, , ,

<<


 >>  ()

- 2008

:

,

:

:

.

- 2008

-

-

. -

( ) -

- -

.

.

2....................................................................................................5 1.

1.1.

...........................................8 1.2.

........................ 1.3.

..................... 1.4.,............................ 1.5.

........................ 1.6.

.............................. 2.

2.1.

............................ 2.2.

............................ 2.3.,....................................... 2.4.

............................ 2.5.

.................. 2.6.

................................... 2.7.

.......................................................................................................................... [1, 3],,,.

,,.

,,.,, (,.). [34, 7 8;

67, 144-145],...

,. [46, 124],.,,,,. 1992 ( ) :,,,,,, . [361, 386],,,.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,. [340, 112], - 20,.

, 4-5.,,,.,,,,,,,. [19, 23-25],, .

,,. ?,,,,, ),,,-,,,,,,.

,,,.

1.1.

1949, , .,, :. [195, 46-49] 2,, ,,, ;

,., -.,, ).,.4.. [49, 76-77],,,,,,,.

?

, ,,,,.,,, .

,,,. [205, 279],, ?

,,,,.,, 3314 14 1974.[372, 199] [398],, opinio juris,. [344, 113] ,.,,,,,, (,,, ). [85, 33],,,,,.,.

,,,,,.

..,,,,. [104, 34;

145, 66], I,,, ..4.1 I,,., ,,,,. [85, 41].

.

. 3,, II, .

. 3, , .,,.

:

(, 1998 );

( 1997, 1999 );

,. 70- ).

,.3, ., ,.,. ,,,,,., 3,, . [74, 592-593] travaux preparatoires,, : , ,,,, [103, 34-35].,, ,,,., ., .,,,, 3,,. [335, 225],,.3,,,, 3,. [104, 83],,,,. [379] II, 3.

: II 1977, 3,.

1 II,,. : ;

., 1977 II,. [379, 63] II,.,, ;

, ,,,, . [74, 594], II,,.3,.,.3 II 1977, 3. [309, 68],,, II 1977.

,,,, II . [362, 17], II 1977,. [291, 23] travaux preparatoires II,,,., 1 II, ,,.

,,, .

, 3.

, ?

,,,.3 II,,,,,. [85, 45;

160, 33-35;

167, 58-59;

200, 220].1.1 II,,,.,, II,.,,.2.1,,,, 3 II. [377, 66] -,,,,, , ,,,,,. [379, 68-69] , . [363, 18], 3, .

.3,,,, : I 1977 , . [363] 1949., 3 ,, . [145, 74-75] 3,,.

, :., -. [21],,,.,.

, VII,.. (,, ),. [103, 35;

292, 62-63],.,,,,,.

1.2.

,,.,,. [274, 29] 90- XX,, 2., 90%,. [241],, 5%.

48%. 90%,. [242, 204-207].

,,,,.

,,,., - ?

, ?,,,, ?

, :, 7 -, -,,., 20%,,,,, ;

,. IV,,. [27, 135],. -,,.

:) ;

),.,,,.

-.

,,,,.

,,.,, , 1762 :,,,,.,.,, . [241, 310-311],,.

. 1864 I,.,.. 1899 I.

1907.

,. 1929.

,,,. 1949, IV.,,,,,,,. [349, 134],, -,.

.

1864, - 1948..

.

:,,.. [26, 147],,,,.,.

,,.

. " ",,, ;

" ",, 1907, ;

.

.

-,. [140, 541-542].

, 1974 1977, 1949. I. II,, ,,,, ;

,,,, . [379, 298],,,,,.,,,,,. ",,,, ". [83, 55 56].

, :,,,.

..

,,,,. [79, 155-157].,,,..,.,,.

,,.,,,,.,,.,,. [132, 66;

151, 200-203]."

, " 1984 28, ",,, " (. 1(1)). [162, 88].., I.,.,",,,,,, ", 75 ",, ". [176, 567],.

,,,,.,,.

,,,.

"...

, " ", :, . [145, 34-35] 1.3.,,..

1907, IV,I II 1977. [178, 496] 51 I, , .

[384, 34-35],.

95%, - 5%, 52%, 48%.

:

16, - 84%;

10 90%, 95%.

,,,,.,,,,.

,,.

,,.,, 15-,., 18-,.,,,,. [141, 88-89]., :,,,,,,., :,,,,.,,. [165, 106],,. :, ;

, ;

,,,, ;

,,. [156, 544;

174, 255-257],, (. 51 I).

,, ( ),.

..

,,,,.,,,,,,,,,, (. 18-20 IV).

,,,..,.

.,.

,,..,,,,,,,. [185, 77;

241, 25-27],,.

,,.

,,,.

, ( )..

.

:,, ;

;

,,, ;

,,. [283, 34-35],,..

,.

,.

,,..

,,,,,,,,. [290, 122].

,,,,.

.,,,.

,.

,,,,,. [300, 21-23],, IC,,.

,,.

,,.

.

,,,.

,. [306, 177].

,. IV, I II 1977.

.

. [326],.

,,.

.

,,,. :, 50% 30 ;

2. ;

.

,.,.

.

,. [342, 330-334].,,.

,.

,,.

(. 140 IV),,,,.

,,,.

,.,.,,,,.. :

- ;

-,,,, ;

- ;

- ;

- ;

-,,, ;

- ;

-.

.,., ( ). 15-,.

,. [115, 37;

131, 99-102] 1.4.,, :

1), ;

2), ;

3),,, ;

4) ;

5),, ;

6), ;

7) ;

8),, ;

8-1),,, ;

9),,,, ;

10) ;

11),,, ;

12),,, ;

13), ;

14) ;

15) ;

16), -. [149, 284-285;

160, 44-47;

171, 66], -,, 2 I: ,,, . [180, c.19-20;

181, c.200],,, ( 1980 I-IV). [7;

10],, :

-,,,, ;

-,,, ;

-,,, II, ;

-,, II, ;

-,,,,. [182, 445-446],., (. 3. 35,. 55 I, 1976 ).

