авторефераты диссертаций БЕСПЛАТНАЯ БИБЛИОТЕКА РОССИИ



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«УДК 329 ББК 66Политика КТК 057 М63 Редакционная коллегия В. И. Камышанов, Г. С. Михайлов ...»

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from 101 countries took part in its work. The Soviet Peace Committee paid much Strong support by the Assembly of the fair attention to consolidation and development of fri struggle of the Arabian people against expansiona endly relations with mass national organizations of ry acts of Israel, liberation struggle of the people in the developing countries such as Asia, Africa and Asia, Africa and Latin America, outlined program Latin America standing for peace and national of actions against colonialism, neocolonialism and independence.

racism, consolidated the ties of the peace activists In its everyday activity, it was supported by with national liberation movement. the network of republic, territorial, regional peace Сенатор Эдвард Кеннеди и Донаван Карлос на VIII Дартмутской встрече советских и американских общественных деятелей.

Тбилиси, 1974 г.

The senator Edward Kennedy and Donovan Carlos at the VIII Dartmut meeting of Soviet and American public figures.

Tbilisi, 1974.

committees which received ambassadors of peace organisations and their members expanded and organisations and committees from many foreign became stronger. At that time, the idea of mobili countries. Peace movement propagandists, agita sing the world public to take decisive action to tors and activists organized mass actions the most stop the arms race had started up.

important of which were disarmament weeks. The main task of the WPC at the new stage In 1967, the Soviet Peace Committee was was to make efforts to ensure the inconvertibility awarded F. Joliot Curie Peace Golden Medal for and materialization of the relaxation of tensions its contribution to the cause of peace. which had begun and was aimed at consolidation of At the turn of the 1970s, due to the military and the fair democratic peace for all peoples and coun strategic balance between the West and the East and tries. That is why, in October 1972, the WPC came growth of influence of the peace loving public on the forward with an initiative: to hold the World Peace world politics, relaxation in the international rela Congress for international security and disarma tions was established, the culminating point of ment, for national independence, co operation and which was the Conference on Security and Co Ope peace which took place in Moscow in October 1973.

ration in Europe held in three stages (in 1973–1975) Among the participants of the Congress there in Helsinki, Geneva and again in Helsinki. In the were 49 socialist and social democratic parties and Final Act of the Conference the principles of inter movements, 74 Christian democratic, liberal, peas state relations between the countries with different ants’ and other parties.

Representatives of wide social structure were articulated and the program of clerical and business circles of capitalist countries, long term co operation between the signatories in creative and science community, state and political the field of economy, science, technology, environ figures were present at the Congress. An unusual ment protection as well as issues of exchange in the thing was the participation in the Congress on sphere of culture, education, information and con egalitarian basis of both public forces and repres tacts between the people was agreed upon. entatives of the intergovernmental organizations In the environment of relaxed tension the ties including the UN which had never met together to of the Soviet peace activists with foreign peace discuss peace issues before then.

Всемирная конференция «Религиозные деятели мира против ядерной угрозы».

Выступает Патриарх Московский и всея Руси Пимен.

World Conference «Faith based peace activists against the nuclear threat». Speaker Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Pimen.

The participants of the Moscow Congress The World Conference of national peace described their forum as «the beginning of joint movements’ representatives, which was held in national and international efforts aimed at Leningrad from 21 to 24 November, 1975, proclai strengthening of mutual understanding and co ope med expansion of a mass campaign of collecting ration between people of various political views, to signatures under the new Stockholm Appeal «to the benefit of peace». At the end of the Congress draw attention of every government and the Uni work, a common stand of a fundamental nature ted Nations Organisation to the resolute demand was taken which served as a basis for further joint of the peoples to stop the arms race and achieve actions. disarmament». In this connection, in 1976, confe The participants of the Congress expressed rences, demonstrations and marches in support of their confidence that the 1970s proclaimed by the the demands formulated in the Appeal were orga UN as the «Disarmament Decade» would give a nized by mass media.

strong impulse to public actions aimed at accom As a result, 700 million people from more than plishment of new specific measures in the sphere of 100 countries of the world signed the Appeal. In disarmament. 1977–1979 mass actions against the neutron wea In this environment the WPC Presidium pons took place.

Session worked out a new appeal «To Stop the In 1976–1980, due to the persistent efforts Arms Race and Attain Disarmament» and called taken by the Soviet Union and other socialist all governments and parliaments, all public parti countries and all peace loving forces, such impor es, trade unions, women, youth, religious, social tant documents as Charter for Peaceful Coexi and cultural groups to combine forces for a new stence, International Security and Co operation offensive against the arms race, for struggle for and Declaration of Peace Loving Forces Co ope the ban of nuclear weapons and other weapon of ration Principles were adopted. The struggle for mass destruction, for universal and complete disarmament and relaxation of the international disarmament and convening of the World Disar tension became the mainstream in the develop mament Conference. ment of such co operation. A substantial contri «Рейс мира»

представителей профсоюзов ГДР, ФРГ, Дании, Польши, СССР, Норвегии, Финляндии, Швеции и Исландии.

Таллин, 1983 г.

«Peace race» of the representatives of trade unions of the German Democratic Republic, he Federal Republic of Germany, Denmark, Poland, the USSR, Norway, Finland, Sweden and Iceland.

Tallin, 1983.

bution to the consolidation of peace was made by of the European Conference which was proposed the World Conference «To End the Arms Race, for by the Soviet Union.

Disarmament and Detente», which was held in One of the most important working methods Helsinki in September 1976, and the World of the Soviet Peace Committee became the coop Forum of Peace Loving Forces held in Moscow in eration with foreign peace organisations. The part January 1977. ners of the Committee in the joint work included In 1973–1980, the Chilian people solidarity Finland Peace Activists Organisation, Austrian campaign became widely spread. The efforts of Peace Council and Federal Republic of Germany peace activists were aimed at blaming the terror, Committee for Peace, Disarmament and Co Ope rendering moral and material help to the Chilian ration, peace organisations in Asia, Africa, and people. The efforts of the international community Latin America. The SPC built its relations with helped to save the lives of thousands of people, foreign partners on the basis of general objectives, contributed to the economic and political isolation those of protection and consolidation of peace.

of the dictatorial regime. The final documents of the important interna When in summer of 1977 Pentagon plans to tional events held in 1980 – World Peace Council produce and locate in Europe a new weapon of Presidential Committee Session in Budapest, mass destruction, a neutron bomb became known, International Forum «Disarmament and Detente the Soviet peace activists actively joined interna Problems Dialogue» in Vienna and International tional protest movement named «Movement aga Parliamentary Conference for Peace, Disarma inst the Neutron Death». ment an International Security in Helsinki – con In the area of European security, the Soviet firmed growing aspiration of different parties, Peace Committee voted for the implementation of organisations and movements towards effective the program of measures to consolidate peace in joint actions against the USA and NATO policy Europe which was proposed by the countries sig aimed at intensification of the arms race.

natories of the Warsaw Pact in 1979–1980 and for Soviet peace activists opposed to the new the Nonaggression Pact between the participants kinds of American nuclear weapons deployment in Активисты миротворческого движения на Одесщине. Слева направо в первом ряду: Л. Васильева, И. Гайдаенко, Г. Главацкий, Е. Рыбалко;

во втором ряду: И. Зуденко, Б. Усенко, С. Петров, М. Базоев.

Activists of the movement for peace in Odessa region (Ukraine). From left to right in the front row: L. Vasilyeva, I. Gaydaenko, G. Glavatskiy, E. Rybalko, the second row: I. Zudenko, B. Usenko, S. Petrov, M. Basoev.

