s r o ra acillus (to2 w e s in th freshw r, a d ek e ate n mre8 w e s-inth saltyw te e v n e t).

o ek e a r n iro mn S a ofth sickn h re e esses, ca se b co su p nofw te u fit for d ka d u d y n m tio arn rin n p p ra noffo d isu to7 %ofcases.

re a tio o, p Q ality of d k w te m st co sp n to sa ita n rm b fo o e u rin a r u rre o d n ry o s e re n s e te g in d u n t a d a th w r in p in of th e te a a d n rin istrib tive e n t e ate lets o ts e x rn l n in rn lw rlin n t.

te a ate e e H rm ssn ss of d k w te b ch ical co p sitio is d te in db its a le e rin a r y em m o n e rm e y co sp n in toth n ^ n rm rre o d g e e t o s:

- g n ra d in e a dco te t ofh rm l ch ical su sta ce th t a b in e e lize d x n n n a fu em b n s, a re e g fo n e m sto no th te ryofY enRepublic, a da ofsu sta ce u d d o fte n e rrito em n lso b n s ofa th p g n o in h rin th g b l sp a in, n ro o e ic rig, a g e lo a re d g - co te t of h rm l ch ical su sta ce e te g a db in fo e in w te nn a fu em b n s, n rin n e g rmd a r d rin h rtre tmn inw te p lysy m u g e a e t a r-su p ste.

- C n n ofh rm l ch ical su sta ce e te ginwte p le e t so rce o te t a fu em b n s, n rin a r-su p mn u s m gresu ofthsh mnsco ctn activity.

th lt u a n ic It sh u b re a e esp o ld e mrk d ecially, th t insp ofverya a a du so e in a ite ctu l n n lv d p cip w r-se rity p b min Y en R u lic, it is d v lo e a d u d rin le ate cu ro le em ep b e e p d n se san ryn rm ofh rm l su sta ce co te t ind kw te (T le 4) a dinth ita o s a fu b n s, n n rin a r ab n e se a e u dfo irrig n(T le5 (lim a p b c n n tio -LAC).

w g s, se r atio ab ) it cce ta le o ce tra n Table 4. LAC of some harmful substances in drink water of Yemen Republic N Elem ne ts S mo y bl D e sio s im n n FAC. Pb m/ g 1 Lead 2 S le iu enm Se m/ g 0.. As 3 A ic rsen m fl g m/ g. 4 C ro iu h mm Cr C " N m/ g 5 Ca o e yn gn yj.l 6 C d iu amm Cd m/ g.0 m/ g.0 7 M ry ercu Hg m/ g 8 A tim n n oy Sb 0. Table 5. LAC of chemical elements in sewages, used for irrigation in Republic of Yemen N Elem ten S mo y bl FACm/g 1 A mu lu in m Al. As 2A rsen ic 0. 3B eryllium Be 0. Cd 4 C d iu amm 0.. 5 Cb Co o alt Cr 6 C ro iu h mm 0. 7 Cpeo pr Cu 0. F. 8 Flu rin oe Fe. 9 Iro n Li. 10 Lith m iu 11 Mn a e a g n se M n 0, 12 M ly d n m o beu M o 0. Ni N ickel 13 0. 1 Lead 4 Ph 1 S le iu 5 enm Se 0. 1 Vnd m 6 a a iu V 0. 1 Zinc 7 Zn 2. It w d w u w te - e n m b la cefo b gth d ctio s ofw te as ra n p g r co o ic a n r asin e ire n a r securitys im ro e e t Y en rep b th b la ce is a q a tita e ra p v mn em u lic, is a n u n tiv tio b twe e te g (re ip p rt) a d e p n itu (e p n s p rt) a r d fin e e n n rin ce t a n x e d re x e ce a fte e ite p rio, b in co sid re inre a toth p e o t b la ce se r. T e o e of e d e g n e d g rd e ick d u a n cto h rd r co p sin th e u tio ofw te e n m b la cew co clu e inth n x m o g e q a n a r- co o ic a n as n d d e e t:

- Itw se dtim in as ttle e terval, a rth tb la ceis b gco sid re (o eyear).

fte a a n rin n e d n - It w re iste dth all e mn ofb la ceinfo ofa e ra ofcre it d b as g re e le e ts a n rm lg b ic d e it ite s.

m - Itw d te in dn mra ma in softh all b la cee mn as e rm e u e l e n g e a n le e ts.

- It w e a a db la ce resu i. e th se ch n e ofw r reserves, w ich as v lu te a n lts,. o a g s ate h o rinY enterrito inth resu ofb la cee mn in ra n ccu em ry e lt a n le e ts te ctio.

Wte co o ic b la ce of Y m n R u lic can b p se te in g n ra a r-e n m a n e e ep b e re n d e e l a e b th n x R t p rt of b la ce is b in fo e of p cip tio s sp ct y e e t. eceip a an e g rmd re ita n v lu e(Vpr.). Exp sesp rtofb la ceis b in fo e ofrainw te in om en a an e g rmd a rs filtration (th u h w te b a g levels) v lu e (vinf.). e a o tio a d tra sp tio ro g a r- e rin om v p ra n n n ira n v lu e (Vev), clim d in g (Vdr.) a dwte n m tio (V om atic ra a e n a r-co su p n cons). B ce alan Eq a nfo tim (t)h safo :

u tio r e a rm AW=V r. - V f. - V V r.- V p in ev.- d cons., (4) W e AW aterreserves, c a g d rin tim t.

h re -w hn e u g e In a rd n w o r a u ts V r.= 5.1 s m/y a fo 2 0 V n = cco a ce ith u cco n p 1 0 3 e r r 00 y co s.

3 1 9 m/y a. V Vinf. W b in co sid re as p d ct ofV e. b so e.4. 0 3 e r alue as e g n e d ro u p ym co efficien k, w ich ma in w a p dto b e u l 0.1 in a rd n w t h e n g as cce te e qa cco a ce ith (N mnSalim 1 9 ), i.e.

ua, V =0.1-V r.

inf. p (5) It w carriedo tth mth mtics- statistical tre tmn oflite tu d taa d as u e aea a et ra re a n w rere e le n m rica ma in s ofe a o tio co e v a d u e l e n g v p ra n efficien (ai) a dofd in g t n ra a e co efficien (a) fo a u tin V A d V r. it w re re lte th n x valu t r cco n g ev. n d e su d e e t es ai =0.936;

a =0 6. T e ma in sw u dfo a u t ofw te co o ic.0 5 h se e n g ere se r cco n a r-e n m b la cea u gth n x fo u s(T le6):

a n t sin e e t rm la ab V= ev. 0.936-V r.

p (6) V r.=0 6 -V r.

d.0 5 p (7) Table 6. The elements of water-economic balance in Yemen, m3/year Vpr. V f.

in V v.

e V r.

d *V n co s. AW a ric ltu m n a in u g u re u icip l d stry eo o y c nm 5.1 " 5.1 4 47.7.1 4 3.3.1 s 3 4.1 3 0 1 0 0 4.1 * -8.1 s 1 0.1 0 0 0.1 5 0.2.1 9.0 5 0.5 N te *Itsg e ofvalu ofV n for2 0 y o. iv n e co s 0 0.

T en g tiv w te co o icb la ce(A =-8 -1 9 m/year) is e id n of h e a e a r-e n m a n W.5 0 3 v e ce necessityinma re c m e sa gw sh rta e e su s, o p n tin ater o g.