, 3 I,,,, [180, 20],.

1 1976 ,,,, . [379, 3-4],,, (, ), 2 136.

,, (, ).

,,, -,.

,,,,,.

3 136,,,,,,,. (.. 38-44 I,. 41-43 II,. 18-22 IV,. 8, 9, 12, I).

1 2 I ,, , ,,,,, .

,,,.,,,,, (..3 4. 49,. 53 I).

- 54 I. 2, ,,,,,,,,,....

,,. 2 20 1989 ( 2 77 I.,, :,,, 15-,,,, .

5 136, 15,.,,.

, 15-, (.5. 136),,. 132)., 5 136,,, 132,,. [69, 33;

102, 111-112],, 50 I, 51 II, 147 IV. ( ),,. 53 IV, ,,,,, .,, : (.. 33, 34, 50 I,. 57 IV ),, (. 53, 55, 56, IV 1907,.. 4,. 1. 14 1954 );

, (. 46,. 2. 53 ), (. 18 III ), (. 97 I ).

-, (.1. 59,. 1. 60 I). d 3 I.

2 59 I ,, , :

), ;

b) ;

c), ;

d) .

,,. [78, 36-37] 8 136, ,,,,,,,,, .

.

,.

8, 4 1954 II. 6 II 1999,, 2 4,, :

;

-, .

,,, 8 136,,,. 2 42 205 212, 344, 346, 8 136.

6 ( ).

,, 8 136, , d 6, 7 II 1999.[163, c.55],,,.,. 12 II,,. b d 1 15 II 1999.[164, 233-234],,,,., I,., ,,,,,,,, .

,,, I,,,,. [321, 71-72] (,,,,, ;

.).

,,,,,,,. 137),, 138, 9 136 137 138. [175, 79-80],.

,, ( ).,.,.

( ),,, ( ).

, 136,,, (, ).,,,.

49 IV.

4 I, . [187, 39-41],,, 14 136.

(, ).

,. 109 III,, ,, ,. IV.,, 132, ,,, . 4 85 I. [196, 97],, 109 III (, ).

109 III, 110.,,.

, :

a),,, ;

b),,,,, ;

c),,,. [377, 33-35].

, 136,. 16,,,,.

.

,, 134-138.

, 9 136, 138,, (. 37 I).

,, :

(. 40 I),, (.2. I),, (.

28 1907 ).

,,,.

, 136, -.

, 136,.

1.5. I II,,.,,,,,,,. [161, 29],,,,,. 12 : .,,",,,, ". [377, 149],,.

,,,,,.

,,..,,,.

.

,,,,.,.4,,,,.

,, (,,, ).. 25 29,,..

,,,.

,.,,,,.

,,. [187, 22] IV 12 1949,,,.

,. ,,, . [222, 188-190] ;

.

IV,,,,, 15-, 7-. ;

,,, ;

, ;

,,,. [262, 57-58],,,,.

,. 24 ,,,.,, ;

, .

[150, 5;

154, 149-151],,,.

,.,.

27 IV. -.,.,,, . [277, 70] IV, .,,,,. [377, c.172],,,,,.,...

,,, . [377, 173-174],,, . [377,191],,.

, IV, ,,... . [377, 194],.,.

,., 82,,,,,,,.,,,.,, ;

,.,,,,,,,,. ( ),,.,,,,,,,.

,,,.,,.,,,,.

,,. [303, 77;

352, 171] 12 1949,,, -.

1929,,.

8. I,. II,.

.

3,,,,, (,,,,,,,.).

I. 17,, I,. [377, 225],,.,,,.

33,,,,. [377, 236] I.

, 35-41,,,,,,,.

,,,,.

37 I,,.,,,, .

, 48 1,, (, ),.,,,,,. [310, 293] I. I, 1949.,,,,. I, ( ),,,.

76 I, " ", 1970. 1970 ",,, ",., 76,,,,. [377, 268] 27, 2, IV,,,,.,,,,,.

. I, ,,,, . [377, 268].

.

,,,,, I,,,,,.

,,,.,,,,,.

,,,,,. I,,.

. [327, 223;

329, 36] II 12 1949 I 1977.

,.

.,.

II.3. 7, "..., ".

II,,,,,.

.

I 102, II 28,,.,,,,.,,,,,,,,.. II.

, :) ;

), 15 ;

), ;

).

,,.,, . [355,115-117] 1.6.. [360, 55-59],.,. ( ).,. 1949. IV.

1949, ( 3, ).," " [372, 604].

IV,.

,,,,,,,,,, ( ).

,,,,,,,,,.. (. 13, 27, 30 34, 147). [389, 40-45] IV.

14, 15 7,. [377, 143], (. 17). [377, 144] 23,, 15. [377, 147], 15,,,, (.

50). [377, 158],,. 15 (.89). [377, 173] 38, 15 7,,,. [377, 152] ", 15,,,,,, ".24). [301, 29], (.50). [377, 157],,,,. [130, 290 292].,,,.25, 26). [377, 148-149], 18- (.68). [377, 164] 76,,,,,,. [377, 168], IV,.

,,.

.

,.. IV.

.

,. 60,,,. [138, 33] I :",.,,, " (. 77). [301, 59-60] II. 4,.3, " ". [377].,,, 15-, (.77,.2 I,.4,.3 II).

, 15-, 18,. 77, 3, I, 15,,,,. [377, 268],,,,. [377, 268] 78 I,,,,,,. [377, 269],,.

, 18.77,.5, I,. 6,. 4, II). [377, 268] IV,.,, ( ),.

,, 1980.,,,,. [154, 68-70],,,. 38.,,,.,,, 15,.

, 15.

,, 15-, 18, (.38,.3).

,.

., 1980,.

,,,.

. 12, -" ".

,.,. " ",, :), ;

) ;

) ;

) ;

),,,, ;

). [157, 144-145] 25 ( 54/263),,, 15 18. 5,.

2002.,,,.,,,.

, Human Rights Watch .. 1992 , ,. [28, 139] 2.

2.1., :), ;

), . [203] pacta sunt servanda, 1949, 1977,.,,,, . [183, 66], -.