Europe, standing for extinguishing the tension in other political forces in the world and first of all in the regions of Persian Gulf, Indian Ocean, Medi relation to America. A new page in the public terranean Sea, in the Middle East, in South East diplomacy practice began. The Peace activists’ Asia and in the area of the Caribbean Sea. movement in the USSR gradually turned from the In December 1979, the extraordinary session constant struggle for peace, movement of protest of the World Peace Council Presidential Commit and exposure of the warmongers into the peacema tee Bureau was held in Helsinki. It called all peace king community movement in its original meaning.

loving community to mount an offensive against When speaking of the role and contribution of the deployment of new American nuclear missiles the public diplomacy to solution of the world pro in Europe. The Appeal said that in opposition to blems, it is important to note such international these plans the 1980s should become the period of initiatives of the Soviet Union as unilateral mora progress in cessation and elimination of the arms torium on nuclear testing, recognition of the ideas race. The World Peace Council proposed to make of «general security», «solidarity and interdepen the year 1980 the year of the mass campaign for dence», «reasonable sufficiency of arms» etc.

military detente. The Soviet Peace Committee and republic, The participants of the Vienna Forum stron territorial and regional peace committees varied gly supported the continuation and extension of their working methods. Peace voyages by trains the dialogue on disarmament and detente which in and motor vessels, peace cycle and motor races future would be held by the World Peace Forum. were arranged besides traditional marches, mani Opportunities to take part in these activities festations and rallies.

should be open for the widest range of political Within the World Disarmament Campaign, parties and international non governmental orga weeks of actions for security and co operation in nisations. Europe, month of active actions against nuclear war In the 1980s, the new political environment threat, weeks of active actions for nuclear weapons required new forms of expressing the peacemaking ban and solidarity with Japanese victims of atomic intents of the Soviet society and co operation with bombing and the World Peace Day were held.

Открытие международной фото выставки «Мир нужен всем». Москва The opening of international photo exhibition «Peace need all». Moscow An important feature of the anti war campa SPC invitation. Regular bilateral exchange of igns held by the SPC in close contact with other delegations with the Western countries was carri public organisations was the growing participation ed out with wide coalitions and steering commit of youth, women, creative and scientific commu tees of the anti war forces (The FRG Anti War nities and various professional groups. Youth anti Coordinating Committee;

The Flemish Action war manifestations took place in Moscow, Kiev, Committee Against Nuclear Weapons (Vlaams Minsk, Riga, Gorky, Erevan, Angarsk, Voronezh Aktiekomitee tegen Atoomwapens (VAKA)) and many other cities. Coordination Centre, Belgium;

Bridges for Peace, One more popular form of youth contribution USA and others);

with the peace activists’ associ into peace movement became participation of 70 ations, based on professional unity (Men of Arts million boys and girls in the Soviet National Refe for Nuclear Disarmament, Judges and Prosecutors rendum «I Vote for Peace». Traditionally, in every for Peace, Generals and Admirals for Peace and school of the Soviet Union the first day of studies other);

with such related political parties, organi started from the Lesson of Peace which became for sations as Labour Men for Peace from Great Bri 45 million pupils a lesson of joining the social con tain or SPD (Social Democratic Party of Germa cern of the human race destiny. Women peace ny) Workers’ Community from the FRG;

with manifestations were held in Minsk, Kishinev, Bar religious peace organisations (united church of naul, Murmansk, Saransk and other cities. Impor Christ, USA;

British Church Council;

the FRG tant campaign was held by the Soviet boys and Evangelical Church and others);

with many other girls who during of the While There Is Yet Time anti war organisations, such as, for example, Nuc youth campaign collected nearly 45 million signa lear Disarmament Campaign;

National Committee tures under the Appeal to R. Reagan, the President for Blocking the Nuclear Weapons, USA;

Federal of the United States, with the demand to join the Association of Civic Initiatives for Environment USSR unilateral moratorium on nuclear testing. Protection, the FRG and others.

Foreign delegations representing wide range The most active and permanent ties were esta of political and public forces visited USSR on the blished with national peace movements, following Мистер Президент, Ваши планы по милитаризации космоса ставят под угрозу мою жизнь.

Я, как и все живущие на Земле, хочу мира.

Нет «звездным войнам»!

Московский международный марафон мира Moscow International Peace Marathon the objectives and principles of the World Peace mer of 1986, the Soviet American Peace Voyage Council. Consultative meetings of the heads of along Mississippi took place.

peace organisations of socialist countries were Soviet public representatives took part in the held regularly. In the course of such meetings, work of the International Peace Forum which held main areas of joint activities were discussed, frien the meetings of political and public organisations dly near border meetings with Polish, Czechoslo of various purposes, authorities belonging to com vak, Hungarian;

Mongolian peace activists were munist, social democratic, centrist, Christian also arranged regularly. democratic, liberal, national democratic parties The meetings of the SPC representatives with and representatives of trade unions, youth and political figures, scientists, representatives of the women, religious and other non governmental business circles from the USA (Dartmouth mee organisations.

tings in Hannover, USA, Moscow), the FRG (Ber The SPC delegations traditionally participa gedorf Meetings in Moscow, Baku) became a tra ted in various events held by the United Nations dition. Such dialogue added to better understan Departments for Disarmament Affairs and Public ding of the parties’ positions, attempts to bring Information in its headquarters in New York in the together different views for the sake of creating course of ordinary sessions of the UN General conditions for co operation. Mass meetings of the Assembly. With assistance of the SPC, in June peace loving public from the countries of the 1984, the UN Regional Conference on Non Go North Calotte (transpolar regions of Norway, vernmental Organisations from 23 European USSR, Finland and Sweden) took place on a regu countries and North America was held in Lenin lar basis (once per three years). grad;

in May 1986 the UN Regional Conference on Every year traditional Peace Voyages along Disarmament was held in Tbilisi.

the Volga were arranged;

hundreds of American It should be mentioned that the SPC took citizens took part in them. In Moscow and Kazan, part in such international forums as the Conferen Volgograd and Rostov on Don joint Soviet Ame ce of Anti War Movements in Europe and North rican rallies and meetings were held. In the sum America (Helsinki, October 1984);

International Conference for Peace, Disarmament and Develop Humanity» was convened in Moscow at the initi ment (Havana, January 1985);

Role of Cultural ative of science and culture figures of our country and Science Figures in Consolidation of the Co Ope and it gathered more than one thousand of guests ration and Unity of Anti War Movements, Inter from 80 countries. It was a forum of approval of national Dialogue Meeting (Sofia, June 1985);

For absolute priority of the universal interests with Nuclear Free Europe, Third Anti War Move respect to interests of any other smaller communi ments Conference (Helsinki, October 1985);

and ty: class, nation, party etc. Its motto was the popu International Conference for Peace and Security lar quotation from the Russell Einstein Manifesto:

in Asia and Pacific Ocean Area (October, 1985, «...Remember your humanity and forget the rest».

Sydney) which contributed to the activation of In March the Soviet American conference public forces in terms of promoting security strate «New mind to the nuclear century: social inven gy in Asia and the Pacific Ocean area. tions for the third millennium» took place in Mos The United Nations General Assembly proc cow. For the first time our partners were not our laimed 1986 the International Year of Peace. The well known American friends but the people of year started with the promulgation on January 15, other views and opinions that did not come to 1986 of the Program of Liquidation of Nuclear demonstrate their «will to peace» but to make sure Weapons until 2000. The idea of this Program that the Soviet people were the people just like caused hot discussions both in our country and all them. And for the first time instead of «political over the world. The events of this year were dar boxing» another dialogue method was applied – kened by the disaster at the Chernobyl Nuclear joint search for problems solution.

Power Station. The meeting of experts in Dagomys under the Among major campaigns of this year there was UN World Disarmament Campaign «After Reyk the International Non governmental Organisa javik: Planning for the 1990s» was a practical dis tions Conference in Geneva under the motto play of strengthening co operation with the UN.