' e \ A n n lim tn i \ f m ir a n m 4-Wa I 'n l\1 n t^ A iirn n r n fa A A n m itn n lin n 1** r m a i j 'S i o u i u a u i, g iv w u i u uxt/ l a u i w z. o u u v r o, u i a i v ra iv i w u o m u | ;

u u u v u iu m w is 1.2timsless, th np cip tio sv lu e(V r./V n =5l-1073.4-I0s 1. 4e a re ita n o m p eo s. = 4 ).

O e v n of calcu gth w te - e n m B ce is g e in w rk th r aria t latin e a r co o ic alan iv n o (K el M sta A er Wle d k. A am o fa m a e l-Zubari, 2 6 A th rs co sid w te 00 ). u o n er a r b la ce as d re ce b twe c m o w te re u s in 1 9 y a d co m n an iffe n e e n o mn a r so rce 97 n m o w te co su p n Ina rd n w e a a n ofth sein e ato n g tiv a r n m tio. cco a ce ith v lu tio s e v stig rs, e a e w te co o icb la cein Y enco p se - 1 8 09m/y a fo 1 9 y b t in a r-e n m a n em m o d.3 -1 " 3 e r r 9 7, u a rd n w p d nit w co p se-4 8 -1 9m/y a fo 2 2 y. u of cco a ce ith re ictio ill m o.1 6 0 3 e re r 0 5 se co sid re a p a p rm d to calcu th d n m of n g tiv w te n e d p ro ch e itte late e y a ics e a e a r e n m b la ceinY ensin 1 9 y to2 2 y. (T le co o ic a n em ce 9 0. 0 5 ab ).

Differen b tw e w te d valu b 1ta d2 v n ofcalcu n ce e e n a r eficit es y s n d aria ts latio s is co d n d b th t in 1s v n receip p st of b la ce w co n cte w n itio e y a t aria t ta a n as n e d ith rain p cip tio s, w ich a n t u g u to n w b t in 2dv n - w y re ita n h re o sin p o, u aria t ith u d rg u dw te w ich a th min so rce of w te cu in rep b a n e ro n a rs, h re e a u a r-se rity u lic t p se ttim.

re n e Table7 Thed. ynam ofw ics ater-eco o icb ceinRepublic ofY en n m alan em G n ra G n ra A, Year V u v io i ee l ee l W V aor A,m W vj w uu at 1 vtu jv w te ar w te ar w te ar w te a r m re u s co su p n so rce n m tio re u s c n m tio so rce o su p n m m m m 3 3 3 1 9 2.0 90 -0.8 2 0 1 -1 0 5.3 0 3 -1 9 -2 -1.7 0.4 109 2.8- 1 9 1 -1 9 5.7 0 3 -1 9 -1 2010 1.1..1 0 4.0 0-1 9 -2 -1 9.9 -1 2 2 0 -1.9 0 5.7 1.5409 3 -1 9.4 0 4 -1 9 -4 -1.8 0.1 4. Thedirections ofth w supp d ve p e tinRepublicofY en e ater ly e lo m n em W co sid re th n x p ssib w of d cid g th w te secu e n e d e e t o le ays e in e a r- ritys p b min Y en tra sp rta n of ice e s, se a e p rificatio, b y g of ro le em : n o tio b rg w g s, u n u in w te in o e co n s, d sa a nofseaw rs, in a r th r u trie e lin tio ate stallatio th co d n rs of n e n e se w te fro a o h ricaira dofu d rg u dp u dreservo (fig re a r m tm sp e n n e ro n o re irs u ).

Fig re3 P ssib w ofd cid gth w te su p, p b min u. o le ays e in e a r p ly ro le R u licofY m n ep b ee O eofp ssib n o ilities fo im ro e e tofw te b la ce is co clu e inre e t r p v mn a r an n d d pa w te u g. Sig ifican re rv of w te co su p n in Y en rep b is a r sa e n t se e a r- n m tio em u lic co n cte w se a e p rificatio, as a o t 7 %u p rifie w te of co sta n e d ith w g s u n b u 5 n u d a rs al to n a th w off d w s re ro n irectly in se. Y en in u p n a co ce tra din a em d strial la ts re n n te th fo rb to n e u ig w s:

S n 'a Taiz'z, A o ayd A e. M st ofo e th woffth w stew te aa, l-H d a, d n o n s ro e a a rs, p llu d b in u w ste a d b m n al w o te y d strial a s n y u icip astes, w te an p rificatio a rs y u n d irectly in se e n t a d in se. H w o ly a o t half of u a p p la n wr e n a o ever n b u rb n o u tio (2.3%p p la nof co n ) is e v lo e b se e n t. M re sh rpsitu tio -in o u tio u try n e p d y w r e o a an ru a a w e m st p rt ofp p la n live. H re a o t 1 %of p p la n is ral re, h re o a o u tio e bu 0 o u tio p v e w sew n t. S w g s v lu e in rep b is e u l 8.9 1 6 m, b t ro id d ith er e e a e o m u lic q a 2 0 3 u o ly 5 %of o e (4.1 0 m) is p rified S, 3.3 0 m of se a e a n t n5 n s 5 -1 6 3 u. o 7 -1 6 3 w g s re o p rifie.

ud O eofth m st effective a dp rsp ctiv w of se rin Y enrep b n eo n e e e ays cu g em u lic b fre w te is d sa a nofth salt seaw te (salinityofth R S w te y sh a r e lin tio e a rs e ed ea, a rs re ch s 4 ). Wte d sa a nis mth dofw te tre tmn in o e tore u a e 2% a r e lin tio eo a r a e t rd r d ce co ce tra n of d lved salts to d g e (u ally to lg.L"1 a w ich w te n n tio isso e re su ), t h ar b co e fitfo d ka de n m p rp se e ms r rin n co o ic u o s.

W co sid re d re tmth d of se w te d sa a n(d sa a nb e n e d iffe n e o s a a rs, e lin tio e lin tio y fre zin o t, ch ical p cip tin, io e ch n e electro ialysis, re e e g u em re ita g nic x a g, d v rse oo d sm sis, istillatio a d so d sa a n H w n n lar e lin tio. o ever, m in a n n w s a tte tio a co ce tra d o so d sa a n a u tin clim p liarities of Y m n n n te n lar e lin tio, cco n g atic ecu ee (h hvalu ofin la n ig es so tio ).

T ee n ofth mth dco sists inth fe t th t e a o tio ofsalt w te h sse ce is e o n e e a v p ra n a r, w ichfills u reservo ta e p ceinth resu ofso ra ia n in en b t h p ir, k s la e lt lar d tio s flu ce, u co d n dd n e se istillate, b in fo e o in edp n s of g o p e g rmd n clin la e lass r lastic ro fs, is o co cte in g tte a n e in lo er p rt of ro f, th rest b e is re o e to lle d u rs, rra g d w a oe rin mv d d in g (fig re4).

ra a e u Tech o g so d sa a nd fro u al d n lo ically lar e lin tio iffers m su istillatio in n stallatio s n o lyb th tsp h a e ch n e w g su n y a ecial e t x a g rs ith lass rface, fe b h a ofsu e e y d y et n n rg, a u dfo initial h a gofw te So d re se r e tin a r. lar istillatio d a v n g o slyfro n iffers d a ta e u m o e mth d ofd sa a n a o ere u srelativelylesserru n gco th r e o s e lin tio, s n q ire n in sts.

Fig re4 S lardistillersch m ofty eh tb x u.o e e p o o 1 essel w saltw te 2. S a -airm tu. 3 T n a n co e.V ith a r. te m ix re. ra sp re t v r.

