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S. V. Archipova, L. L. Selivanova Hatchepsut: woman-pharaoh The period of the XVIII-th dynasty was one of the most brilliant epochs in the history and culture of ancient Egypt. It was a time of pow erful and prominent women who inscribed many pages in historical re cords of the country and of the entire Near East. The Egyptian women were much more independent in their everyday life than women in oth ers countries. The most well-know representative of the XVIII-th dy nasty was queen Hatchepsut (14671445 B.C.), who declared herself pharaoh. Not on in Egypt, but also in of the world history Hatchepsut is reckoned to be a unique phenomenon. This phenomenon of woman pharaoh contradicted the traditional Egyptian idea of the supreme gov ernor, according to which a woman had no right to became king, so the name of the Hatchepsut who ruled Egypt nearly 20 years, was not in cluded in any official king list. The authors demonstrated how Hatchep 404 Summaries sut appropriated the male gender role, how the features of both sexes manifested themselves in her personality, how it influenced her sur roundings and policy and culture of Egypt and how the recruitment of the gender self-consciousness took place.

S. I. Fyodorov Searching for scenario: Anne of Denmark and her funeral Royal ceremonial is now universally recognized as having serious political and social impact. It was intended to strengthen both the power of the dynasty and the ties of the crown as well as its most important subjects. The point is tested here by consideration of important event, the funeral of Anne of Denmark, the queen consort of James I.

The article is based on analysis of two Bodleian library manu scripts (Rawlinson MSS. B.138. fol.16;

Tanner MSS. 236. fol. 80) and a contemporary narrative from Birch collection (British Library. Birch MSS. 4174), edited by John Nichols.

By serving the queen consort on this formal occasion, nobles ex pected to emphasize the age and grandeur of their title and their family.

They also intended to associate themselves with those mystical attributes of monarchy which were stressed by the ceremonial. But some expecta tions were not come up.

Explanation can be found beyond tradition. Abridged or modified version of Westminster ordo specially drafted for last Tudor queen was not exact to fit the needs of queen consorts funeral. So heralds were faced unknown precedent but their work was not well done. As a result, scenario was imperfect, the order of precedence was not followed par ticularly and in general, some ceremonial figures were missed, offerings at funeral were not prescribed as expected.

E. A. Vishlenkova Gender codes in visual language of Russian nationalism, 18-19 th century The article scrutinizes gender codes in visual narrative of Russian ness in the 18th19th centuries. Beginning in the 18th century, Russian Empire embarks on the process of overcoming its centuries-long isolation in an attempt to find a new identity through exposure to and interactions with the diverse world. The Europeanization stimulated Russian romantic Summaries nationalism with its quest for the signs of national uniqueness. The author traces this evolution on the basis of illustrations in ethnographic publica tions, albums containing drawings of Russian traditional dress, engravings of Russian caricatures and memorial coins and medals featuring allegories of Russia. Together, all these images produced narratives of the past and present of the Russian people. Elena Vishlenkova specifically engages gender metaphors in visual language and considers them as codes reveal ing semantics and imagery of Russian nationalism of the time. This publi cation involves as illustrations visual images of Russianness.

M. V. Griger The status of woman in law documents of Late Antiquity (The Institutions of Gai and the Mishnas chapter Nashim) The article is dedicated to the comparison of the status of woman in two law cultures of Late Antiquity: Roman Law and Jewish-Talmudic Law. The Institutions of Gai and the Mishnas chapter Nashim are the sources for this research. They were written in one historical period (second half of II A.D.) and in one state Roman Empire.

The author makes emphasis on following aspects of comparison:

types of womens dependence, routs of emancipation, wifes property in wedlock, legal capacities of emancipated women. The conclusion of the research does not depict the real situation in society of Late Antiquity. It depicts ideology of Roman and Jewish lawgivers, their concepts about the womans locus in society.

The main result of the M. Grigers research consists in the conclu sion that the both law systems demonstrate similar tendency in vesting propertys rights in emancipated women. Author states that this changes were favourable for the women from the higher social classes.

M. Griger thinks that this tendency was based on global changes that took place in Antique World: the atomization of society and changing orientations of law culture (from the concepts of community and stock to that of individual).

G. S. Zelenina Doa puta vieja: La Celestina Complex in Inquisitorial Records This research is based on Records of the Trials of the Spanish Inqui sition in Ciudad Real, the complete collection of inquisitorial documents 406 Summaries relating to trials of the Ciudad Real Conversos held between 1483 and 1527. The author avoids romanticizing, often characteristic of Jewish his toriography, and analyzes the system of interrelations and mutual percep tions in Converso community on trial, the role of the Tribunal in this sys tem, and representation of women, who were the highest on the list of victims and most active in communal conflicts, in inquisitorial discourse.