«Together for Peace» which started a wide inter The traditional Week of the UN disarmament national public dialogue and the Copenhagen actions started on October 24 by the unpreceden Congress. In the USSR, the first international ted world action «Peace Wave» held at the Soviet 340 meeting «Muslims for Peace» with the participa Peace Committee initiative. It started with the tion of spiritual leaders from 60 countries was mass meeting at noon sharp in Hiroshima and held, as well as the «round table discussion» of s in covered the whole planet, moving from one time Moscow where hunger, poverty and arms race pro zone to another. In all eleven time zones of the blems were discussed. USSR numerous mass actions of the Soviet peace The International Year of Peace saw the revi activists took place.

val of anti war movement in the whole world In 1988, by the decision of the United Nations which suffered a major fall of mass activity after General Assembly, in connection with the fortieth defeat in the issue of deployment of new missiles in anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Europe. Ideological and political atmosphere of Human Rights, the World Campaign aimed at the movement improved considerably, ideological distribution of information and education relating contradictions weakened;

sympathy to our coun to human rights was held.

try and its politics grew. But passive positive per In March at the Associated Plenary Session of ception of the Soviet Union peace initiatives by the Soviet Peace Committee and Soviet Peace international community upon decrease of own Fund in Moscow the program of measures for efforts still prevailed. During the whole year the acceleration and intensification of the peacema unilateral moratorium for Soviet nuclear testing king movement aimed at internal social programs was twice prolonged but it still did not cause the and international problems was laid down.

expected mass movement of the Westerns countri In May the Soviet American Forum «For es. At the same time, a powerful physicians’ move Life with Human Rights» started its activity on ment for nuclear war prevention grew in strength;

a permanent basis;

within the limits of this joint survey of Russian and American scientists of Forum the meetings, press conferences, rallies, the «nuclear winter» caused wide response. concerts, peace marches took place. The mee In February 1987, the International Forum tings of veterans participants of the Elbe river «For a Nuclear Free World and the Survival of link up were held.

Группа членов комиссии по делам вооруженных сил палаты представителей конгресса США на одной из подмосковных ракетных баз. 1989 г.

Members of the commission of the armed forces of the House of Representatives United States Congress on one of the Moscow missile bases. 1989.

The first mission of the Order of Mercy hea world. Planned destruction of missiles in accor ded by the Nobel Peace Prize Laureate Mother dance with the Soviet American Agreement on Teresa started its activity in the All USSR Centre Intermediate and Short Range Nuclear Forces of cerebrospinal injury in Moscow. Liquidation began. At the initiative of the SPC the More than 150 priests, church activists, mem representatives of the numerous international bers of the Christian Peace Service organisation organisations and movements taking an active known in the FRG visited Belorussia under the part in anti missile campaigns of the first half of «redemption and conciliation» campaign held in 1980s arrived at the place of explosion.

the FRG. During the traditional «Peace Wave» in «For nuclear free and ecologically pure Bal August 1989 in Semipalatinsk the co operation tic»! – under this motto, at the WPC initiative, with American activists of the movement to stop the First International Sailing Regatta took place the nuclear testing began;

the joint organisation wherein dozens of Leningrad students took part «Nevada Semipalatinsk» was established.

led by the world known traveller Yu. A. Senke The second stage of the «Peace Wave» in Octo vich. ber coincided with the last explosion in Saryozek.

The efforts of many antiwar organisations While mentioning the historical importance of that concentrated round the United Nations General fact, the SPC drew attention of the respective Assembly Third Special Session on Disarmament authorities and the Supreme Soviet of the USSR to held in New York. And though it did not yield the irrational methods of Intermediate and Short any tangible results (the resulting document was Range Nuclear Forces Liquidation and harmful not adopted), but it made it possible to hold the environmental consequences of the explosions. The simultaneous International Peace Conference in SPC Special Commission on conversion problems New York. took part in the parliament and all country discus And on August 6, on the day of Hiroshima sion on most effective ways of conversion of milita attack, in Kazakhstan in Saryozek settlement ry production to civilian production and use of the there were explosions welcomed by the whole funds which became available. An active co ope Международный семинар «Возможности сотрудни чества России и НАТО в миротворческих опера циях», проведенный Обо ронным колледжем НАТО (Рим) и Центром полити ческих и международных исследований в сотрудниче стве с Федерацией мира и согласия. Москва, 2005 г.

An international seminar «Collaboration opportunities of Russia and NATO in pea cemaking operations», which was held by Armament NATO College (Rome) and Center of political and international studies in cooperation with the Federation for Peace and Conciliation. Moscow, ration with the Bertrand Russell Peace Foundation During the period of «perestroika» and especial was established for work on this issue. ly since 1989, the SPC started paying even more Together with the USSR Nuclear Society esta attention to international relationship in our coun blished in 1989 and the Japan Atomic Industrial try. Together with the American non governmental Forum a large group of well known Soviet and Japan organisation «Search for Mutual Approach» settling science and technology journalists made a trip to different conflicts, the SPC established the Centre of recently strictly confidential enterprises which pro research and settlement of conflicts of different natu duced fuel for nuclear power plants, uranium mines, re and for training specialists in this area. This topic sites of accidents in Chernobyl and South Ural. was studied at the seminar held in November The second stage was the trip of Soviet scientists wherein a large group of English Quakers took part.

and journalists to Japan for the same purposes. As a res In the new «perestroika» conditions the SPC ult, the common book «Nuclear Trace» appeared that created possibilities for informal organisations.

awoke much interest of the Soviet and foreign public. Under its auspices and directly in the movement In accordance with the SPC plan, the First structure coordinated by the SPC the esta International Seminar on Eurochernobyl project blishment of new associations and group began:

took place in Kiev in April 1989. On the basis of «Ecology and Peace» (later become a separate the discussion and subsequent research work, the organisation);

«Generals and Admirals for Peace first report of the Soviet experts on this problem and Disarmament»;

Travel club «For peace and was prepared which fall far beyond the scope of the nature protection»;

«Global Family»;

Internatio catastrophe heavy consequences analysis. Cherno nal Committee «Peace to Oceans» (later also byl tragedy case study for the first time brought up became a separate organisation);

SPC debating an issue of nuclear war impossibility (famous doc society «Human Rights and Peace» (later turned trine «nuclear winter»), as well as of the suicidal into the Human Rights and Peace University);

consequences of any even «ordinary» war conflict International and Political Research Centre that in Europe, which would unavoidably make all our later undertook the major part of the movement’s continent similar to Chernobyl surroundings. analytical research, and others.

The Federation for Peace and Conciliation Admirals for Peace and Disarmament», Children (FPC) is a major public peace organisation, which Diplomacy Centre named after Samantha Smith, international status allows it to act not only in the Mir Teleradio Centre and others.

CIS countries but outside their boundaries as well. The peace activists’ movement in our country The Federation for Peace and Conciliation has at its modern stage is based on the principles of been a successor and in a sense a continuer of the pluralism of opinions and agreement of different SPC since 1992 but it differs from the SPC in many points of view for the sake of peace and concilia key features. The Federation for Peace and Concili tion in Russia and in the world.

ation started its activity in the conditions of the The Federation for Peace and Conciliation refocused international background, after the «cold program objective — «Peace at Home and all over war» termination. The situation arisen opened new World».

possibilities and at the same time created new diffi The Federation for Peace and Conciliation culties for peace movement of our country. special attention towards internal conflicts pro The Federation for Peace and Conciliation was blem proved in the fact that among the main goals created by the Extraordinary Conference of the in 1990s the Conciliation Program was put Federation held on February 4, 1992 in Moscow. forward which aimed at contribution to national, By its structure the Federation for Peace and territorial and ethnopolitical conflicts settlement, Conciliation is a federation of independent partners first of all within the territory of Russia and CIS equal in rights— peacemaking organisations of the established. The Federation for Peace and Conci CIS countries and the regions of the Russian Federa liation put forward peacemaking and mediatory tion, standing for civil peace and national concilia activity through negotiation processes settlement tion affirmation, for disarmament, just and safe world as a main conciliation method.

peace, international economic co operation, human Over a period of its activity, the Federation rights and environment protection. On its esta for Peace and Conciliation strictly follows these blishment the Federation for Peace and Conciliation guidelines.

comprised 70 organisations on a voluntary basis. In 1992–1994, the Federation for Peace and Theywere members of the Federation for Peace Conciliation held a series of mediatory meetings and Conciliation exist in the CIS countries: Natio on conflicts between North Ossetia and Ingushe nal Peace Committee of Republic of Azerbaijan, tia, Abkhazia and Georgia, South Ossetia and Armenian Committee for Peace and Conciliation, Georgia settlement.

Public Association Belarusian Peace Committee, In January 1996, the Federation for Peace and Peace Committee of the Republic of Georgia, Conciliation together with the Centre for Politics Public Association Council for Peace and Concili and International Studies and other organisations ation of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Public Asso held the conference «Risks and challenges to safe ciation Council for Peace and Conciliation of the ty in Eurasia at the end of the XX century» with Kyrgyz Republic, Latvian movement for peace, the participation of experts of respective institu Lithuanian Peace Forum, Public Association tions from 28 countries.