,,,,,,. [26, 133-134],,,.

,,,,,.

.

,,,,.,.,.,,,,,,. [24, 10-12].

,. [53, 51-52],,,,,,.

,,,,. [58, 18-20],.

,. [224], 2 55 I .

.,,. [224],,, 28 III 1949, :,,,, . [377, 40-41],,.

( ).

, 94 IV, ,,,,,, .

. [222, 78-79;

377, 43-44].,,, -., [42, 255],,. [59, 66],,,.

,,,.

,.. ,.,,,,. [101, 51-54],,,. [149, 288],,. [122] - , " ", ( ) ( )., (. ).,,,,,,.. [170, 23-24]. [175, 77],,,,,,. [196, 37-38],,,,.,.

,,..

,.

,, 1949, 1977,. [177, 146-147],.,,,,.

,,,.

[192;

202, 28-29],.

,,,,,,.

.,,, -.

-,.,,,.

. [251, 342], :

,. [101, 92-94;

209, 105],,.. [244, 149], 1, 1949 : . [377], 1 1 I. [255, 36-39],,,,,. [127, 426-427],,,, I.

,,.

80 I, :

1.,,,.

2.,, . [384, 56-57],. ,, . [297, 214] 2.2..

,.

,,.,,,. [296, 3-4], :.

,,,.,,,,,, ( ) (,,, ),,. [311, 178-179].,, - ( -..).[313, 222-223],.,,,.,. [296, 67-68],. [158, 9],.,,,.[367, 961],,,,,,.,.,. [296, 12],,,,. [296, 14],, .

,,. [296, 12]., ( ),, ( ).

[224, 194-195],. [224, 197].

,..

,,, . [58, 18],,.,,,.

.

.

,,.,,.,,,. [385, 133-135].,,.

, -,,,,.

.,.,,. [387, 225-227],, :

;

-,,. [71, 16],,. :

-,,,,, ;

-, ( );

-,, ;

-. [276, 20-21],,.,,. [203, 28-30], .. [257, 19-20],. :,, proprio vigore. ) .

( ), ( ),. [101, 67],,.,,,. [225, 9],,, ,.

,.

. [203, 33],,. [205, 223],,,,,,,.,,,,,, . [101, 67],,.

,,,,,,, -. [224, 152],,,.

,. [62, 42-45],,,.

,.,.

, , .

[320, 57-59], :.,,,.,,. [320, 61]..,. -, :,,,. [325] , . [101, 75-76],.

,. [101, 80] :, ( ),, ( ),,.,,,. [101, 82].,,,. [101, 70-91],.

, ( ). [101, 89],,, -. [58, 12;

123, 64],,,.,,,. [244, 33-35],,, 1829 :

, .

, (,, ),.,,,,. [244, 39], :,,, . [246, 56-59],,,, . [127, 173], ( ),.. [127, 173],,,.

.,, 1, 1949,, ., 80 I 1977.,. [246, 42-43],,, -,,,,,, -.

1949,.

. [255, 110-121],,, (, ),.

,,,.

,,.

.,,.

, -.

, 1949, 1977.,,,,,. [258, 145-148],,,.,,,,,,,. [205, 389-390],,,,.,,,,. 1949.

,.,,,. [199, 71],,,,.

,,.,, 16 1993, ).,,,,,, :,,,, 1957. -.,, , (,.).

,,, :

-,,, ;

-,, ;

-, ( );

-,,.

[210, 213-215] (, ),, ).

.,,,.,,,,,.

,,,.

,,,.

-,,.

[319, 50],,.

,, -,,, [239, 42],.

,, ( ).,,., 3 85 I :,,,,, 57, 2 ( ) iii.

-,,, - (, ), -.,,,,,.

,. [238, 79],.,,,,,.

:,,,.,,. -, . [205],,., ( ),..,,. [271, 80] 2.3., 12 1995. 148,,, . [9, 23] 151, , ( ),,, . [9, 26],,,,.

pacta sun servanta,,.

1969. [309, 22-23] pacta sun servanta 1991 . 16-, . [10, 4] pacta sun servanta,., jus cogens,, 1949 1., :, . [379],,,,,,,,. I 1977.

, : ;

;

, ;

,.

.,,.

,, ,, ., -,.,. [45, 87],., ( 28) 1954., 49,,,.

, 1. : ;

, ;

;

, ;

. .

., 17-., 114-119. [8, 11], 1977 I II. I, 3,, II.,,,., 185, 138 I 129 II.

21 1993,.,. [4],, 17,,,,. [11, 99], 1993 . [3, 10] ,, ,,.

, :

1) 2) 3) 4) ;

5),,, 30 1997,,, ( 114). [15] ( ), 1995 . [15],,, ( ). [13],,.

,,.

, 1993 . :

1),, ;

2).(,,,,,,,,,,.),, (116.0.8).,,,,,.

,,,. -.,,,.

. [104], .

2.4.

,.

,, (, ).

.,,. [36, 53-54;

57, 81;

63, 25-27],,., :,,,,,.

,,..,,.

. [8], ,,. [275] 30.

,.,.,.

[212, 478-480],,,,,,,,.

,, ., . ,., ,,,,.

,.

.,.

,. [391, 14-23],.

116.0.2.

.,.

116.0.4..

,,,,,.

,,,..

,,.

,,,.,,,,,,,,,.

,, 17.

.

:

:

a), ;

b), ;

, 2.

,,,,. :

- ( 115.3);

-,,,, ( 115.2);

-,, ( 113.1);

- ( 115.2);

- ( 115.2);

-, ( 116.0.6);

-,, ( 116.0.18);

,,,I,. :

-, ( 115.2);

-,,, ( 116.0.4);

- ( 116.0.4);

- ( 116.0.5);

-,,,,,,,,, ( 116.0.8);

,,, ( 116.0.11);

-,,, ( 116.0.13);

( 11.0.14);

-, (116.0.16);

-,,,, ( 116.0.17),,.

:

a),,,,.

b),,,,,,,,,,,.