4 C n e sa. 5 H a la gw ofth b x su raysa mrk db a w. o d n te. e t-iso tin all e o, n re a e y rro s.

S lard o istillersd e sio sa d te in dm lyb th p d ctiv w ich imn n re e rm e ain y eir ro u ity, h m yb ca la dw so ea m tio sb a p x a fo u :

a e lcu te ith m ssu p n y p ro imte rm la Q=kE/L =kE/580, (8) W e Q sp p d ctiv ofdistiller, L/m-dy h re - ecific ro u ity 2a - co efficien of so e e y u t lar n rg, tilizatio, a p d b in e u l 0.3-0.5;

n cce te e g q a E-in siven ofso ra ia n L =5 0- e p n itu ofe e yfo h a ga d ten ess lar d tio, 8 x e d re n rg r e tin n e a o tio of1 kgw te v p ra n a r.

Fo u (8) w tra sfo e fo carryin o t th p rm la as n rmd r g u e ractical calcu n latio.

A th th ma v eof (k=0 ) w s a p d N x fo u w o ta e a t is e e n alu.4 a cce te. e t rm la as b in d s are lt.

su Q=0 9 -E.5 3 (9) Inth re lte fo u Qh s th fo w gd e sio a re re n tio - L 2-d y e su d rm la a e llo in imn n l p se ta n /m a, a dE -k t.h 2 d y n W /m a.

A e g m n lya da e g a n a sp v ra e o th n v ra e n u l ecificp d ctiv s ofso d ro u itie lar istillers fo th ela eto n ofY enR u lic (S a, H d y a Ta'izz) (fig re 5 w re r re rg w s em ep b an o a d, u )e ca late b fo u (9) a u gth in latio valu d ta lcu d y rm la t sin e so n es a.

It is tomrkth t ca late valu ofd sa a nsp a a lcu d es e lin tio ecific p d ctiv s a ro u itie re clo to o e w ich a a d ce in w rk (S se n s, h re d u d o alemM G h Mh m e A..Bin ad i o a md M ukbel, 1 9 ). P 9 8 articu itsn te inth w rk th tfo u al d yp d ctiv larly o d is o, a r su a ro u ity ofso d sa a nre ch s3 k /m d y lar e lin tio a e.7 g 2 a.

S o g s ofth mth da th n x la e cap in e e ts b ca se of h rta e is e o re e e t: rg ital v stmn e u co stru n co p a dofto g a in n ctio s, m licity n o re t stallatio s, p ra e rs, lo p d ctio n a mte w ro u n o u it su ce of so distillers. N n n lle w a e ch n e clo d e n n rfa lar o -co tro d e th r a g s, u in ss, la d ofp se so te p ra re v tio s mk s sig ifican d titu e lace, a n m e tu s, aria n a e n tly ifficult a d n lim th a p tio ofso d its e p lica n lar istillatio mth d n e o.

3,5y* 3

2, q C* M | 1,5 d T Sana'a Hudaydah Ta'izz.n j v c ia ^ auuuai p i u u u v u v iiy u x a u ia i lu w u a ui Y mnR u lic(calcu nd ta e e ep b latio a ) In a d nto e p u d dw calcu d itio xone e lated so distillers, a a p v in fo lar re s, ro id g r d k w te p d ctio in th e e a in d to n d rin ye r. S n a ma rin a rs ro u n re x m e w s u g a ta d rd e n characteristics of mn a d in p lar, q a tity of d k w r fo a u an articu u n rin ate r d lt d rin d y(2L) u da calcu n (Tab 8).

u ga se t latio s le T le8. A ofso distillersfo d kw te su p ofso eto n p p la n ab reas lar r rin a r- p ly m w s o u tio inR u licofY m n ep b ee Tw on Distillersspecific P p la n D o u tio istillers a a h cta re, e re p d ctiv Q L/m-d y ro u ity,, 2 a S n 'a aa 3.5 1 3,2,8 4 9 0. 3. Hdy a oad 48. 86 2,6 3. Ta'izz 56 6.5 9 3. A p se t Y ena th ritie p tob g im e ia lyth b ild gofte s t re n em u o s lan e in md te e u in n p n fo seaw te d sa a n A ya th n a sttim Y eng v rn e t la ts r a rs e lin tio. lread t e e re e em o e mn p s toa n u cete d rs o p je of b ild gth n mro s p n fo w te lan n o n n e n ro cts u in e u e u la ts r a r seasd sa a na n Y m nco st, w ichh sle g a o t2 0 k.

e lin tio lo g e e a h a n th b u 0 0 m O e of d n irectio s, p rm g to d cid p n e ittin e e artially th p b m of w te e ro le ar reso rce d u s, eficit in Y en is th u g w ste g se h a of c mn a d o e em, e sin a a s, e t e e t n th r p n fu a s fo w te seas d sa a n O rcalcu n in ica d th t u g la ts, rn ce r a r e lin tio. u latio s d te, a sin th w ste g se of th se p n p rm to receive a o t 2 0kg (2108L) fre e a as e la ts e its b u.1 8 sh w te inye r. If w ta ein a u t, th tits n ar a e k to cco n a ecessarytosp n 1 3 L ofw te ed 0 ar fo g w g1 k ofw e t, sofo g in a o n ofw te b in u dfo irrig n r ro in g h a re o g mu t a r, e g se r atio, will p rm tog w200to n sofw e t.

e it ro n e ha T e o e d ctio of co p n tin th fre w te d h th r ire n m e sa g e sh a rs eficit- is w te ar e tra n o t of a o h ric air. C n e se of d re t ty e a u dfo th x ctio u tm sp e o d n rs iffe n p re se r is p rp se Mth d of o ta in th fresh w r o t of a o h ric air co sists in uo. eo b in g e ate u tm sp e n fact, th t m istu a so tio o t of air ta e p d rin its b w g th u h a o re b rp n u k s lace u g lo in ro g so e t, w ichre rn m istu a h a ga dfo w gco d n tio ofv p u rb n h tu s o re t e tin n llo in n e sa n a o r, a dd b th t as so e ts it's u dm rial, co p sin ofp ro s mtrixa d n iffers y a rb n se ate mo g o u a n h g sco ic su sta ce p ce in p re As p ro s mtrix a u d in rg n y ro p b n, la d o s. o u a re se o a ic o id ca o so e ts, p lym rs, n tu l so e ts, p ro s mtals, p ro s x es, rb n rb n o e a ra rb n o u e ou co p site a m tu s of o e a h ro p su sta ce a p m o s re ix re n s, s yg sco ic b n re laced in p re os in rg n salts, th m tu s, th so tio sa dth crystallin h d te o a ic eir ix re eir lu n n eir e y ra s.

A this, h a gth so e to th sta eofw te d so tio is b in fulfilled t e tin e rb n n e g a r e rp n e g tote p ra re 5 -8 "C a th e p n ofu gth so o electric e e ya d me tu 0 0 t e x e se sin e iar r n rg n d re t d iffe n iesels, h a also a d te p ra re in th co d n r is su p rte n a e t, n m e tu e n e se po d er e v n e tte p ra re n iro mn m e tu.

Wte a o n w ichmyb receivedo tofa o h ricair, d p n so th a r mu t, h a e u tm sp e eed n e n x facto te p ra re a d h m ity of e v n e t air, te p ra re of et rs: m e tu n u id n iro mn m e tu co d n g su n e sin rface, v lu e of air, p g th u h th sy m of m istu om assin ro g e ste o re co d n tio. It is e id n th t a n e e t ofd n e sa n v e t, a rra g mn evices ofw te e tra no t of a r x ctio u air is e p d n o th t te ry, w ichis ch ra rize b h hrelativeh m ity x e ie t n a rrito h a cte d y ig u id ofair.