«Аlliance for Peace of the Republic of Moldova», In April of the same year the conference Russian Peace Committee, Republican Public «Russian National Security Policy» organised by Association Peace Committee of the Republic of the Federal Migration Service (FMS) and the Tajikistan, The Peace Fund of Turkmenistan, the Moscow Division of the Russian Scientific Fund Ukrainian Peace Council. was held where the project «The Russian National Numerous local Russian peacemaking, ecolo Security Policy for 1996–2000» prepared by the gical, human rights, scientific and cultural associ Analytic Group under the Assistant to the Pres ations and groups representing the interests of ident of the Russian Federation for National Secu various sections of the population, people with rity was discussed. The participants exchanged their various ideological, philosophic, religious and opinions on conceptual issues of the national security, political beliefs become also members of the Fede national interests and threats, principal directions of ration for Peace and Conciliation: Moscow Peace the national security and potential of securing thereof.

Committee, Petersburg Peace and Conciliation Security issue became more acute as the Council, Association of politico military and mili NATO started planning its expansion to the East.

tary history research, Russian group «Generals and The Russian state and public structures had to Вечер памяти лауреата Нобелевской премии мира сэра Джозефа Ротблата в Центральном Доме ученых РАН. 2005 г.

The Nobel laureate sir Joseph Rotblat memorial evening in the Central House of Scientists of the RAS. 2005.

assess the existing situation and adjust its foreign Security and Co operation in Europe (OSCE), policy and national security strategy accordingly. NATO, Western European Union and the CIS The FPC also contributed to this activity;

it ren Headquarters for Coordination of Military Co o dered assistance to governmental institutions peration took part there.

within its powers through the methods so charac In a complicated international environment teristic of this organization: scientific expertise, the Russian Government being supported by the consulting, organizational measures. public approval, including non governmental The international conference «NATO Evolu organisations, headed a reasonable way in foreign tion and Interests of Russia» held by the FPC and policy without any extremes: either following the Russian Peace Committee in March 1995 des lead of or confronting with the NATO. Equal pea erves a special attention. Representatives of the cekeeping partnership with the NATO was pur Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of sued. But our partnership relations with the Defence, General Headquarters, CIS and NATO NATO were put on trial due to the crisis around experts discussed political aspects and consequen Kosovo resulting in large scale military actions.

ces resulting from expansion of the North Atlantic In such a difficult situation, mutual under Treaty Organisation. The Conference became an standing between the participants of international important forum for consultations of governmen negotiations and debates in the spirit of the UN is tal and non governmental experts of Russia and especially important.

other countries where guidelines aimed at con The Federation for Peace and Conciliation flict free, partner East West relationships were regularly holds international forums, conferen elaborated. The member organisations of FPC – ces, seminars, round tables on international secu the Centre for Political and International Studies rity, disarmament where representatives of and the Russian Piece Committee – held the inter foreign state and non governmental organisa national conference «Russia – NATO Arrange tions and educational institutions, on the one ments: Prospects and Effects». Specialists from part, and their Russian colleagues, on the other 16 countries, Headquarters of the Organisation for part, as a rule, reach understanding by comparing and bringing different opinions together and in developing appropriate laws, conducting public coming over suspiciousness, prejudice and misun hearings, collecting and analyzing information on derstanding. human rights violation, rendering practical legal The FPC gives a special attention to disarma aid to individuals, participating in the internatio ment. A conference for conversion of Russian nucle nal human rights movement.

ar cities was held. As Russia joined the International The Human Rights Committee under the Pres Convention on Chemical Weapons Prohibition and ident of the Russian Federation acts in co operation Destruction in 1998 a number of measures were with the FPC. It holds joint conferences with the taken. Special conference on biological weapons pro participation of public and state institutions.

blems took place in 1999 where experts from four The Federation for Peace and Conciliation countries discussed prospects and forms of esta held the third expert meeting «International Co blishing the World Organization for the implemen operation in Confrontation to Terrorism» at the tation of the bio weapons prohibition convention. beginning of 2005, it was organized within the The Russian Paguosh Committee under RAS FPC project «Terrorism in the XXI century:

Presidium, a FPC member organization, makes a background and countermeasures».

significant contribution to the implementation of The Federation for Peace and Conciliation, the International Security Program. the Centre for Political and international Studies, The FPC program «Environmental Security the Centre of the North Atlantic Security of Mos and Humanitarian Co operation» proved to be the cow State University of Foreign Affairs under the most popular one in the last decade. It embodies Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federa the principles of public initiative and activity tion and the Russian Politics Association with the regarding urgent matters of nations and states co assistance of Friedrich Ebert Foundation held the operation at the non governmental level. international seminar «Strategy of Dialogue Many persons of science and culture, public between Russia, the Collective Security Treaty officials, journalists, entrepreneurs, the youth take Organization and the European Union on Securi part in charitable and humanitarian actions orga ty» in spring of the same year.

nized by the FPC. Such projects as «Friendship The members of the Federation for Peace and Chaplet», «To Moscow with Love» and «Times Conciliation took part in the 55th conference of and Nations Link» were highly appreciated by the the Pugwash Movement of Scientists for Peace people. Special attention deserves rallying of held in summer and timed to the 60th anniversary various national and religious communities of of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Moscow and other regions. and to the 50th anniversary of the Russell – Ein Within the program «Environmental Security stein Manifesto.

and Humanitarian Co operation» the most impor The International Seminar «Russia and tant project is «On the way to Conciliation» NATO Co operation in Peacekeeping Opera implemented by the Committee for Public and tions» was held by the Federation for Peace and Interregional Relations of the Moscow Govern Conciliation in autumn. It touched many ment. The Centre «Ecology, Health, Culture» aspects of peacekeeping operations in general as which objectives include wide educational and well as the problems of political peacekeeping agitational activity in healthy lifestyle, personal co operation between Russia and NATO.

health improvement, ecological upbringing of chil Urgent topics submitted for expert considera dren and the youth, spiritual culture enrichment tion included the scope and potential areas for and creation of the single humanitarian space of joint Russia NATO peacekeeping operations, the multinational city work under the Committee. co operation with the international organiza The program «Civil Society and Human tions (United Nations, European Union, Orga Rights» is an important aspect of the FPC activi nization for Security and Co operation in Euro ty. Apart from distributing rights protection pe) in a number of peacekeeping aspects, deve knowledge, information on international agree lopment of legal and military and political ments and pacts, political, economic and social mechanisms and limitations of peacekeeping rights, UN activity and other intergovernmental activity for Russia and NATO.

and non governmental organizations for human As political situation in some CIS countries rights protection, FPC and its members take part changed due to the «colour revolutions» and pro blems of sharing functions and areas of responsibi in Nuclear Weapons Control and Nuclear Non lity between different regional organizations: CIS, proliferation: Comparison of Russian and Western Shanghai Co operation Organization, Collective Approaches»;

it also organized and held an inter Security Treaty Organization and Eurasian Eco national interconfessional conference «Dialogue nomic Community, FPC participated in the inter between Religions and Cultures – the Way to Peace national conference «New Political Processes in and Conciliation» supported by the Rosa Luxem the Post Soviet Space» which took place in April burg Foundation in St. Petersburg, spring 2007.

2006 in St. Petersburg. It was attended by repres The FPC together with the Paguosh Movement entatives of the Secretariat of the Collective Secu of Scientists for Peace, Russian Association of Politi rity Treaty Organization, the Interparlamentary cal Science and Hudson University (USA) organiz State Assembly – members of CIS, International ed and held in summer the International Conference Politics Association, Federation for Peace and «Nuclear Weapons Non Proliferation: Advances, Conciliation as well as of leading scientific res Failures, Lessons» as well as the international round earch institutions of Armenia, Belarus, Brazil, table devoted to the 50th anniversary of the VI Germany, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, the Repu World Festival of Youth and Students of 1957 in blic of Korea, Russia, Tadzhikistan, Turkey, Ukrai Moscow. The Department of International Relations ne, Sweden and Japan. for the city of Moscow also took part in organizing The members of the Federation for Peace and this event. The delegates and members of the Conciliation prepared the report «Scientists’ Respon Festival and festival movement veterans from Russia sibility and International Security Problems» at the and abroad participated in the round table.