,, 4.

.,..

.

,,.

. aut dedere aut punier.

[336, 523]. [76],.

,,,,,. [162, 17-19],, ,, . [8],.

,,,.

.

,,.

.,. [343, 201],,,,,,,.

.,, 5 1907 ,,,. [127, 26-29].,,,,,.,,,,,.

.

,,.

,,,,,,,,,.,,.

,,,.

.,,,,.

.,,. P ( 261).,.

,.

,.,,,,. 119 AP,.

8 2007, .,,.

,I,,,.

,,,,,,,..

8 2001 , 12 1949 I II 1977. [193, 48-49],,,.

,,. 75,.

,,,,,.

.

, 31 1996.

.,,,,.

,,,,.

,,,.

,,,.,,.

1993.

.,, ,,,. 114.

,.

,,.

. ( 12).,,. ( ).

, ,.

.,,,,,,.

2.5.

,.,,,.,,,,. [190, 122-123] pacta sunt servand,.,,,.

,.,,. [197, 10-15],, 80 I.,,.,,,,. [263, 33-34],,.,, :

-,, ;

- ;

,. [25, 32],.,,.

,,.,.

,,,.

,,.,.

.,,.

.

., 148,,,.,,. [19, 132],,.,,,.

,.

151, (, ),,.

. III 130. 151, Lex posteriori derogate legi priori,,. [25, 34].. 151,.,,.,,.

,,. [19, 137] 148,,,.

,., 148, 151,.,. 10-,.,.. 15 25,,.

. [214, 22].

,.

.

,,,,., 1,.

,,.,,.

49 I.,,. 50 II, III 146 IV. [279, 104] . ., ( ),. [391, 294] 30 1999 1 2000. 1993,, 1960 1999., 1954., 1960, 1960.

1960.,,.

30 , 5. :

260;

, 3- 10, ) 261 262;

( ) 263;

( ) 264. [311, 276] ,.

,., ,, 43., 17. ,,,,., ,, 115, 116, 117,.

119.,,,,, 1949. [13, 67-71],,,.,,.,,,,,.

.

,,,,..

,,,,..

,,,,,. 1.2,,.,,,,,,,.

, 1949, .

,,.

,.,,.,. [25, 34],,.

,,.

.,,.

,,,., 47 I.

,,,,,.

48 II, 127 III IV.

1999,,,.

, 1994. 1 4,,,,,,. [14, 76],,,.

1993, 1994,.

,. 16 5, 1994,,,,. [13, 293-301],,, III IV. .

.,,,,,. [13, 357],.,, ,. [286, 26-28],,., 17 21, III,, IV. 9 III 10 IV.

,,,.

,,,.,,,. [21, 454],.,,,,, [292, 65].

.,.

.

.

(,, ),,. [312, 277],, 1995 , , 1997 . 4 , , .

,,.

,, 1 2000, ., ,,,. ( ) . [21, 454],,,.

,.

2.6.,., 1977. .. 1992 .

UNCHR,.,,.,.

,,.

., 16 21 1992 21 28.

.

,. :....,, .

Human Rights Watch, , .

,,, .

, Human Rights Watch, .

,,..

,,,,,.

1991-1992., 3 1949, II 1977.,,.

,,,,,.

25 26,.

,,.

: -, -., ,, 1992 . [191, 68], , -,- 6000 ;

,. 1988, ;

,.

,.,,,, 1991-92. 1991, . [191, 68]., 1990,,. . [212, 235] 22,, 1991-92.

,,.,.

,,,,,.

.

,,.,. [28,146],,,.

27,.

.,,,.

.

, ,.

,,,,., ,, 181 (130, 13 ).,., 213.,,.

,, . [275, 285],,, 33,. 180,,.

V,..,, .

,,,.

,,,,.

. Human Rights Watch, ,, :,,,,,,,,,,, .

.

2.7.

, 1949 " ", 1977.,,,,,,.

, 29,. " "( ),.

,,,,,,,.,,,,.,,.

.

, 15-.,,,.,,.,.,.

, 4..

.

,..

.

,,, " " 12 1949.

,,,,,.

.

Human Rigths Watch, 1992.,,,.,,. 21-.,,. 14 2, .,.,.

,,,,. 1992,.,,,.

, 11,,,,..,,.,,.

, 11 2,,. 12,,.

,,,,,,,,.,.

,,,,,.

,,,,., -,,,,,.

366.,,, 4 2,,,.

,,,,. [212],, .

.

,., " " " ", (III) 9,, : ;

;

, ;

, ;

. [212],,,.,,.

,,,,.

: 1) " ", 260 (III) 9 1948 ;

2) (,,, );

3) (. 4);

4) (. 1);

5) (. 6);

6) (. 103);

7) " 26 1998. [321, 77-79] Human Rigths Watch,.,.

,,,.,.

,,.

, 1949.

. [327, 211] 37, 39 :,,,.,,,,. [241, 563],,,.,,.

,,.,.,,.

,,.,,,,,.,,,., 80 90- XX.,, 20%,.,...

" ", 2001., :

" "., " ",.

.,., (, ).

[219, 38-43, 120].

,.

27- 3034 (XXVII),. 39- 35/159 , .

,,.

: 16 1989 - ;

7 1989 -. ;

4 1990 ;

13 1990 - - ;

11 1990 - " ".

;

10 1990 -, ;

15 1990 ;

9,,.,.,, ;

9 1991 - ;

1991 -8, ;

1994 - "20 ", 14 ;

3 1994 "28 ", 13 ;

, 1000.[212].

,., (1977 ),,,,,,,,. " " 9 1994. 2.1,,,,,,,.

. 9 1999.

22 1999,.,. 25 2000 2003 ( ).,,,,,.

.

.,.,,.,,..

.,.

.

,,,,,.

,,,,.,,,,,.,,,.,,.

1988-2002 4965. : 69, 320, 358. 246.

1326, : 129, 312, 246.

,,,,,,,,,.

,,,,,,,,,.

,,,,,,,,, 6-8,...

5825 6-15,,,,.

,,,,,.