V. A. Veremenko The Pension Rights of a Spouse of a Russian State Employee in the second half of the 19th century and in the early 20th century The article is focused on the conditions on which state pensions and old-age insurance pensions were granted to the widows of state employ ees in the second half of the 19th century and in the early 20th century.

The pensions varied from 19 roubles to three thousand roubles per year. In fact, the tsarist government and the old-age insurance offices spent huge amount of money in order to pay pensions to the widows, but most of the grantees found their status unsatisfactory (including those who received the highest pensions). The article shows different ways in which widows of state employees kept the body and soul together. It also tells about state-run and public institutions that helped widows of such civil servants and military men.

The author of the article concludes that it was the government ser vice of the late husband that constituted the main reason to grant money to his widow, no matter whether nobility societies, charitable organizations or even the Russian emperor himself were concerned. It is also noted that widowers did not get any pension. Even in the early 20th century, when a lot of women worked in different institutions and departments and had the right to the state and/or old-age insurance pensions, no pension code pro vided any pension to the widower for his late wifes government service.

E. Yu. Lykova Women at the time of the Conquest E. Yu. Lykova examines the role and the status of women at the epoch of the Spanish Conquest of the South America. She pays attention to the Indian and Spanish women equally. The authors analysis is fo cused on such questions as what were the motives for migration to the New World, the material conditions and the options open to the Spanish Summaries women-migrants. As for the Indian-women, E. Yu. Lykova studies not only their states at the war-time, but also relations between those, who collaborated with the conquerors, and with their tribesmen. For exam ple, she portrays such person as Malinche.

A. A. Salnikova Some words about a red revolutionary goat: symbols and images of 1917 Revolution in contemporary girls eyes The Russian Bolshevik revolution and the following events pro duced a lot of new symbols and images. They caused the very different or even contradictory associations within the given cultural community.

The author deals with the special childish girls symbols of the Revo lution, which reflected the girls world outlook and disposition. The spe cial attention is given to the indication signs (colors, smells, and sounds), symbolic signs (things, clothes, and decorations) and iconic signs (toys and dolls) of the childish culture. Analysis of those symbols gives an opportunity to reveal gender and generation semiotic features while constructing the picture and understanding the 1917 Revolution, the specific character of the childish-women semiotic code of that era.

L. M. Makarova Gender approach to the national socialism The specific of the gender approach of Nazi consists in its focus on the problem of race. The main role in the world, according to the Nazi, belonged to men, whose task was to secure the flourishing of the Aryans throughout the Germany and the occupied lands. Womens role was less important in that world. The gender and the sex had identical definitions.

The statements had been changed according to the transformation of the reality. The gender began to play more important role in societys differ entiation. The forming of the racial and gender stereotypes at the same time shaped the intermediate types of a superman and defective man.

O. V. Shnyrova Anti-suffrage movement as reflection of suffragism The article deals with the history of anti-suffrage movement in Eng land. We can consider anti-suffrage to be a reaction of some groups within the British society to the growth of the movement for the women's 408 Summaries political equality. The author examines the reasons of the rise of the anti suffrage movement, its ideology, evolution and contradictions. The article based on the archival sources mainly from Women's Library of London.

I. A. Shkolnikov British Labour Party and womens suffrage movement In the present article the author considers the history of interaction between the British Labour Party and womens suffrage movement. The key problems of this analysis are the following: attitude of different La bour fractions towards womens enfranchisement, the evolution of the Labour policy on the issue of womens political equality and the trans formation of the suffragists tactics from the strong non-party policy to the suffrage-labour alliance. The author also tries to explain the nature of the given alliance and analyse its effectiveness and advantages for both Labour Party and womens suffrage movement T. V. Koroleva Womens movement and state policy towards female education in 19th-century France 1880s saw dramatic changes in the system of female education in France. From private monastery schools it turned into secular, state controlled colleges. The reform took place as a result of the develop ment of womens movement, which treated the right to education as the main condition for the emancipation of women. The reform also became possible after the liberalization of the political system in France that ini tiated an active state policy in the field of female education. Strong anti clerical views of republican political elite were also of extreme impor tance T. V. Koroleva attempts to find out whether all those processes were intertwined, and which one mostly influenced the changes in the attitudes of French state to female education.

V. P. Frolov First women members of the Liberal Party in the British Parliament 1921 The article is devoted to parliamentary and other social and politi cal activity of the first women MPs represented the Liberal Party during Summaries 19211951. The entrance of the Liberal women into the House of Commons was the objective result not only of the British female suf frage movement, but also of womens activity inside the Liberal Party.

In this connection the author mentions some basic organisational forms of the Liberal womens political activity during the previous period of the 1880s early of the 20th century.