In this co n ctio w h v trie to reveal d p n e c of airs relative ne n e ae d e e d ne h m ityvalu u o localityh ig t o e se levee(E). T en x relatio sh w s u id es p n e h vr a h et n ip a re e le a re lt:

v a d s su RH=9 - 6,61n(E) 1 (1 ) N=28;

r=0,76;

r2 =0,58;

FP=3,9 FT=4,21;

FPFT= 5 /, As q o dfro p se te fo u, relative h m ity ofair re u s linearly u te m re n d rm la u id d ce w in ith creasin th n tu l lo a mofterrito h ig t o e se level (inh ig t g e a ra g rith rys e h v r a eh in terval of5 to2 0 m m 5 0 ).

O ta e resu h a s toco clu na o t e p d n ofd b in d lt e d n sio b u x e ie cy evices, p gfo lacin r w te e tra no tofairo th te rie lo te ra e low o e sealevel, fo a r x ctio u n e rrito s ca d th r ly v r r in n inth re io ofM ch (E =5 ).

sta ce e g n o a m Wte d a r eficit co p n tio in Y m n m yb realizedalso o th b se of m e sa n e e a e n ea p g ssiv irrig n w Freckling irrig n is m st p rsp ctiv a o g ro re e atio ays. atio o e e e mn d re t irrig n w (su iffe n atio ays rface, sp k g, a ro l m iste in, su te n a, rin lin e so o n g b rra e n treicklin ). Frecklin irrig nis th lo irrig nw ridofm ro o g te g g atio e cal atio ith ie -flo d a s, irrig tio d o p rs). Freckling irrig tio h s a a v n g o e o e ty e of a n epe a n a n d a ta e v r th r p s irrig tio. It su a s su cea dsp k girrig na p in ofw te e n m.

a n rp sse rfa n rin lin atio t o t a r co o y At irrig n th co atio, e efficien of u l w te u t sefu a r tilizatio is d te in d a n e rm e s relatio sh b tw e w te a o n a ilate b p n a d w te a o n n ip e e t a r mu t, ssim d y la t, n a r mu t, e p n e o w te g The in e a n sh wth t th valu co p se a o t x e d d n a rin. v stig tio s o a is e m o s b u 95%a tricklingirrig tio a d45% tsu ceirrig tio.

t a nn -a rfa an In 2 0 year 3.1 5 0 m ofw te w e p n e o irrig ninR u lic.

00 4 -1 9 3 a r as x e d d n atio ep b P ssa e to tricklin irrig n allo s sa in a o t 1 5 -1 9 m of w te in ag g atio w v g b u.6 5 0 3 ar a rd n w o rcal relatio s.

cco a ce ith u n A n al p cip tio s a o n in Y m n R u lic (V r.= 5. 1 9 m/y a n u re ita n mu t e e ep b p 1 0 3 e r) e ce d a n a w te n m tio s v lu e (V n 3 1 9 m/y a to x e s n u l a r-co su p n o m co s=.4. 0 3 e r) tim s: M re v r. V e of a n a d a e v lu e (V is= 3 m /y a is e o o e alu n u l isch rg o m d.3 3 e r) co mn ra lew w te n m tio v lu e (V n V =1 M st p rt of m e su b ith a r-co su p n o m co s/ dis ). o a falling o t p cip tio s is e p n e o e a o tio, so e a o n fills u u re ita n x e d d n v p ra n m mu t p u d rg u dw te reserves, p rt is flo in d w th R S th GulfofA e n e ro n a rs a w g o n e ed ea, e dn a dth A ianS a n e rab e.

In o ro in n th q a tityofth flo in d w p cip te myb re u d u p io, e u n e w g a n re ita s a e d ce essen tially b in y stallatio of reservo u d r e rth su ce (u d r, ro n n irs n e a rfa ne ud reservo filledw w te irs, ith a r).

B g of lo asin calities fo in r stallatio of filled reservo w carried o t in n irs as u se e sta e A v ral g s. nalysis ofrainp cip te d u no e Y m nte ryw s re ita s istrib tio v r e e rrito a carried o t o th first sta e A une g. nalysis testified th t th la e p cip tio s, a e rg st re ita n q a tity falls in th w st m u ta o s p rt of Y m n A un e e o n in u a e e. nalysis ofp cip tio s re ita n v lu e w in year w carried o t o th se n sta e A o m ith as u n e co d g. nalysis resu a lts re e id n ofirreg larv lu eoffallin p cip tio s d rin year. For in n th v e ce u om g re ita n u g sta ce e g a stp cip tio sa o n falls inTaiz'zinApril (1 2 m )M (216.4m ), re te re ita n m u t 5.2 m ay m July(2 4 m ), A g st(1 1 m )a dS p m e (1 0 m ).

1.5 m u u 8.9 m n e te b r 8.5 m Analysis ofto o ra h l ca ofY enw fulfilledo th th sta e th p g p ica rd em as n e ird g, is ca co ta s h rizo ta iso es, in icatin lo n of d re t territo o e rd n in o n l -lin d g catio iffe n ries v r se level. Its a p th t th scale of o r to o ra h card of Y m n a ity, a e u p g p ic ee (1:1000000) d n allo to calcu exactly d n b twe vad (o t d d id t w late ista ce e e n i u rie rive e s).

r-b d N ve e ss, th e n ofp p se id a is e clo d in th in e rth le e sse ce ro o d e n se e stallatio of n filledreservo a n vad w e th minflo ofth rainp cip tio s inR irs lo g i, h re e a w e re ita n ed se ta e p ce A u ts h s sh w, th t p a k s la. cco n a o n a ractical realizatio of su a p a n ch p ro ch allo stog th rveryg a a o n ofth rainp cip tio s(T le w ae re t mu t e re ita n ab ).

T le9 Rainp cip tio s v lu e th tm yb g th re b u d rg u d ab. re ita n o m, a a e a e d y n e ro n fillingreservo inth w stp rtofY m n irs e e a ee B k 2 M -a n a ru o m M -a n a ru o m asin, m Viad id n u l n ff, m id n u l n ff, H ra ad,7 0 6.0 10. 2 Mr aw 71,9 2 2. 0 1 2 -1 6.2 S rd d uu 27,3 0 2. 8 6.5 8 -1 Raim 25,2 0 4. 4 99. 2. Zb a id 43,6 2 1 5 -1 2.1 R asyan,9 0 1.3 2 -1 6. T bn ua 56,0 0 1 9 -1 0.3 21. 406 1. Rwab a ir a an 2. 7 1 8 -1 6.6 6, Awh ar 61,4 9 1. 1 7.6 0 -1 80,3 0 1. Ahn daa 8.2 7 -1 A d on m /D a 3. 65,5 3 2.3 0 -1,5 Al A yn 6.4 9 -1.6 Sarr,5 0 3 -1.0 1. 4. BinAli 702 3 -1.2 Ju y a a mh 706 06.7 -1 1. 58,4 5 7. Id im 41.M 6O Thibi 781 1 -1.9 2. 241 m.6 m T tal 6,5 9k ' o 56 m 9 8 -1 6 9.7 0 m P aryd tafo calcu n w reb rro e of(JacA M V n e G n 2 0 ), rim a r latio s e o w d.. a dr u, 0 As fo w fro p se te d ta realizatio ofp p se p ject will allowto llo s m re n d a, n ro o d ro g th r a o t 09 m of rainp cip tio, th t will a o n to a o t 29,4%of a e bu re ita n a mu t b u m d mw te co su p ninY enR u lic(3 -1 9m/y a o e a r n m tio em ep b.4 0 3 e r).