4th Convention of the Russian Association of Inter The Federation for Peace and Conciliation national Studies «Space and Time in the World Poli were among the originators of the International tics and International Relationships» held in Moscow Conference «Islam: Conflicts, Peacekeeping»

and attended by 700 participants from 19 countries. It held in Kazan (Tatarstan) with the assistance of was the greatest professional event of 2006 for the the Academy of State and Municipal Manage foreign affairs experts of Russia and Europe. ment with the President of the Republic of Tatar The Federation for Peace and Conciliation stan, Friedrich Ebert Foundation (Germany), 348 took part in the International Conference «The Centre for Politics and International Studies, Nuremberg Trials and International Legitimacy Paguosh Movement of Scientists for Peace sup Problems» held in November. It was organized at ported by Spiritual Board of Tatarstan Muslims the initiative of the Interregional Public Fund in January, 2007.

«Distinguished Military Leaders and Naval Among principal topics at the conference Commanders of the Great Patriotic War there were «Islamic Factor in International Con 1941–1945» and the Research Institute for law flict Striking and Settlement», «Islam: State and and order enforcement problems under the Pros Security Problems in the Russian Federation», ecutor General’s Office of the Russian Federa «International Organizations’ Role in Conflict tion. The Conference was held with the assistan Settlement» and «Interreligious and Intercultural ce of the Moscow Government and the Interna Dialogue Arrangement». V. I. Kamyshov, Presi tional Union of Lawyers. It was a continuation of dent of the Federation for Peace and Conciliation the first International Conference «The Nurem spoke on non governmental organizations’ secu berg Trials: history and modern times» which ring regional and international security, A. I. Niki took place in 2001. tin, a member of FPC Bureau, delivered a speech V. I. Fedosov, the Chairman of the Federation concerning Collective Security Treaty Organiza for Peace and Conciliation, a member of the Public tion and Shanghai Co operation Organization in Chamber of the Russian Federation said that it Central Asia and Eurasia.

was time to address the Nuremberg Trials both as In March of the same year, the Federation for a historic heritage and a way of solving modern Peace and Conciliation held in Moscow the Inter problems: neofascism, extremism and terrorism, national Conference «Security in Central Asia:

human rights violation, war and conflicts unle Interests of Russia and Europe». In the course of ashing and international law infringement. the final discussion the participants of the confe The Federation for Peace and Conciliation rence noted that in spite of the joint desire of the held an international conference called «Priorities countries of the region to ensure security both at Встреча в Федерации мира и согласия представителей молодого поколения с ветеранами, посвященная 60 й годовщине Победы в Великой Отечественной войне. 2005 г.

The meeting in the Federation for Peace and Conciliation of the young generation representatives with veterans, devoted to the 60th anniversary of the Victory in the Great Patriotic War. 2005.

the national and regional levels, there is a number ference of International Non Governmental Orga of objective circumstances preventing them from nizations (INGOs) of the Council of Europe, arranging effective regional security system. The Annelise Oeschger, with the representatives of participants of the meeting were welcomed by the Russian NGOs. In this meeting, representatives of leaders of the Collective Security Treaty Organi the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian zation (CSTO) Secretariat. Federation;

Strategy, St. Petersburg Humanitari The Federation for Peace and Conciliation an and Political Centre, Moscow Helsinki Group, representatives spoke at the Fourth International Social Workers and Social Pedagogues Union, Interuniversity Scientific Conference «Russia and Russian Lawyers’ Association, Russian Peace Modern World: Political Development Problems» Fund, International Youth Human Rights Move held in Moscow. Scientists from Azerbaijan, Arme ment, Russian Peoples Assemblies and leaders of nia, Bangladesh, Belorussia, Brazil, Hungary, India, other Russian public organizations took part.

Kazakhstan, Canada, Nigeria, Poland, Slovakia, Urgent problems of civil society development and USA, Tadzhikistan, Turkey, Uzbekistan, Ukraine, dialogue between the power and non governmen Estonia and South African Republic took part in tal Russian community were discussed as well as the Conference. Among the main topics discussed plans for interaction of INGOs Conference with there were the establishment of civil society and Russian non governmental organizations.

constitutional state in our country, development of In May, within the International Conference relations between the CIS countries, experience «Globalisation and Terrorism: Contradictions and and prospects of the dialogue between federal and Threats of the XXI Century», the Federation for regional powers, formation of the modern elites and Peace and Conciliation together with the interna their participation in political and public life of tional education chair of the Moscow Institute of various countries and dynamics of the religious fac Open Education held the informational round table tor role in modern political environment. discussion «Social and Cultural Aspects of Ensu The Federation for Peace and Conciliation ring Security of the Society by Means of Educa held working meeting of the President of the Con tion». Representatives of the UN, The Migrant Пресс конференция в рамках проекта Федерации мира и согласия и Библиотеки фонда «Русское зарубежье» «Русский Карфаген». Москва, 2007.

350 На фото (слева направо): заместитель председателя межгосударственной телерадиокомпании «Мир» И. Н. Двуреченский, координатор проекта «Русский Карфаген» Галли Монастырева, президент Федерации мира и согласия В. И. Камышанов, президент РОО Международный клуб ЮНЕСКО «Единство» С. М. Гоголев, командир 10 й юбилейной научно исследовательской экспедиции московских школьников «Севастополь–Бизерта» капитан I ранга С. А. Мозговой.

A press conference within the project of the Federation for Peace and Conciliation and Library fund «Russian foreign» «Russian Carthage». Moscow, 2007.

On the photo (left to right): an assistant of the president of the interstate television company «Mir»

I. N. Dvurechenskij, a coordinator of the project «Russian Carthage» Galli Monastyreva, the president of the Federation for Peace and Conciliation V. I. Kamyshanov, the president of the International UNESCO club «Unity» S. M. Gogolev, the captain of the 10th anniversary scientific and research expedition of Moscow pupils «Sevastopol–Bizerta» post captain S. A. Mozgovoi.

Federation of Russia, The Moscow State Depart In July 2008, in Pugwash, Canadian village ment of Education, The Moscow Interethnic Ties (New Scotland province), the International Con and National Policy Committee and teachers of ference of Parliamentarians for Nuclear Non proli Moscow took part in the round table discussion. feration and Disarmament took place. S. I. Koles Participants of the discussion examined the issues of nikov, Member of the Bureau of the Federation for social and cultural public environment, expressed Peace and Conciliation, Vice President of the their advice on prevention of xenophobia and International Physicians for the Prevention of ethnic or confessional extremism in the sphere of Nuclear War international movement, Deputy education and mentioned the necessity of interrela Chairman of the Russian State Duma Committee tion between the civil society structures and educa on Health Protection, Academician of the Russian tional system. Academy of Medical Sciences took part in the work of the Conference. In the course of the dis military and guard firms), analysed the experience cussion, the participants agreed that it was neces in this sphere of USA, the European Union, the sary to support the movement against ABM Russian Federation and CIS countries, the states systems deployment in Poland and Czech of Africa and Latin America.

Republik and raise that issue at the discussion of The situations in Georgia, South Ossetia and the European Parliament and the NATO Parlia Abkhazia were considered in the course of the mee mentary Assembly. The suggestion to continue the ting, particularly with a view to the problem of par Meeting for Nuclear Disarmament at the round ticipation in military operations of mercenaries from table discussion in Russia in spring of 2009 was other countries and the possible actions for preven welcomed;

the aim was to draw up new opportu tion of similar situations in the region in future.

nities of influencing the parliaments and govern In January 2009, the regular session of the ments in the issues of disarmament. Conference of International Non Governmental In October, the Federation for Peace and Con Organizations with the status of the member of the ciliation supported the No to War – No to NATO Council of Europe in Strasbourg (France) was Appeal which was adopted at the end of the Stutt held. Victor Kamyshanov, President of the Federa gart Peace Conference and was signed by over tion for Peace and Conciliation, took part in the 60 peace and anti war organizations and move meetings. Jean Marie Heydt, Head of the Associ ments from 14 countries of the world. This Appeal ation of Training Centres for Socio Educational was open for signing to public organizations from Care Work, was elected a new president of the every country of the world including Russia. Conference of INGOs of the Council of Europe for The authors of the Appeal while noting the nega the three year term at the meeting. The meeting tive role of NATO in the achievement of safety in dif between Victor Kamyshanov, President of the ferent areas of the planet, in acceleration of the arma Federation and Jean Louis Laurent, Director Ge ment race and increase of military expenditures of dif neral of the Department of Political Affairs was ferent countries, remonstrated in connection with the conducted in the course of the INGOs session.