, -,. [146, c.97-99], ?

,, :,,. 20.

. 300. 800,. [220],." "-,,," ".

,,.

,, -.,,. " " 12 15,,.

,,,,,,.

,,.

,,.,,,,,,,,,,, -.

,,,,,,,,.

,,,.

,. :, 2000 423, 8%, 1999. 2000, 405 791 ( 233 706 1999 ).

, 11. 11,.

:,,, ;

;

, ;

,, ;

,,,,, ;

;

,,, ;

.

,, -,. 20%,. 1988-2002 4965. :, 320, 358. 246. 1326, :

- 129, - 312, - 246.

,,,,,,,.

8, 12 2001. 8 :

,..,,., ",, ".

,,,,,.,,,,,,,.,.

..

., ..., ,,,,,.,,.

,.

,,,, 1949,,.

XXI.,,,.

:,,,..

.

,,, :

. XIX.

.

,,.

,., 1853-, ( ), ,.

,.

,,,,., ( ),,,,.

XX. ;

(1945.);

(1946.);

,, (1993.);

, (1994.)., - (1998.), -,,,.

,.

,.

. 560 1949 1977.

,,,,,,,,. 27 IV,,,, 1971., I 76. II.

,,.

,, -,,.,,,,,, .

,,,,.,,.,,,.

,.

,.

, :

,,,, 15 18, ;

,,,, ;

,,,,.

,,,,,.

,,,,.

,,,.

,,.,,,,., 1945,.

,.,,.

, (, ),.

.

,,. 55 -, 326 -, 409 - ( 01.03.2004 ).

1988-2004 1335. 129 -, 312, 246 -.

, 783 (18, 46, 69 ),, ( ).,,.

,,,,.

,,,,,,,.

,.

, - 7.

- : - 1988-1993., 4400.

- : - 18.05.1992, 1875.

- : - 02.04.1993, - : - 23.07. 1993, 1154.

- : - 23.08.1993, 1050.

- : - 23.08.1993, 1112.

- : - 31.08.1993, 826.

- : - 30.10.1993, 707.

20%,., 50...,,.

900,,6.,, 150. 9..., 4366, 695.,,,. $60.

927,, 100,6, 40..

,,,,.,,.

.

,, " " " ",,.

, 822, 853, 874 884,.

,,,,,,,,,,,.

1... :. :

, 2006, 194.

2....(). :, 2007, 164.

3. "", 06 1993-, 63.

4. "", 27 1993-, 100.

5. "", 30 2001 -, 70.

6., 1993, 7,. 13-5.

7., 1949- 12. :, 2005.

8..., 2005.

9.., 2002.

10.. -., 1997.

11.. :, 2001.

12........., 2006, 27.

13.... :

" ", 2004, 184.

14..... :, 2002, 752.

15... :, 2005-, 783.

16..., 2001, 488.

17....., 1997,. 258-267.

18....., 2001,494.

19... -,......, 2003, 26.

20... -- :. :, 2007, 600.

21...,. :., 2007, 488.

22... -. :

, 1996, 6.

23...., 2001, 418.

24........., 2004, 26.

25. "", 17 1990-.

26.. // - ", 1-2 (35-36), - 2001,.133-137.

27.. : // - ", 48, 2002,.140-152.

28.. // - ", 54, 2002,.139-149.

29.. //, 2003,.93-105.

30. "", 25 1990-.

31...,, 1996, 287.

32.. :

.., 1992, 190.

33....:.

1999, 431.

34...

..:, 2000, 264.

35..,.

//, 2004, 66 (2),.38-51.

36...

..:, 2002, 278.

37.... :.-,..: " ", 1995, 422.

38..,.,. :

..:..., 2003, 387.

39..

//, 1998, 5,.23-44.

40..,.., 1998, 311.

41.. : - -...:, 1999, 287.

42....1..,, 1981, 312.

43..,.,.

( ).., 1996, 266.

44..., 2000, 726.

45..,..,...., 1998. 289.

46.. : //, 1998, 4,.123-145.

47.. :,, //, 1999, 1,. 23-35.

48.. ( )..., 1975, 233.

49..,. :,,.., 1989, 250.

50..,... 7.. 6. (.,.,..).., 1992,.44-67.

51.,. :..., 1989, 333.

52...., 2001.

53.. //..... 1996, 1,.49-61.

54..

., 2004, 2 (54),.125-134.

55.. //, 1988..:, 1989,.51-66.

56..,...:, 1990, 233.

57.. : //, 1987, 37,.77-93.

58...., 2000, 324.

59.. //, 2001, 10,. 63-75.

60..

// :, 2001.

2,.64-83.

61...., 1996, 330.

62... 3.. 1.., 2003. 388.

63.. :.., 2004, 290.

64..,.

: //, 2003, 1,.43-55.

65..,.

//, 2002, 5(9),. 45-52.

66.. :.., 1991. 411.

67..,.., 2002. 260.

68.. :, //. 1999, 7,.69-72.

69.. ( ):. :, 2001. 329.

70......, 2000, 598.

71..,.

.., 1983, 301.

72...., 1984, 287.

73..,.

.., 1993. 277.

74.. 1977. //., 1997, 18,,. 592-595.

75..,.

.

., 1999, 472.

76..., 1984, 296.

77.. :....

.., 1979, 35.

78...., 1979, 212.

79......:

, 1996, 261.

80..,. : (, ).., 2001. 444.

81.. :.

, 1996, 387.

82.....,, 1994. 269.

83....:, 1994, 189.

84...

:..., 1995,.78-90.

85..,. :..-, 2003, 270.

86.. /...:, 2004, 332.

87.. / www.ukon.su/students/s_articles/9109html 88..., 1999, 300.

89..., 1976, 242.

90.. /.., 1989,.122-141.

91. /...,, 2006. 672.

92.. :.., 2004, 566.

93..-. /..., 1962, 200.

94.. /.., 2001.. 2,.29-48.

95. :,.

.(, 27-29 1998.). 2-.., 1998, 388.

96...., 1996, 270.

97.. 8.. 1..:, 1997, 499.