V. Frolov traces basic features of parliamentary activity of such Lib eral women MPs as M. Wintringham, V. Terrington, H. Runciman and M. Lloyd George. He pays attention to political fates of the first and the last ladies. Parliamentary standings of the Liberal women MPs M. Wintringham and M. Lloyd George, in particular deserved recogni tion and left appreciable trace in the history of the House of Commons. In Parliament the first Liberal women MPs paid special attention to social problems, including those which referred to womens position in the Brit ish society. They occupied the leftist positions in the Liberal Parliamen tary Party and were guardians of the heritage of radical liberalism.

The article also shows that the quantitative parameters of parliamen tary representation of the women members of the Liberal Party corre sponded to its small representation and to appropriate relative parameters of the Conservatives and the Labours.

M. O. Dubovitskaja The other side of the policy of the welfare in Sweden: the ster ilization of the 1935 The article throws light on the one of the most discussed problems of the modern Sweden society, the problem of the sterilization. The author depicts a brief history of the sterilizations policy. The main attention is paid to the history and to the conditions of the adoption of the sterilization bills. The other object of M. O. Dubovitskajas interest is the discussion in the Sweden press, which have attracted attention of the Sweden society and the people throughout the world. The discussion and the increase of the interest to the problem as its result have forced the government to re consider a legislation about the sterilization. Moreover the government was forced to compensate the damage to the victims.

410 Summaries T. B. Tiainen State feminism in Sweden, 1950- The article presents a reader an overview of the Swedish model of state feminism. The author shows that Swedish feminism went through several stages in its history. It started with the idea of a unique female role that of mother in public sphere, and has transformed itself into notion of equal social roles of men and women, which consti tutes a basis for the ideology of state feminism. The moderate femi nism of 195070s had developed a concept of free choice. According to it state had to provide women with a choice to be a housewife, or an employee, or to make it possible for women to work and to have children, even as a single parent. The 198090s saw a creation of special institutes that had to safeguard gender equality on labour market. Thus Swedish feminism demonstrated its adherence to Western tradition that accepts the domination of public sphere over private life. Gender equal ity in Sweden is achieved by further transference of family functions into public sphere. At the same time private sphere is being narrowed, its social value and functions are underrated.

I. R. Chikalova Political parties and projects of gender reforms in the USA By the moment of the emergence of the new feminist movement both Republicans and Democrats did not consider women to be partici pants in political life worth their notice. Nevertheless, in 1970s under the pressure from the feminist movements both parties took part in dis putes on numerous aspects of gender reform. The most passionate po lemics initiated by the feminists or their opponents were transferred into disputed among party members;

they concerned the Equal Rights Amendment to the Constitution, as well as the right to abortion and the policy of affirmative actions.

I. R. Chikalova compares positions of the Republicans and the Democrats in these disputes and shows the specific features of their atti tude towards the feminist movement.


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.... : , , . . , . . : -텅.............. . : XVXVI ................................ . . : . . .

(XVIII XIX ).................................................... . . ( )... . . Doa puta vieja:

................. . . XIX ⅅ....... - . . .. . . , 1917 .. 412 . . - 腅. . . ... . . 充... . . XIX .. . . - , 19211951 . ...... . . :

19351975 . .. . .

(19502006 .) . . . .... Summaries............................................................................................ ......................................................................................... CONTENTS Introduction L. P. Pepina Gender hierarchy: and womens power:

Individual experience in social context... Womens images of authority: symbols, rituals and ceremonies S. V. Archipova, L. L. Selivanova Hatchepsut: woman-pharaoh............... F. Cosandey Anne of Brittany and royal ceremonies: representation of the French queen at the border of the 15-16 th centuries...................................... S. I. Fyodorov Searching for scenario: Anne of Denmark and her funeral ... E. A. Vishlenkova Gender codes in visual language of Russian nationalism, 18-19 th century....................................................................................... Gender and law M. V. Griger The status of woman in law documents of Late Antiquity (The Institutions of Gai and the Mishnas chapter Nashim).... G. S. Zelenina Doa puta vieja: La Celestina Complex in Inquisitorial Records ................................. V. A. Veremenko The Pension Rights of a Spouse of a Russian State Employee in the second half of the 19th century and in the early 20th century ........ Gender aspect of social and political catastrophe E. Yu. Lykova Women at the time of the Conquest..... 414 Contents A. A. Salnikova Some words about a red revolutionary goat: symbols and images of 1917 Revolution in contemporary girls eyes.. L. M. Makarova Gender approach to the national socialism.. Gender and policy O. V. Shnyrova Anti-suffrage movement as reflection of suffragism... I. A. Shkolnikov British Labour Party and womens suffrage movement... T. V. Koroleva Womens movement and state policy towards female education in 19th-century France... V. P. Frolov First women members of the Liberal Party in the British Parliament 19211951 M. O. Dubovitskaja The other side of the policy of the welfare in Sweden:

the sterilization of the 19351975.... T. B. Tiainen State feminism in Sweden, 1950-2006 .... I. R. Chikalova Political parties and projects of gender reforms in the USA.... Summaries............................................................................................ Contents................................................................................................

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