continuing process of expansion of the alliance as well The President of the Federation for Peace and as in connection with use of the NATO as a mecha Conciliation Victor Kamyshanov was awarded nism for acts of force by USA and their allies in cir with the medal of the Russian Union of Former cumvention of the UN and rules of international law. Juvenile Prisoners of Fascist Concentration The Federation for Peace and Conciliation Camps «Unsubdued People», All Russian Social held Regional Consultations of the United Organization, for active participation in prepara Nations Organization concerning the problems of tion and implementation of this project.

the private military sector regulation. The event The eleventh expert meeting «Place of Terro was prepared by the Department of Formalities of rism in Regional Conflicts (in the context of the UNO jointly with the Russian Association of Poli Middle Eastern conflict)» was held at the initiati tical Science, the Centre of Political and Interna ve of the Federation for Peace and Conciliation.

tional Studies and the Centre of European and The Member of the Bureau of the Federation for Atlantic Safety of Moscow State Institute of Peace and Conciliation Aleksey Malashenko, Doc Foreign Affairs (University) of the Ministry of tor of Historical Sciences, Professor, the Member Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation. The of the Research Council of Carnegie Moscow Cen members and experts of the international Working tre, made the main presentation. The existing Group (formality) of the UN on mercenaries and approaches to determination and classification of private military firms, the members of the UN Sec terrorism as a phenomenon and a process were dis retariat (Geneva), the representative office of the cussed in the course of the meeting. The issue of European Union in the Russian Federation, the occurrence of terrorism, its development as a his Secretariat of CSTO, the representatives and torical phenomenon and forecasting of its further experts of ministries of foreign affairs of 15 states, existence, particularly in connection with geopoli including the countries of CIS, the Central and tical, religious, economic, information and other Eastern Europe took part in the consultations. factors, was brought up. The problems of probabi The participants of the consultations discussed the lity of use of nuclear and bacteriological weapons restrictions for delegation of state authorities in by terrorists and the danger of terrorists acting the military sphere to the private sector (private alone were considered. The wishes were expressed Президент Лиги здоровья нации кардиохирург Л. А. Бокерия выступает на церемонии открытия выставки общественных организаций России «Гражданское общество: здоровый образ жизни, охрана здоровья населения и окружающей среды», прошедшей с участием Федерации мира и согласия. Москва, 2007 г.

The President of the league of nation's health cardiac surgeon L. A. Bokerija appears at the ceremony 352 of opening an exhibition of Russian social organizations «Civil society: healthy lifestyle, health protection of the population and environmental protection», which took place with the participation of the Federation for Peace and Conciliation. Moscow, 2007.

that sociologists and theologians would be closer you upon election of you as the Patriarch of Mos to the practice, should help governmental institu cow and All Russia by the Ecclesiastical Council of tions to forecast, assess and prevent terrorism. The the Russian Orthodox Church. We would like to experts expressed their opinions concerning the wish you prosperity, successes during your highly events happened recently in the Middle East, ter demanding walk of life, good health and longevity.

rorist act in India (Mumbai – Bombay), the situa We hope that the Russian Orthodox Church would tion in the Chechen Republic. prosper and flourish within the years of your The round table meeting devoted to family patriarchate and that it would undergo all trials issues was held within the framework of the inter prepared for it praiseworthy. May peace and conci national debating society «Moscow Ark» in the liation reign both in the society where we live and course of the cycle of parental lectures. The issues in the souls of each of us».

of family culture, spiritual and moral values, impor The meeting of the Committee of the Federa tance of the role of man, woman and the older gene tion Council of the Federal Assembly of the Russi ration in the family, the questions of responsibility an Federation on questions of development of and mutual understanding of members of the fami institutions of the civil society considering the ly, upbringing etc. were discussed at the meeting. questions of improvement of participation of non The Federation for Peace and Conciliation governmental organizations in expert analysis of sent congratulations to Kirill, Elected Patriarch of legislative activity in the Federal Assembly of the Moscow and All Russia. This letter said particular Russian Federation was held.

ly: «The International Public Organization «Fede The celebratory event, a constituent part of ration for Peace and Conciliation» congratulates the cycle «Nobody is Forgotten, Nothing is For gotten» devoted to the Defender of the Fatherland the subject of that was «Treaty on European Safe Day was held in the Federation for Peace and ty: Structure, Basis Concept, Subject Blocks and Conciliation. The guests were veterans of Great the Algorithm of Advancement» was held in the Patriotic war, representatives of the Joint Council Foreign Policy Planning Department of the Mini of Veterans of Naval Forces, cultural figures. stry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation.

In February 2009, the sixth annual meeting The media conference devoted to implemen between the governing body of the Ministry of tation of the Peace through Art Program was con Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation and the ducted in the Press House. This program unites representatives of Russian non governmental the efforts of Russian artists and specialists in the organizations of the Russian Federation was held domain of culture and art concerning populariza in Moscow. Victor Kamyshanov, President of the tion of art work by means of 3D technologies.

Federation for Peace and Conciliation, took part Peacemaker, International Alliance developed the in this meeting. Sergey Lavrov, Minister of exclusive project for this purpose using up to date Foreign Affairs said concerning need for «active technologies named «Museum of the New Genera use of resources, potential, initiatives of institu tion» (or multimedia 3D Art hall).

tions of the civil society in the sphere of public The book «Lessons Learned from Non Proli diplomacy» in the course of the meeting. feration Failures and Successes» prepared by a He mentioned that the Ministry of Foreign group of Western and Russian experts on interna Affairs of the Russian Federation would support tional affairs was published in March as part of the promotion of relations of Russian non governmen project supported by the Federation for Peace and tal organizations with their partners in CIS, coun Conciliation and its member organizations.

tries of Europe and Asia (including relations The European Peace Conference was held in within framework of the Council of Europe, EU Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany) that was and OSCE). S. Lavrov made a point of the conducted in connection with the tenth anniversa III Regional Congress of NGOs of the Council of ry of the war of NATO against Yugoslavia and Europe held in December of the past year in actions taken in connection with the sixtieth anni Penza, in preparation of that the Federation for versary of NATO. The participants heard the deta Peace and Conciliation participated actively. The iled report on the military policy of the USA and minister emphasized that «we developed relations NATO in the contemporary context, the informa with our reliable authoritative partners such as the tion of American structure of over 700 military Centre of National Glory and St. Andrew the Apo bases all over the world. The participants exchan stle Fund, the Federation for Peace and Concilia ged their opinions concerning the preparation for tion etc. successively». taking of anti war actions «No to War – No to The Conference «Spiritual and Moral Struc NATO» in Strasbourg, Baden Baden on April ture in the Modern Educational and Cultural 2009 and the International Conference devoted to Space» was held in Moscow as a part of the XVII the tenth anniversary of the war in Yugoslavia.

International Christmas Educational Readings The Federation for Peace and Conciliation «Science, Education, Culture: Spiritual and Moral took the lead in holding of the round table discus Foundations and Ways of Development». sion «The role of non governmental organizations The contest quiz «Let’s Revive the History» for political socialisation of young people».

was conducted in the Federation for Peace and The main idea of the discussion was the propo Conciliation for the purpose to contribute to civil sition that the youth is not only a mobile force;

it is and patriotic upbringing and to strengthen the the structure, the people which will determine many interest of children and the youth to the history of processes soon. Hence, it may be applied not only to the Russian Army, Fleet and Aviation. The contest the sphere relating to the politics or the civil society was held jointly with Young Ambassadors of the but also to the functionality of the state in its entity World Culture, a regional social organization of where the civil society is only an institution.

children and the youth, and was devoted to the The news conference «Appeal of the Medical Defender of the Fatherland Day. Community for the World without the Nuclear The round table meeting between the repre Weapons» was conducted in the Moscow press sentatives of the Russian scientific and expert centre of Rosbalt. The participants of the media community and non governmental organizations, conference made the point of need to expand the dialogue between countries. The probability of the Approximately two hundred scientists, politici nuclear war was considered within recent years not ans and diplomats from more than 35 countries of the so often. Nevertheless, it is necessary to attract the world gathered at this forum. The conference was attention of public to this problem. It is required to conducted «behind closed doors» pursuant to the expand the dialogue between world states especial tradition established by the founders of Pugwash ly as the anti war movement becomes more active movement in 1975 and the participants represented in connection with the sixtieth anniversary of only themselves but not their states or organizations.