A p je gth filledreservo it is n t ro ctin e irs ecessarytop a n ntom im m ay tte tio in u e p n itu ofniEtsrisls (co x e d re ncrete, fe -co cre 2n soo ).

rro n te d n Let filled reservo h s th fo of o e cylin er. A mn fa rin th ir a e rm p n d t a u ctu g e reservo m te l g e tomk w a db tto ofreservo If r-rad s ofb ir a ria o s a e alls n o m ir. iu asis a dh n -reservo h ig t, th n su of b a a a d sid su ce of cylin er is irs e h e m asis re n e rfa d e p sse b th n x x re d y e e t:

F =7 +2 rh ra (1 ) C erv lu eVis equal:

ylind o m V=7tr2h (1 ) Exclu ingh w receive:

d,e F =7 +2V /r (1 ) Taske n co sists in fin in fo g e cylin er v lu e su ma in r, w e sse ce n d g r iv n d o m ch e n g h n su ce F w u b m im m D re tia g(1 ) w re e tor a de u tin rfa o ld e in u. iffe n tin 1 ith sp ct n qa g first d riv tiv tozero w relieve :

eae,e d /d =2 - 2 /r2= F r ftr V (1 ) Then:

23 =2V (1 ) As h=V/2 (1 ) S fro th w fin :

o m is e d h=r (1 ) S fara se n d riv tiv o s co d e a e d /d =2+4 /r 2F r2 V (1 ) is p sitive, th na h r su cereservo will b m im m o e t = rfa ir e in u.

Ino e w rd th la e e n m ofm rialswill b a ie e inth tcase, th r o s, e rg st co o y ate e ch v d a w e reservo h ig twill b e u l itsrad s. Inth ca reservo v lu ewill b hn ir e h e qa iu is se ir o m e e u l:

qa V =3rh=TT t2 C (1 ) O r r =h=(V /jr)1/3 (2 ) Forillustratio w p se tth calcu nresu ofso efillingreservo fo n e re n e latio lts m irs r so e vad b in ch ra rize b larg st, md m a d le st flo of rain m i e g a cte d y e e iu n a w p cip tio (T le 9). In p se te calcu n w to k in a u t flo re ita n ab re n d latio s e o to cco n w v lu eo ly, b td n ta ein a u td a v lu eoffillingreservo o m n u id t k to cco n e d o m ir.

T le9 D e sio sofu d rg u drulingreservo fo so e:ivadf ab. im n n n e ro n irs r m Vi ad V lu eofru o m om n ff, 3 H ig t=rad s, m eh iu Ba an 1 8 -1 6.6 Z id ab 15 O 2.M Idim 41.M O A d on m /D a 2.3 0 -1 Rasyan 1.3 2 -1 BinAli 3 -1.2 0 P se te resu of calcu n sh w th t lin d e sio s of filling re n d lts latio s o a ear imn n reservo a veryla eind p n e c offlo v lu e S e in ly inth secases irs re rg e e d n e w o m. e m g, e it is n ecessary to p a n vad a n m e of filling reservo w lesser lace lo g i u b r irs ith d e sio s. In co m ncase, relatio sh b twe reservo d e sio s (h ig t, imn n mo n ip e e n ir imn n e h rad s)a dflo v lu eis d scrib db n x fo u (Fig re6):

iu n w o m e e y e t rm la u r=h=5,9 V +4 8 -ln fl. 4 (2 ) A in t stallatio offillingreservo p b mofp v n gth lo ofw te n irs ro le re e tin e sses a r a th e p n ofe a o tio is verya al. A p se t, mind ctio ind cid g t e x e se v p ra n ctu t re n a ire n e in th co sid re p b mis d sedra e clearly, it is ad fe seofw te su ce e n e d ro le isclo th r en a r rfa a a ofch ical re g n d ssb go e w te su ce o e fo sth film t id em a e ts: istre alin v r a r rfa, n s rm e, h d rin th e a o tio. T e m st effective of o e w re hlexad (cetyl) in e g e v p ra n h o ns e lcyl (C16H H a do ta e (C H H a h ls a dits m tu s. It a v n g s 33O ) n k -d cyl ig 37O ) lco o n ix re d a ta e a th n x sim licity of p g u th p te e layer, a se ce of to ic re e e t: p ilin p e ro ctiv bn x p p rtie co p riv easy ofaccess. C a h ls filmo th w te is in le ro e s, m a e etyl lco o n e a r visib n a b d e t ch n eh rta, co u a dsm A e r y, o sn a g e ste lo r n ell. nalysis d e t d ver tho sn isco e p se ceofcetyl alco o inw te p te db itsfilm re n h l a r, ro cte y.

400 E ------------------------- * x:

o II C 5 n.. -........

0 0,02 0,04 0,06 0,08 0,1 0,12 0,1 4 0,16 0, volume o f runoff, km Fig re6. R latio sh b twe rad s(h ig t, m ofu d rg u dfilling u e n ip e e n iu e h ) n e ro n reservo a dca g tflo v lu e k ir n u h w o m, m O ly 1 ofalco o is re u dth o tically fo mk gth u in rru te n lg h l q ire e re r a in e n te p d film of cetyl alco o o e u it su r of o e h c re (1 0 x 1 0 ). T n tiv h l v r n rfe n e ta 0 0 m e ta e e a n of ce l a h l a o n n ce ry fo w te su ce co e g in stimtio ty lco o mu t, e ssa r a r rfa, v rin a re e tio e filling reservo sh w th t it varies sin 5 0 to 1 g fo mn n d irs, o s, a ce 0 g (T le 1 ).

ab T le 1. Cetyl alco o a o n fo p v n gth w te e a o tio o tof ab 1 h ls mu t r re e tin e a r v p ra n u fillingreservoirs T e re m i-n h o tical in ecessarya o n of mu t S rfa ofreservo u ce ir, Vi ad h cta e re cetyl alco o g h l, 4. 5 Bn aa 3. 6 Zb a id 1. Idim A d on m /D a 1. 1 Rasyan 8.0 3.2 BinAli Ju y a a mh 1. G eralizin th resu ofo rcalcu n sh w th trealizatio ofp p se en g e lts u latio s o s a n ro o d ma re o co p n tio of th fresh w rs d e su s n m e sa n e ate eficit allo s to p d ce w ro u a d n llya dtosa ea o t2.9 x 1 9 3of w te (T le 1 ).


d itio a n v bu 0m a r ab T le 1. P p se ma re o d v lo mn ofw te su p ab 2 ro o d e su s n e e p e t a r p ly inR u licofY mn ep b e e _ P d ce ad itio a o sa e ro u d d n lly r v d Ma re e su s v lu eofw te om ar T sfertotrick girrig tio ran lin an 1 -1 9m.7 0 Mu tofu d rg u dfillingre rv irs o n n e ro n se o 1 -1 9m.0 0 U tilizatio ofc mn p n w steg se n e e t la ts a a s 0 -1 9m.2 0 In lla n of h d sta tio elio istil-lers of se w te in a ar 2.3- 0 m 16 S n, Taiz'z, H d y a aa oad T ta ol 2 -1 9m.9 0 Conclusions 1 O e of sh rp st p b m in Y en R u lic is th secu of n tio a.n a e ro le s em ep b e rity a n l e n m a dd msticn e sofp p la nb fre w te co o y n o e e d o u tio y sh a r.

2 A p se t Y m n R u lic is ch ra rize b h h te p of n tu l. t re n e e ep b a cte d y ig m s a ra p p la nin o u tio crease (4.1% lo electric p w r availab p r mn(1 ), w oe ility e a 5. k t.h slig t p cip tio, a o n (o th a e g u o R u lic- n t W, h re ita n mu t n e v ra e p n ep b o m re th n 1 0 min ye a d a se ce of lan s su ce w te Q ick o, a 0m ar) n b n d rfa a rs. u p p la n in o u tio crease a d e n m d v lo mn in th se co d n n co o ic e e p e t e n itio s in sifiesw te sh rta eall tim, th tth a n b w te h n e ten ar o g e a re te s y a r u g r.