98...:, 1983. 435.

99..., 1985, 221.

100. /,.(, 23-24 1998.).., 1999,.78-82.

101... :, 1980, 232c.

102..,.

//, 2004, 1(252),.110-123.

103..-..

., 1994, 230.

104..-....:, 1995, 310.

105.. :., 1998. 209.

106..,..., 2000, 289.

107...

..:, 2003, 390.

108...., 1998, 401.

109.. :.

., 1999, 308.

110..

//, 2004, 65 (1), c.100-112.

111.. : /,..:, 2006, 448.

112.. //. 2004, (2),.66-85.

113..,. :

/....:, 2006, 664.

114..,.,. :.., 1998, 599.

115....., 1973, 206.

116.. //, 2001, No 4,. 27-38.

117.,, / www.human. gov.az/statistics.asp 118.. :.., 1999, 409.

119....:

.., 1992, 288.

120...., 1957, 300.

121...., 2001, 322.

122.., //Beyn?lxalq huquq, 1998, l, c.16-46.

123..

., 2000, 316.

124..,, 1998, 188.

125..

.. http://www.e-jourost3-3/html 126...

. 2000.... 53-64.

127....:, 2000, 178.

128... :.

.., 2000, 390.

129.. 11 2001 :

. :..., 2001, 405.

130...

...:, 1999, 384.

131. :., 1994, 201.

132.. :, 1994, 167.

133..,.,.

)/...:, 1997, 478.

134..,.. 45- :

1948-1993 /...., 1994, 455.

135.. :.., 1998, 302.

136..,. : //, 2000, 11,.44-57.

137... :, 1985, 186.

138.., //.., 1995,, 7,.133-161.

139..,.,. : /.., 1997, 406.

140.,. :

//..,, 1998,, 22,. 536-553.

141..,....:, 1995, 209.

142... 2-.

1.., 2000, 871.

143.. :.., 1997, 488.

144.., ( )......, 2001, 40.

145....:

, 1994, 182.

146. :. 1999.

6.,.. 97-99.

147...

http://www.womnet.ru/library 148.., 1995, 243.

149....., 1988,. 283-298.

150., :. /55/442. :, 2000,.5.

151..

..:, 1999, 233.

152. :

..:, 1995, 266.

153.., 1995, 205.

154. :..:.., 1999, 269.

155...,, 1993, 389.

156. :.

., 1998, 611.

157. :.., 1996, 271.

158.. :.... /,., 1999,18.

159....., 2004, 567.

160...., 2003, 325.

161.. //..:, 1976, 3,. 28-41.

162..,.,... /... :, 1999, 308.

163.. /, ;

..

. :, 2004, 400.

164.. /.

:, 2006, 496.

165...., 1994, 209.

166......:

, 2003, 232.

167..,. :.., 1991, 386.

168...., 1988, 250.

169.. //, 1999, 7,.11-20.

170..

,.,, 1995, 136.

171...

. :, 1998, 203.

172. A..., 2001, 288.

173.. :, /....., 2003, 356.

174..,.

.., 2004, 307.

175.. :, 1998., 1998, 277.

176.. 1977. - //..,, 1997, 18, -,. 564-590.

177......., 2000,.144-178.

178... //..., 1998, 22,,. 494-497.

179.. jus ad helium/jus in ello.

... 1997. 18... 643-654.

180...:.., 1998, 155.

181. II 8 1977 12 1949, /..,.,.., 2000, 331.

182.. : //.., 1995,, 5,. 444- 183...( ) //, 2000, 211.. 66-77.

184....., 2002, 267.

185.....:, 2003, 396.

186...., :, 2003, 277.

187..,. :.

/,. 2-.,...: :, 2007, 143.

188... :

. 1999., 1999, 26.

189... -. 2000., 2000, 20.

190...., 1994, 180.

191.. " ". Helsinki Watch, Human Rights Watch, 1992,.68-69.

192. : 7-.. 2:..:, 1989, 240c.

193..-.

:.. :....:, 1998, 221.

194.. :..:, 1992.

195..,.,.,.

( ). :

, 1999, 288.

196..,. :.../.:, 1998, 122.

197..,.,.

.., 2000, 222.

198...., 1996, 546.

199.. / :,, //. 2001, 5,.70-89.

200.. :..:, 2001, 616.

201..... 1993, 324.

202...., 1998, 128.

203..

.., 1999, 310.

204.,...., 1999, 267.

205....., 2000, 577.

206..,.., 1993, 209.

207....:.., 1991, 205.

208. :..., 2000, 300.

209..,. //. 1998, 4,. 104-107.

210..

: 1954. //..., 2004,.209-233.

211....: ct, 2004, 433.

212..,.. : -. :,, 2007, 536.

213.. //.

.., 1998. 4,.45-57.

214...

., 1986, 186.

215..., 1993, 194.

216.. :.., 2004, 241.

217.. :..:, 2001, 311.

218...., 1995, 257.

219., // - I ", 38,.. 38-43, 120.

220.,.

. http://usinfo.state.gov 221.. 1980. :

....

, 2001,. 219-220.

222. /...,, 1999, 308.

223. ( )/.. :., 2005, 194.

224. :. /...,..

., 1999, 522.

225. : /...,.

., 2000, 657.

226...:, 1999, 653.

227. :..

., 1993,. 2, 334.

228.., 1987, 307.

229. /...., 1999, 294.

230. :..., 1998. 404.

231..., 1990, 299.

232.. /....:., 2001, 640.

233.,.,. - :

. /..., 1996, 300.

234. ( )/....:, 1998, 201.

235...:, 1996. 247.

236.. //, 1998, 1;

1999, 6,.30-43.

237..

( ). /.., 1976 /.....,, 1978,.77-90.

238... :, 1990, 267.

239...., 1968, 177.

240..

//, 111-112,. 203-215.

241.. //, 19, 2007,. 559-567.

242..

..., 2007, c.17-28.

243.. :...

.:,, 2006, 544.

244...., 1982, 188.

245.. :,,.., 1991, 263.