NATO. It is the time to open negotiations on the The central event of the conference became Convention on Elimination of Nuclear Weapons. the symposium «Further Steps towards Nuclear The Appeal of the Medical Community for the Disarmament». The participants heard the spee World without the Nuclear Weapon was sent to ches on the prospect of Nuclear Weapons Non Barack Obama, President of the USA and Dmitry Proliferation Treaty, resumption of Russian and Medvedev, President of the Russian Federation. American disarmament process, ratification of The regular Moscow International Festival Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty and other urgent Contest of Children’s and the Youth Artistic Crea problems of non proliferation and disarmament.

tion «Open Europe» was conducted in Moscow. The joint meting between the European and This contest gathers talented children from all areas Russian branches of the organization «International of Russia as well as CIS and other foreign countries. Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War» and The organisers of the contest festival are the the International Symposium «Nuclear Weapons, International Association of Promotion of Culture Violation, Health» was held in Helsinki (Finland).

and the Representative Office of International The participants discussed the questions rela Children’s and the Youth Festivals and Contests in ting to the problems of population safety in the Russia in co operation with the Federation for conditions of the nuclear conflict and consequen Peace and Conciliation. The appeal for the protec ces for environment.

tion of peace and the right for childhood without The celebratory event devoted to the Day of wars adopted by the participants were submitted Revival, Unity and Poetry of Makhtumkuli Fragi to international and national institutions. contributed to forming of principles of peace and 356 The first educational session of the 14th conciliation. The poems of Makhtumkuli learn and cohort of CIS of the International Program «Lea edify, gladden hearts and give hope not only to ders in the Sphere of Environment and Develop Turkmen people but to the whole world within ment» was held in Golitsyno in the Moscow more than 200 years.

Region. The Leadership for Environment and Based on the universally recognised principles Development Program (LEAD) has established and regulations of international and state law in the international network of professionals from the sphere of preparation and holding of elections, 80 countries of world within fifteen years of its the group of 11 representatives of the Federation existence;

this network unites nearly two thou for Peace and Conciliation and its regional organi sand representatives of governmental and non go zations as international observers were in the vernmental organisations, business, science and Republic South Ossetia where the elections of education, mass media. The world team of stu deputies to the Parliament of the Country were dents graduated from this Program, many of conducted. The elections were the greatest social which became ministers, deputies, great scientists and political event in the life of a young country.

and businessmen, heads of mass media, is of consi They gave the convincing evidence of strengthe derable importance for solution of national and ning of the democratic basis of the state, its inde global problems in the process of stabile develop pendence and national sovereignty.

ment of humanity today. Annual in all countries The meeting between J. Dhanapala, President and areas The 58th Annual Pigwash Conference of the International Conference on Science and of the international scientific organization on sci Foreign Affairs (International Pugwash move ence and world affairs awarded with the Nobel ment of scientists) and the representatives of the Prise for Peace in 1995 was held in Hague (the peacemaking organization and movements of Rus Netherlands) and was devoted to the theme «Jus sia was conducted in June in the Federation for tice, Peace and Nuclear Disarmament». Peace and Conciliation.

«Пусть величайшие почести воздаются тем, кто предотвращает войну, кто мудрым советом восстанавливает согласие и мир, всеми силами делает так, что становятся ненужными все армии и огромные запасы оружия».

Эразм Роттердамский (1469—1536).

«Трактаты о вечном мире»

На передовой защиты мира на Земле Однажды, а было это в середине прошлого века, то есть примерно в то время, когда образовался Советский комитет защиты мира, некий швейцарский ученый математик подсчитал, что за 5 559 лет (а тогда это было ровно столько, сколько помнило о себе человечество, — так утверждают ученые) было 14 513 войн, в которых погибло 31,4 миллиарда человек. Теперь то эти цифры выглядят значительнее, хотя, как утверждается, с того времени мировых войн якобы не было. По крайней мере, в той форме, как это мы привыкли себе представлять. И это хорошо: случись такое, нам бы не пришлось читать эту книгу и вообще размышлять о чем бы то ни было.

Так вот, глава эта как раз о тех людях, чьим трудом и рождением охранялся, по мере их сил и возможностей, мир на нашей планете. Они — наши земляки. Граждане Советского Союза — бывшей нашей Родины и — россияне, как принято говорить нынче, граждане России. Многих из них, читатель, вы хорошо знаете или знали. Дела и жизнь их были, а у многих и сейчас, на виду. Делу защиты мира на земле, сохранению спокойствия на планете они посвятили свою жизнь. Не всегда это были какие то яркие, значительные поступки и подвиги, о которых тотчас или позже узнавал весь мир. Такое происходило не часто. Как правило, это была незаметная повседневная работа по выработке документов, деклараций, соглашений, заявлений. Были встречи, беседы — тайные и явные. Но в результате улаживались конфликты и напряженные ситуации и кнопки запуска ракет оказывались ненажатыми. Разве все расскажешь? Да и не все можно рассказать.

Однако жизнь каждого из этих публичных людей интересна и многогранна. И мы осветим те ее аспекты, которые, на наш взгляд, не только подчеркнут деятельность наших героев в рамках их вклада в дело борьбы за мир, но покажут ее шире, значительнее, раскроют именно те черты характера, качества, что ли, личности, которые ее, эту личность, привели в ряды борцов за мир.

НИКОЛАЙ СЕМЁНОВИЧ ТИХОНОВ ПИСАТЕЛЬ, ГЕРОЙ СОЦИАЛИСТИЧЕСКОГО ТРУДА, ДЕПУТАТ ВЕРХОВНОГО СОВЕТА СССР, ПРЕДСЕДАТЕЛЬ СОВЕТСКОГО КОМИТЕТА ЗАЩИТЫ МИРА В миротворческом движении нашей планеты в отечественном ряду движения можно уверен но среди первых (а возможно и первым!) назвать Н. С. Тихонова, который не нуждается в особенных рекомендациях, но повториться о нем — лишь в очередной раз отдать ему дань уважения и признательности. Ибо всемирное миротворческое движение, его мощный поток в СССР, наследованный новой Россией, без Н. С. Тихонова был бы качественно совсем не таким, каким является сейчас;

возможно, более слабым и не столь эффективным по результатам деятель ности. И всеобщее благо, что такую роль взял на себя и отлично исполнил поэт высокого ранга.

За признанными рапсодами всегда охотно идут народы. Вполне естественным было избрание Н. С. Тихонова, уже мэтра литературы, председателем Советского комитета защиты мира. Трид цать лет, вплоть до кончины в 1979 году, он состоял членом Всемирного Совета Мира. На антиво енную стезю ступил еще в 1935 году, когда впервые поехал в составе советской делегации на Кон гресс в защиту мира в Париже, отразив впечатления от поездки по Западной Европе в сборнике стихотворений «Тень друга» (1936). Впоследствии побывал с мирной миссией в ряде стран Евро пы и Азии. Редкий форум сторонников мира был пропущен им в последующие годы, где он видел ся самым представительным лицом Страны Советов.

Но какая же судьба породила столь заметную фигуру?!

Блистательный Денис Давыдов убедил нас, что если гусар берется за перо, оно оставит на бумаге в брызгах чернил звонкие, запоминающиеся поэтические строки. Юный петербуржец Николай Тихонов «отгусарил» Первую мировую войну «по полной». Контузия выбила его из седла, но не лишила боевого задора: оправившись, он добровольцем вступил в Красную армию;

оттуда, по демобилизации, попал в «Дом искусств», где литературные «Серапионовы братья» охотно приняли в свои ряды одаренного петербуржца, яркий поэтический талант которого был оценен читателями и мэтрами литературы;

в частности Н. С. Гумилевым, наставником новых талантов, ставшего «маяком» молодого ветерана двух войн.