3 D am ofelectric e e y p d ctio inY enR u licis ch ra rize. yn ic n rg s ro u n em ep b a cte d b a p cia lein y p re b crease sin 1 6 year (1 -1 6k t-h to1 9 year (1 5 ce 9 7 7 0 W ) 94 1 6kW ) a db sh rpd cre seinth fo w gye (2 0 0 k t.h in 0 t.h n y a e a e llo in ars 4 -1 6 W 1 9 year). T at lim sh rp so g th p b mof w te su p b 99 h its a ly lvin e ro le a r p ly y d sa a nofth seaw te a dmu tofh d tech ical co stru n fo e lin tio e a rs n o n y ro n n ctio s r g th rin ofrainp cip tio a ditsfo w gtra sp rta n ae g re ita n n llo in n o tio.

4. Wte e n m b la ce of R u lic of Y en co sistin of re ip a a r co o ic a n ep b em, n g ce t-p rt (p cip tio ) a d e p n p rt (in re ita n n x e se a filtratio, e a o tio, clim flo, n v p ra n atic w co su p n is ch ra rize b th n x valu p cip tio n m tio ), a cte d y e e t es: re ita n 5.1 9 3 ar, in 1 0m/ye filtratio - 5.1.109 3 e r, e a o tio - n m/y a v p ra n 7,7.10 m/y a 3 er flo -3 0n y a co su p n 3.4.109 3 e r. N g tiv w te w.3.1 9 rV e r, n m tio - m/y a e a e a r e n m b ce(-8.5.109 3 e r) is e id n ofn co o ic alan m/y a v e ce ecessityinma re o e su s n co p n tio ofw te d m e sa n a r eficit.

5 For co p n tio of w te secu. m e sa n a r- ritys d eficit it is necessary to w rk o t ou co p xofte n lo ie sa tech o g m le ch o g s, fe n lo ically.

6 For co p n tio of th fre w te d. m e sa n e sh a rs eficit in Y en R u lic it is em ep b n ce e ssary tom u t so d o n lar istillers of seaw r, tou th w ste g se of ate se e a a s c mn a do e p n fo d sa a nofseaw te b d e e t n th r la ts r e lin tio a r y istillatio mth d n e o, tom u tth fillingreservo a n vad fo g th rin th rainp cip tio, on e irs lo g i r a e g e re ita n to u w co d n rs o t of a o h ric air, to g o to trickling se ater n e se u tm sp e o ver irrig na dtomk a d n lp rificatio ofse a e atio n a e d itio a u n wg.

7 G in o totrickling irrig tio will allo to sa e a o t 1 5 1 9m of. o g ver an w v b u.6 5 0 w te a r.

8 A n a p cip tio a o n in Y enR u lic e ce d v lu eofa n a. n u l re ita n mu t em ep b x e s o m n u l w te co su p n in 1 tim s (5 -1 9 m/y a a d 3 -1 9 3 e r a r n m tio 5 e 1 0 3 e r n.4 0m/y a acco in ly), in rd g stallatio o m iu ngreservo w a o g rn r a o i nr e u irs in u w a e o u t , 11, ,1 *11 H i 1 i 1109 3 e rofrainp cip tio, th tco sists a o t3 %ofm d rnv te m/y a re ita n a n bu 0 o e /a r co su p ninR u licofY m n n m tio ep b e e.

9. Larg e n m ofm te ls will b re ch din th t cases, w e cylin er est co o y a ria eae a hn d h ig tofth fillingreservo will b e u l itsra iu Ford cre sin ofw te eh e ir e qa d s. e a g ar e a o tio it is e p d n to ap ly h h alip atic a h ls o acid o v p ra n x e ie t p ig h lco o r s n su ofw r, gth re inreservo rfscc ate a e d ir.

1.A ach ice th co ce t ofp d cin th freshw te w u b carriedo t, 0 t o e n p ro u g e a r o ld e u co in fro local co d n w d ea u t ofo inw te p p rtie mg m n itio s ith u cco n rig a rs ro e s (seao a o h ricw r), ofe e yso rce in stru ree fo p rp se r tm sp e ate n rg u s, fra ctu tc. r u o ofp d cin th mx u e n m efficien ro u g e a im m co o ic cy.

References 1- (2 0 ) P b m of ratio al w te 0 2 ro le s n a r Al-Mureish Khalid Abdo Saeed Ali co su p n a d co tro of w te re u s in Y m n In th mn g p :

n m tio n n l a r so rce e e. e o o ra h H rical g o co g a d evo tio a g o ra h. Ed b E.M N ste isto e e lo y n lu n ry e g p y ited y. e r o a SPG E ig h P. 1 -1.

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4- Al-Mureish Khalid Abdo Saeed A li, Frumin G.T. (2 0 ) P b m ofw te 0 6 ro le s a r secu in Y en R u lic. Lectu th se of A em co n RSM rity em ep b res, e s cad ic u cil U (2 -2 Jan a of2 0 y.). S b RSH U P.l 1 -1 5 6 u ry 0 6 p.: M, 2 1.

5 Al-Mureish Khalid Abdo Saeed Ali, Frumirt G.T. (2 0 ) Wte cu - 0 6 a r-se rity p b m in Y en R u lic: M d m sta a d w of sa a n SP.:

ro le em ep b oe te n ays lv tio // b sch larlytra sa n ofRSH U p 3 -1 o n ctio s M, 2,.1 6 5.

6 Al-Mureish Khalid Abdo Saeed Ali (2 0 ) B g th co p x of w te - 0 7 asin e m le a r se rity te n lo ie sa eco g cu ch o g s, fe lo ically, in Y m n R u lic. C n id te e e ep b a d a d rta n SP.: R M.

isse tio. b SH U 7 Larg e cy p d ofCyril a dM d (2 0 ) (Electro V n).

- e n clo e ia n efo ija 0 3 n ersio 8 Dmitriev VV, Frumin G.T. (2 0 ) Ecologic re u tio a d stab of th - 04 g la n n ility e n tu l sy m S b Scien a ra ste s. P.: ce.

9 Quiver V. (2 0 ) W G rmn h lp totu Y m n to p sp rin co n.

- 0 0 ill e a s e rn e e ro e g u try G rmn w W W w o.d e a y ave. W.d.-w rld e 1 - Kotljakov V.M., Losev K.S., Suetova LA. (1 9 )En ye clo reinte ry 0 9 5 erg n su rrito.

As eco g in ica r. - P ce d g of th A e y of Scien se lo ic d to ro e in s e cad m ces, r.

G o ra h., N. 3, p 0 e g p y o.7 -7.

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n 1 - Numan Salim (1 9 ) Evalu 2 98 ation of w te re u s of w Y mn a r so rce est e e.

C n id ted rta n SP.: RSH U a d a isse tio. b M.

1- P 3 ractical g id -b o o 9 co n sofw rld(1 9 ) IN.

u e o k n 7 u trie o 9 0.: TO 1 - Tolokontsev N.A. (1 9 ) T xico g of h d sp e / M ical scien 4 9 1 o lo y y ro h re / ed ces a _ J - _ T T c o n j p T - i i \ t. i _ n *in Ataucmy ui uic uoojy ouucuii, iN.i, p.jj-.