246. :. " "/....., 1993, 244.

247. :

,., 1995, 208.

248.,. A/RES/ 39/159, 17 1984.

249..,..:

, 1999, 250.

250. :

..., 2000,. 82-85.

251. /....:, 1996, 554.

252. :. /..

...:.., 1994, 501.

253..,,....., 2002, 37.

254... /.

.., 2000. 384.

255.. :, 1995, 189.

256.. : /..

..: CAF-Russia, 1995, 167.

257...

1948 //. 1998, 5,. 18-33.

258..,.

..:

, 1998, 277.

259.. :..., 1997, 367.

260.. : //. 2002,. 5-31.

261....:, 1995, 145.

262..


., 2003, 267.

263... :

.., 2000, 223.

264., 2000., 2000, 495.

265..,.

.., 1975, 273.

266..., 1998.

344.

267. :

..:, 1998, 201.

268. :

/.....: (. ), 2001, 384.

269...:, 1994, 213.

270.,, :..

..:, 1999, 307.

271. :. /....:, 1994, 230.

272. :.

.:, 1992, 300.

273. : /....., 1999, 489.

274. :

./..:, 2000, 214.

275. (XIX-XXI.)... :. :, 2002, 394.

276....:..

, 1997, 414.

277.. //, 1997, 9,. 69-75.

278..,. :.

, 1998, 377.

279.. 1949. - //.

. :.., 1999,. 104-105.

280. 8- :., 2001, 12-14.

281....:., 1983, 230.

282.. " " //.., 1997, 16,. 327-333.

283..,. :, //, 2004, 6 (21),. 33-36.

284...., 2002, 279.

285. :... (17-18 1997.)., 1998,.44-59.

286. :. /..,.,..., 1998, 443.

287....:, 1994, 178.

288....,..

.. 3. /....:

, 2000, 290.

289.. //, 2000. 1 (15),.110-123.

290.. :..:

", 2006, 192.

291..

..:, 2003, 230.

292.. //..., 1991, 3-4,.60-73.

293.. :

..:.., 1992, 231.

294.......:

, 2002, 252.

295.../....

..:, 2002, 267.

296..

......, 2000, 12.

297... :....:, 1998, 249.

298., : //, 2004, 2 (54),. 135-160.

299..., 1998, 244.

300..

..:, 1997, 271.

301... :

..:, 1995, 178.

302..,...:, 1989, 148.

303....:, 1988, 179.

304.. : //, 1997, 9.. 76-87.

305.. //htpp://evolution.info/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=304&ite mid= 306.. :..:, 1988, 233.

307.. //.

., 1997, 15,. 149-171.

308.. :. :,.

, 1999, 528.

309.....:

, 2000, 455.

310.. :

.

:....:, 1999,. 292-294.

311.. //, 2003,. 177-190.

312..

: //, 2000,.68-71.

313..

// 2001. /....:, 2003..221-234.

314.. :..,, 2001. 220.

315.. /.....:

, 2000. 416.

316.. XXI ( XXI )..:., 2002, 399.

317....:, 1983, 235.

318..

:.

...., 1998, 4,.55-67.

319...

., 2000, 258.

320..,. :..

.:, 1998,.129-144.

321..., 1986, 188.

322.. : //, 2002, 302.

323... ( )..:.., 2002, 278.

324.. //, 1995, 335.

325...., 1999,. 2. 438.

326.. -.//htpp://evolution.info/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=445&ite mid= 327.. : / 2001: /....:, 2003,.200-231.

328...

:. 1995, 290.

329.. :..:, 1996, 78.

330.

: - //, 2002, 23.

331.

: //, 2001, 17.

332.. :.

.:, 1997, 241.

333.....:, 2000, 304.

334. :.

" "/....,, 1993.. 5, 122.

335. Abi-Saab Georges. Wars of National Liberation and the Laws of War. Annales d'Etudes Internationales, vol. 3, 1972, p. 93-117.

336. Baxter Richard R, Jus in bello interno: the Present and Future Law. John-Norton Moore (ed.). Law and Civil War in the Modem World. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins U.P, 1974, p. 518-536.

337. Basdevant Jules. Deux Conventions peu connues sur le droit de la guerre. RGDIP, 1914, vol. XXI, p. 5-29.

338. Bedjaoui Mohammed. La Revolution algerienne et le droit. Bruxelles: Ed.

Association internationale des juristes democrates, 1961, 262 p.

339. Bindschedler-Robert Denise. A Reconsideration of the Law of Armed Conflicts. The Law of Armed Conflicts. Report of the Conference on Contemporary Problems of the Law of Armed Conflicts. Geneva, 15-20 September 1969. New York: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1971, p. 1-61.

340. Bluntschli Johann C. Le droit international codifie. Paris, Guillaumin, 1985 (5e ed.), 602 p.

341. Boals Kathryn. The Relevance of International Law in the Internal War in Yemen. R.

Falk (ed.). The International Law of Civil War. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins U. P. 1971, p. 303-347.

342. Bothe Michael, Partsch KalrJosef, SolfWaldemar. New Rules for Victims of Armed Conflicts. Commentary on the two 1977 Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949. The Hague, Nijhoff, 1982, 716 p.

343. Bretton Philippe. Remarques generales sur les travaux de la Conference de Geneve sur la reaffirmation et le developpement du droit international humanitaire applicable dans les conflits armes. 23, ADI, 1977, p. 197-220.

344. Cassese Antonio. Current Trends in the Development of the Law of Armed Conflict.

Rivista Trimestrale di Diritto Publiee, vol. 24, N 4, 1974, p. 1407-1448.

345. Ciobanu Dan. The Concept and the Determination of the Existence of Armed Conflicts not of an International Character. 58 Rivista di Diritto Internazionale, 1975, p. 43-79.

346. De la theorie classique de la reconnaissance a l'article 3 des Conventions de Geneve, Colloque ULB, 1970, p. 83-93.

347. Ed. The New Humanitarian Law of Armed Conflict. Naples: Editoriale Scientifica, 1979, 2 vol.. 233-266.

348. Eide Asbjom. International Law, Dominance and the Use of Force // Journal of Peace Research, 1974, p. 1-20.

349. Falk R. A. (ed.). The International Law of Civil War. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins U.P., 1991, 452p.