Первые сборники стихов Н. С. Тихонова «Орда» и «Брага» (1922) остались вершиной его творчества, считает отечественная критика. Многие стихотворения стали классикой жанра балла ды: «Баллада о синем пакете», «Дезертир» и др. Эти книги сделали автора одним из самых попу лярных поэтов. Интерес представляет и его проза: повести «Вамбери», «От моря до моря» и проч.

Занимательны рассказы Н. С. Тихонова о животных. Но основное внимание писатель уделял современности, преображающемуся миру (рассказ «Рискованный человек», очерк «Кочевники»

и проч.). Тихонов работал и как переводчик литератур народов Кавказа. Зарубежная литература обязана ему мастерскими переводами.

Николай Тихонов, по мнению современников, всегда оставался самым читающим поэтом свое го времени, образно говоря, был профессиональным читателем. Объем и подборка книг его личной библиотеки поражает воображение. На них следы рук собирателя энциклопедиста, полиглота, уде лявшего серьезное внимание восточной мистике и философии.

Многим рискуя, уже классик русской советской литературы, он открыто цитировал «контрре волюционера» Н. С. Гумилева. В этом проявилась гусарская, «денисдавыдовская» натура Николая Семеновича. Далеко не у всех хватало мужества отстаивать свои взгляды, идеалы. Н. С. Тихонов заступался за репрессированных товарищей, сам фигурировал в деле о «контрреволюционной группе ленинградских писателей». От ареста его спасла война, на которой он, ленинградский бло кадник, отличился как организатор и непосредственный участник фронтовой печати и радиопере дач, автор произведений на военную тему, в частности сборника стихотворений «Огненный год».

За год до Победы, став председателем правления Союза писателей СССР, Н. С. Тихонов переезжа ет в Москву. Однако после выхода постановления ЦК о журналах «Звезда» и «Ленинград», где ему также посвящено несколько очень резких строк, был снят с этого поста. В остальном жизнь верного ленинца, отдавшего поэтическую дань теме вождя, складывалась вполне благополучно.

Его книги регулярно издавались и переиздавались.

Герой Социалистического Труда, орденоносец, лауреат престижных премий (в том числе Дж. Неру в Индии, Ленинской — дважды и Сталинской — трижды), Тихонов занимал высокие должности и руководящие посты. Кроме названного выше, был депутатом Верховного Совета СССР и, что знаменательно, чему бы ни служил наш выдающийся поэт, объективно его деятель ность была направлена в сторону мира.

Tikhonov Nickolay Semenovich (1896 – 1979) — Russian, Soviet writer, a public figure. Since 1944 till 1947 led the USSR writers’ union;

the Supreme Soviet Deputy (1946), the chairman of the Sovi et Peace Committee (since 1949 till his death held chis.), since 1950 — a member of the World Peace Committee, a Hero of Socialist Labour (1966). A thrice laureate of the Stalin award (1942, 1949, 1952), a laureate of Dj. Nerou award, of the World Lenin award «for strengthening of the peace between peo ples» (1958) and Lenin award for the book «Six columns» (1970).

АЛЕКСАНДР ЕВДОКИМОВИЧ КОРНЕЙЧУК ДРАМАТУРГ, ПЯТИКРАТНЫЙ ЛАУРЕАТ СТАЛИНСКОЙ ПРЕМИИ, ЗАМЕСТИТЕЛЬ ПРЕДСЕДАТЕЛЯ СОВЕТСКОГО КОМИТЕТА ЗАЩИТЫ МИРА А лександр Евдокимович Корнейчук родился на Киевщине в семье железнодорожного слеса ря. В юности работал на железной дороге. Почувствовав призвание к литературе, поступил на литературный факультет Киевского института народного образования, который окончил в 1929 году. Несколько лет работал киносценаристом на киевских и одесских киностудиях. С сере дины 30 х годов включился в активную общественно политическую деятельность. Занимал руко водящие посты в Министерстве иностранных дел, в Комитете по делам искусств, был заместителем председателя Совета министров УССР (1953–1954), членом ЦК КПСС и ЦК КП Украины, депу татом Верховного Совета СССР, председателем Верховного Совета УССР.

Долгие годы Александр Евдокимович был заместителем председателя Советского комитета защи ты мира, членом Всемирного Совета Мира и его Бюро, членом Президиума Всемирного Совета Мира.

При его непосредственном участии в 1951 году был основан Украинский комитет защиты мира.

В 1939 году А. Е. Корнейчук был избран в Академию наук УССР, в 1943 году — в Академию наук СССР;

в 1960 году был удостоен Международной Ленинской премии «За укрепление мира между народами». Пятикратный лауреат Сталинской премии.

Литературную деятельность начал в 1925 году рассказом «Он был велик», рисующим образ Ленина. Свою первую пьесу «На грани» А. Е. Корнейчук написал для театра рабочий молодежи в 1929 году. Поощренный ее успехом, основную часть своего творчества посвятил с тех пор театру.

Почти в каждом своем произведении он реагировал на актуальные темы современности, проводя идеологическую линию партии. Пьеса «Гибель эскадры» (1933), написанная вслед за пьесами «Каменный остров» (1930) и «Штурм» (1931), принесла драматургу всесоюзную известность и вторую премию на Всесоюзном конкурсе драматургических произведений. К двадцатилетию Великого Октября А. Е. Корнейчук написал пьесу «Правда» (1937), в которой впервые в украин ской драматургии был воплощен образ В. И. Ленина. Вопросам социалистической морали были посвящены пьесы «Платон Кречет» (1934) и «Банкир» (1936). За первую из них, а также за героико романтическую драму «Богдан Хмельницкий» (1939) драматургу была присуждена Государственная премия СССР. Комедия «В степях Украины» (1941) открыла в творчестве А. Е. Корнейчука новую жанрово тематическую линию произведений, иллюстрировавших колхозную жизнь. Эта линия была продолжена в пьесах «Приезжайте в Звонковое» (1946), «Калиновая роща» (1951), «Крылья» (1954), «Над Днепром» (1960). Тема рабочего класса освещалась в пьесе «Макар Дубрава» (1948).

В годы Великой Отечественной войны им написан ряд произведений, среди которых наиболь шее признание получила пьеса «Фронт» (1943), удостоенная в 1943 году Сталинской премии СССР. Эта пьеса, опубликованная впервые на страницах газеты «Правда», считается основным вкладом А. Е. Корнейчука в советскую драматургию. Сильные и слабые стороны этой пьесы опре деляются публицистическим темпераментом автора: произведение, боровшееся против отсталости в деле военного руководства, написано в обнаженно публицистической манере. Сатирические образы даны с прямотой и резкостью плаката. Традиции классической комедии сказались не толь ко в характере заострения образа, но в таком частном приеме, как использование говорящих фами лий. Споры, которые развернулись в военной среде вокруг пьесы, явились свидетельством того, что роль этого произведения выходила за пределы чисто литературных, театральных интересов.

Знаменитый драматург был неоднократно вовлекаем в опасные переделки. Например, когда всесильный на Украине Л. М. Каганович потребовал от него, отказавшегося «разоблачать»

М. Ф. Рыльского и Миколу Бажана как «буржуазных националистов», положить на стол партби лет. Что это значило в роковые 30 е, многие представляют. Вскоре первому секретарю КПУ позво нил И. В. Сталин: «Лазарь, не трогай Корнейчука и писателей Украины!» (Это, к слову, также иллюстрация к «репрессиям украинской интеллигенции».) Еще пример: в разгар отступления Красной армии генерал Р. Я. Малиновский просит главнокомандующего немедленно расстрелять автора пьесы «Фронт» о бездарных военачальниках.

Н. С. Хрущев однажды на совет запретить одну пьесу украинского драматурга якобы из за ее идейной вредности, заметил придворным: «Царь не запретил Гоголю ставить "Ревизора". Как мы можем запретить Корнейчуку?» Расположение Л. И. Брежнева к мэтру было не менее отеческим:

он позволил ему носить такой же значок, который имел сам, единственный в СССР...

...Меняются эпохи, названия держав. Увы, в широких массах имя одного из самых плодовитых драматургов сейчас почти неизвестно. Оно искусственно предано забвению на родине того юноши, который в материнской обувке после гражданской войны пришел в Киев испытать судьбу. И поко рил театральную общественность страны.

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