1 - Frumin G.T., Al-Mureish Khalid Abdo Saeed Ali (2 0 ) Th d n m of 5 0 5 e y a ics a th p g n in en u o territo ofR u licofY en M n ro o e ic flu ce p n ry ep b em. aterials ofthe in rn tio a scientificco fe n o 2 -2 ofM 2 0 y. SP.: RSH U P te a n l n re ce n 5 7 ay 0 5 b M,.

5 -5.

1 - Frumin G.T., Al-Mureish Khalid Abdo Saeed Ali (2 0 ) Wte of sa a n 6 0 6 a r lv tio // SeaB lletin N 4(2 ). P. 5 -5.

u.. 0 1 - Jac A. M. Van der Gun (2 00 Lectu N te O H ro g Of Y m n 7 0) re o s n yd lo y e e .

S n aJu e2 0.

aa n 1 - Kamel Mostafa Amer & Waleed K. Al-Zubari (2 0 ) T e N e fo 8 0 6 h ed r D atio a dW r R se a N n o v n n l Wte R u in th esalin n n ate eu s o -C n e tio a a r eso rces e A ian P n su In b o : Policy P rsp ctiv s fo Eco rab e in la. ok e e e r system a d Wte n ar Mn g mn in th A ian P n su. U itedN tio s U aae et e rab e in la n a n niversity, p. 1 p 0 1.

1 - Salem M. Bin Gadhi & Mohammed A. Mukbel (1 9 ) Areviewofre e a le 9 98 n wb e e yactivities in Y en/ R n w ib En y, V 1, N. 1, p. 4 n rg em / e e a le erg ol. 4 o -4 p 5 6.

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A j.^ j Lj^Jak.U tiil^ L - a h ^ j d l j j J Igjfc 5 j J ^ 3 A jjJ h j j AL mjiil otll aa jIjaII d a i*J d ua ALiaLliljSqa LiltlJ^ jl^J a mI a I ill La uLlt iL lu u J j jau _ - jill a| A jjia _ ^ ll ^ j l i 4]1 _^!1 ( L ijA jS il* A j^iJa C - J j i l l J^U iil V l ^ ^ ( ^ i ! l j A I^jui d au ll ^ iLlt ^ a tc-t d a 4 t a jl_ o| fJil Uil jbiLll ^] ^ ^ ^ L jjll 4u1 t 4lClLa ^Ua -jS oLlo1 -.Ll pclt c- l^A A j-a L a ll jI ja I I ts lc. p lb j. A jj jL l^ L Ila ^ e j i j A jjx ^ iC. ^5 L # V ( aUI ^ lu (Jyjk(jc A 4.jj 8 -5 t ** S J.Ij^ it. jjla 0 0 -c ^. UII Jl aa UB oa A j!j i J (JA ( j j j C ilSL eJl S jij^ Lu3jlj i UjIjj11 51]^! ^u b ftu it.aaa ] SjljaJl UJ-ll jJ iJ a a p il 4j b j j , a^ll ljg J j\j2A\ 4 jJ ;

^ - ˱5 p ll (A jlc (jt i- H -U^ll A S ic lj^ J l^ - J ^k jS 3 ! ja ^al.IprU '. U ft L^5 (J a qa f JSJ* -3 1 L - Kll ^.

1 _ A ailtAjjiajil J-U ^jJ ^L a ^ jaJl QA flw (j-a ^ lAI^AJ L 1a Jiil jn jjb u ^ l JUII t J L la J ^^jt l j& J i ^iajjj ijjiuiA (jjS 3^11 ( j* (R H ) AaluuII Aja ^- aJjLxa U lij JiS i AjII111 Au ^3j a jjll jU ;

1 (E ) R H = 91 - 6,6-ln(E ) (1 0 ) N = 28 ;

= 0,7 6 ;

r2 = 0,5 8;

F P = 3 5,9 F T = 4,2 1 ;

FP/ F T = 8, A a ^I^II ^ jl! ^ A ila e b ^ tiljlaA ul!

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u j i 5 j^ a ijJ U t ^ j l i ^ S ^ a ij A ijb J ^ a i O ci^ * U* J VJc- AWljAa ja SILt^ ^t - b ] Is jll e ( 2 aa A^t I jL ^ll UII ad ^ lt d J ^^11djU((J lc) Ul 1 ^ ll ^-.au jO d x L ll S u jJ Z 95 J l^ M l a^A d ilu ilj^ li ^ ju jj J c - * U ll ( jU jlj ( djU U ilt jlu u / /1 5 eLuJ, ^ J a iu ll / t il 1,,1 VI ( uJktiBjU -- y v -- '- *'* 1iMu4 ^UU ^ 1irti ^it f ZU 1/\ :, H.il to 1 li *. *" 1 t. z Ju ti fl H *V -V l ( 1 t 1? 3 ^ 1. tl l L$J*' J U U U J 1 U 4U LU CkJ b a j j. (JA Jf (je3^fc 1,6 5 5.1 0 9 Jjj* J (A ill J 4J S jla1 9 1 V p r.) jU^ l iu * -a 0 5 aV c a b- ll A -a J ^ jjj^ al (jji ( (ilii J & (AAuJt ^ t-titS-ejile |0 -3*4 V e o n s) *11 ibu-sal (jia J a (& ^llij (A S JaJ ie ^ jc ;

A j j t i l l A ii U - e J l ^ jifb C jtJ a ljja ^ l Q=kE/L - kE/580, (8) jJl3j AlAilt Ul iu U t J&y* _ S(.Jjllj5Vji! 4 3 iV jk i! J ^V' - Q a iu.

( e^S1^ u j- a p jj 6 i*ii A al 4LS 5 0 L * -1 | ^1Sjj s -0 3 Jj5 f J -a 8 = lU " ^ ^ A 0 5-

o.pai LJ AJ i!

a& 04 Aa -u QA b o U ju lf 1 iL u t a J l d u l j J a u jla ( J jjS j (8 ) ^3 jU u l (Ja J Ab- lli_J. (J^ sJl ^to sc a Q = 0,5 9 3 - E (9 ) & j* J * Ci\j / A fr b jJt ^ -- E * f jfe ^ ji / jS l Q jI *j! (9 ) * 1 ^ J n m jI a I I jJa u ijflt lt ^ jja A io JI j i a j a ! ^ 3 j C jU I jj ^ I a x A u I jj i ( 9 ) .(5 t a h t l a 4 a A -*a ^ A u ^U.H ll p.j.u) jjull jjj$ Jl 9 ju jj jJ a itAi^aI / jilt l.u o j I^ ^ ^lu J] (^i A ^ d ll ^jill * jjjS lu yiV t? i.n ^ (jl ^ U% ^jjJI ^ * (J^** J & ^ a j I a jj ^ ** AJaLLlb ftluJl 4j]LjJ s Iaiui JaxII lb& ^.[1 9 9 A lj

k ^ 0 j2M *^* 3 *3 AMI.7 J a ju juI * i A il ^kt Sjaj ^3^ lid Ljajlj (IgviUj Ig jJt ll l^ j A at jlAJ Ll.jV citll Ul a Jl lLu jU Je ) i& g J ^ c_ljjc.j ia Ld A ^ Alu a O is llj t ajJ ja ^II jUS ( A tliljg li jilieil ju ^Ajg.

^.

1 A a e^ iUlb UJl 1^) 1] _^ ^ 1 AL l IAiaJA jJ 1 s tiU L^ ot ii^a AS njj Ac!^* 5 =** 1' 0^ ).( C jijtU S ) A jla d ll A jjjj- e a J l tA ^ L u ll aJ?V g rliS U ^ jiu iJ i J a m jla li,5.c K u il!