350. Fraleigh Arnold. The Algerian Revolution as a Case Study in International Law. R.

A. Falk (ed.). The International Law of Civil War. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins U.R, 1971, p. 179-243.

351. Friedman Leon (ed.) The Law of War. A Documentary History. New York, Random House, 1992, vol.2. 449.

352. Higgins Rosalyn. International Law and Civil Conflict. Evan Luard(ed.).

The International Regulation of Civil War. London: Thames & Hudson, 1972, p.

169-186.

353. Kalshoven Frits. Applicabilite of Customary Law in Non-International Armed Conflicts. Cassese (ed.). Current Problems of International Law. Milano: Giuffre, 1975, p. 267-285.

354. Kerr Malcolm. The Lebanese Civil War. Evan Luard (ed.). The International Regulation of Civil War. London, Thames & Hudson, 1972, p. 65-90.

355. Kotzsch Luther. The Concept of War in Contemporary History and International Law. Geneva, Droz, 1996, 310 p.

356. Le droit international humanitaire et les conflits armes internationalises. RICR, 1982, p. 263-272.

357. Le probleme des "methodes et moyens de guerre ou de combat" dans les Protocoles additionnels de 1977. 82 RGDIP, 1978, p. 32-81.

358. Les mecanismes de mise en ?uvre du droit humanitaire. RGDIP, 1978, vol. LXXXII, p. 103-129.

359. Les travaux de la Commission du droit international humanitaire. RICR, janvier 1998, p. 24-32.

360. Luard Evan (ed.). The International Regulation of Civil Wars. London: Thames & Hudson, 2002, 240 p.

361. Maurice, F. L'ambition humanitairc. Jeneva. R.I.C.R., 1992. p. 386.

362. Nahlik Stanislaw E. Droit de Geneve et droit dit de La Haye: unicite ou dualite?

AFDI, 1978, p. 9-27.

363. Rajower R Das Recht des bewaffheten nicht-internationalen Konflikts seit 1999.

Zurich, 1990, p. 47-72.

364. Russbach. ONU centre ONU. Paris, 1994, 432p.

365. Seyersted Finn. United Nations Forces in the Law of Peace and War. Leyden, 1996, 522p.

366. The Implementation of Humanitarian Law. Cassese (ed.). The New Humanitarian Law of Armed Conflict. Naples: Editoriale Scientifica, 1979, p. 310-346.

367. Touscoz Jean. Etude de la jurisprudence internationale sur les aspects internationaux de l'affaire algerienne. Paris: AFDI, 1963, p. 953-969.

368. Zorgbibe Charles. Pour une reaffirmation du droit humanitaire des conflits armes internes. Paris, 2000, 658p.

369..., 1995, 101.

370..

217 (III) 10 1948..: -, 1998, 475.

371. 18 1907. : ( IV 1907.).

372.. 3-. /.

...., 2002, 667c.

373.. 1789....:, 1998, 624c.

374.. IT/32/Rev. 375.. IT/33/Rev. 376.. S/25704.

377. 12..:, 1994, 237c.

378.. /.....:, 1998, 355c.

379. 12 1949,. 2..:, 2001, 341c.

380.., 18 1907...

..:, 1995. 218c.

381...:.., 2001,565.

382.. 2-.,..

/....:, 2003, 289c.

383.. /.

.....:, 1990, 366c.

384. /..,.

..:, 1996, 546c.

385...:, 1996, 453.

386. :.,.:.,.,, 1997, 696.

387.. :.

.., 1999, 334c.

388....2..:., 1993, 453.

389. :..,..., 1997, 338.

390....

1..:, 1989, 411.

391..,,, 2004, 233.

392..., 1998, 507.

393. :. 1:

,....., 1999, 399.

394. :.. 1993.., 1995, 256.

395.

..:, 1993. 247.

396. :..,., 1994. 311.

397.. :.

.:, 1990.

398. :../...

, 1999. 567.

399...,, 1984. 47.

., -., .

, 2,.

,,,,,,.

6.,,.

7. ,,,.

,.

SUMMARY The subject The Protection of Civilians During Armed Conflicts in International Humanitarian Law and in Legislation of Azerbaijan Republic related to the one of the most actual problems in modern International Humanitarian Law. Actually this issue is a scientific research based on an interaction and synthesis of such branches of International Humanitarian Law as International Law and security, the International Criminal Law and corresponding national legislation of AR. The importance and actuality of research is characterized with the most sensitive problem of Azerbaijani nation the problem of protection of civilians on territories occupied by Armenia still remains unsolved.

The monograph consists of 2 chapters, conclusion and list of used litrature.

At Introduction, it is underlined actuality of the theme, researchs objects, the purposes and problems, scientific novelty of the issue, stated main scientific theoretic and practic importance and approbation of the results.

The First Chapter is History and Properties of Occurrence of International Humanitarian Law Standards of Civilians During Armed Conflicts and includes 6 paragraphs. Here is given analysis of following problems: field of activity of International Humanitarian Law during armed conflicts, properties of historical protection of civilians in armed conflicts, application of international conventions, international juridical mechanisms in defense of women and children law.

At the Second Chapter of monograph named Implementation Mechanism and its Contents in a Context of Prevention International Humanitarian Law Violations which consists of 7 Paragraphs, were discussed and analyzed following issues: analysis of definition and elements of implementation mechanism of International Humanitarian Law, interstate implementation mechanism, national legislation of Azerbaijan Republic including International Humanitarian Law standards and responsibility for their infringement, also their violent transgress by Armenian aggressors during Armenian-Azerbaijani Nagorno-Karabakh conflict.

At Conclusion of monograph several important suggestions were made, which stressed on improvement and refinement of legislation of Azerbaijan Republic, which has important practical values.



 
 >>  ()





 
<<     |    
2013 www.libed.ru - -

, .
, , , , 1-2 .