I ^ cj^juilt elu ^! AjI^jII Ail .1 1 ujluob AiiUi CiULuiaJt C J\ AiUe^bj _.J A^ (j^a auS B A ja u tjla l) ( j^ u L ^ a J l j^ A jc a II 1.**^.*;

1 l^ jb lii^. LaJuC -j _^1 j l ! ^ b t]l.(8 jiii 2 ~ ^jal! (jijitt til t-j^ui]! Lia ( ^ a d s b lA ^ IV A A e -ill A jj jg a1I ^ (jA a II 0 ^ 4 u jjju o II A jla lll A il L it-v l _g ( J jja J l S i 1 : ti I * r i ~ 7 ~I I *1 t ( V ^^luLa i *Jf V *]| O ^Jl...ll 2. /. 4 t _ o Ij Sa j V~- r JS ^ 1 0 4,8 1834293 3, a u jl 4 8,6 826672 3, 3 3,3 566569 3,4 j* u ij u i II sLu A aJU u (1 ) ^ oo fL 3.l qa Ull u. !1 Sit.]^ ^| (jjljSll t u a d u V - c A 11 jy ial jL l^ j jy. fib qa / 7 S*^ e ril 5 6^-- oaAJ 4tfCa -a jj A jJ A -a J L alaa -lt. J iS jjla I jjjg al b clluill t* u.n^il^jS Cy^ g U- t 4jL J a r ^ t^)^ A.ljjt ]i j - ^ AJ aI 5 _ jia a aI* A lL ll C liiilJ j& ^ jb 4* 1 ya _} t ^.

**( pt e 3" bij^ *^ v _ ! J\ i^e ^jlAai ^ 1 L j _ ^] itJJ\ jjJ i A u ]Ij Au J d & L jlj tA d c* j^u - Ijja! ilil^ ll iJa jjL l ( (a l * ( uo ja J! ^ 3 ^ull a a jJ j t cJ&JL\ (j* J 2. u 3 ^ ^ lA ?4 Ciljll ^ t jf ( bJd5 t A ^ a ltf^k Joljjs AIaI e A ^a (jjla ll (jl &!& *a i gi jSx uk jijjll jjJlla _U J J J iftj jjAail lia lil.^ ^Ija. ( i 4-1cj^alt ad^ i{ - iii j* Z ^^ ^uo ^ ( ^ ? U jlu ia J a - ll Au jliu ll S jjjj a ji 106-37.3 tK il 1_1*1 j l 10-45.6 (/I -X55 j ^ j * ^.m L j l 106-82.g jl l-3 ( aj- J (ijA ll euj* ^b l -a L ^ a ja^i (2) _aJo ouAila *^ 4 L1 1 L - j ^0 A J !^3i]S - (jLi^ ji daj ji*i ) j! jcIjlij J u jll ta } J. J t ll A j jt 4 U1 b (jc d & k oaA j.(.Z 2 (j! ci-^ L jia a1- A jla - jU ja iil U jla u j3 ^ j l -) ^ o e e Ull 1 t (1 ] ^ - 1(jJl (j-f ailc A _ Ijc jo JtU J.) jjlill J ^J u J J J i^.A Jjlall J i (J ^ lu llj A jjl u j^ lt jI ja I I t I u j j j A L n a a ll L lJ I A u lr u ) A jL u ! A ili^ A U ljU j 03j oo jla LAJ b 4(JUAjt y nx ^^llllt i ((J!lj, (J_ U) ju^jl L a } t t ) (J nJ (J ili ( jxxlj! j-a.( ^jll Aa ^ioUjSj (J ao jI Hg {M II S Jjls) {jA A lLJ jll ^ ci Jl jJa (jSlj iib ju jjS t AJ J * ^iL ^bt 1 A^^c ^ u ^u V ^j J. ju jjlir Ujdt l"v ji j* AJ ia) , ^ ^! ^ Jjjl) i ^aleJc- jIAII l,*Qp, ^ lfj^ t po J^y ph a jU aullj Llt )* ^e. i \ ^CLi^-J^L fU(ja ^s& L A Li (fMiP ) - _ iLa ca J l Jl a ltjt a Jt i V ^ ^a fJ ij (uliLi^ltji au ^u b.(4J^ll) if* bS (JJ** o A.jJ& (jv\ n jc- A ii S a UjjU lUi*s\U^* fjp. UJJ A la jjjjlil A ll a jj uit jlju jAIK a ^ S ^ lll a lijJa j^ S (-iJAiltAlla o w^*3i ^k 1^ uJC AjjIja, ili^Aa la ill A i J S ll ji^ ^3 la.^ la i J - lu -eli fb Ji ^ju (jJUJlU (!Ala J illt a aL (illjj 1 ^ jl (jc L ^ AueAju IIAUli^ - -ih jj ^^ ja m s a | 1 ^, |.. * ֻ1 || {jj^hn

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l) ja. oo Au 0 ^-il i jt i Jc-Vl ^ i^u J jj\ ll A iS A jo jiiut 3 u hl 9 J4 djljujiil tisij t Ull da tfS 4lJi\ J u-ix j l a 4.1 8 6 = oj^uw i ^2 0 2 5 J cjU 5jj]I t AiuJl ^ j l a 1 0 9.1 *38 = ^Ic- J l f 1990 ^le- Qa J Jb Jl a j\jail AjjIw IShuluJ olua. Ul CjWsjolt aifc.(7 ) ^S j J f jg u ua jV jb Jl J (j! Jj *U l jL uJ J t ^ JjVl jb*^J e J j* J ^II bJ ja (jjall t jU a*V l c J J 3* O* jb a J l Llu ( (jVl LH^ J ! (JiluU J 4^"^ U jlj^.. 1 J ]1 b lib lie jS l j ^ - A ju t jjjll U lla. ^ i j a J l J j ^ IS ll AaujII Ajjjg-aaJl (jjjLJi jjf jlill CjLball p.7 (Jjpikil jaJ| jjl^S aI. ijl A ju ili A o u ill AW, AW J f!

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A ^U ! 6^1* tA -e l*J l iA -e lxJi i* a a j t-JxS Laj& e 1990 2,8 1 0 9 1,3 - 1 0 9 3,7 - 1 0 9 - 2,4 - 1 0 2,0 - 1 0 9 - 0, - 1,4 1995 1 -1 0 9 4,0 - I 0 9 - 2,9 - 1 0 1,7 - 1 0 9 3,1 - 1 0 -1,9 2000 0,7 - 1 0 1,5 - 1 0 9 3,4 - 1 0 9 4,8 - 1 0 9 -4 -1 0 A jNA a J J ^ ju jjj^aI iLJI 4a C IajI. ^ iU clbxli (ja (Jiili ;

Jl5ll ( )*$ J 1 (JS jw L A A !! (jjall In j J (J-jfl&Jij j& * sw * ^ " * t J A jS t A jW j ( _ J ^ oU aII A a J I * ] ! tiA\ ( j'J f c W J jt ) A ji i i ^ J I e L u ll.(3 jIjjij d l^ j i ^ sjl f iU k.U ^ t*fjgy* *i r A 4 jJ A a J ( 3\\ (jy5-1 jS aI(J lt 3.(J ja j.Ul jjj a1 ^ -1 A^J jl& S II ^ ( jjijS ll ( jla je j t - jlu ia. A j L qJ iI A j j j ^ - a a J l e l x a J l C j t a L u l -\ j c -|j S ( jja u jju d b i !j$l i)A jj*- *ja.j Sjjil (jlijV!) eLuJl (CjIjIjjI) lull Jjtjua (jjj bSl A -s J.uaill tjjljSlI (JjUu j l l iii j Sjja. ;

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