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, , , , Firing danger area ['faiqriN ( 'deinGq 'Fqriq] (Danger ) Zone) buoy , Target , Marker Ship , Barge , Degaussing Range buoy , Cable buoy Non-IALA System PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com , Spoil ground buoy , Buoy marking outfall ( Data collection buoy (Ocean Data Acquisition System) of ), superbuoy size , Buoy marking wave recorder or current meter Buoy marking recreation zone Seasonal Buoys , ( Buoy privately maintained ) ( Seasonal buoy (The example shows a yellow spherical , buoy in use during the - months April to October inclu ) sive) Beacons Lighted Beacons IP Features Common to Beacons and Buoys IQ General , , Beacon in general, character istics unknown or chart scale too small to show , Beacon with colour, no dis tinctive topmark Beacon with colour and top mark Non-IALA System ( Beacon on submerged rock (topmark as appropriate) ) # Minor Impermanent Marks usually in Drying Areas (Lateral Mark for Minor Channel) , ( ) Minor Pile IF , , Stake, pole PORT HAND STARBOARD , Perch [pWC], stake Withy PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

pdffactory.com Minor Marks, usually on Land , Landmarks IE ( Cairn ), Cairn ( Coloured or white mark (the ) , ( colour may be indicated) ) Coloured topmark (colour # ( ), known or unknown) with func tion of a beacon , Painted [peintid] boards with function of leading bea cons Beacon Towers , Beacon towers without and with topmarks and colours # Lattice beacon Special Purpose Beacons Leading Lines, Clearing Lines IM , Note: Topmarks and colours are shown where scale permits : , Leading [li:diN] beacons , Beacons marking a clearing line or transit , Beacons marking measured distance ['meZqd distqns] . with quoted bearings The , track is shown as a firm line if it is to be followed precisely Cable landing beacon ( ) Refuge beacon # Notice board NB PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com This page is also published separately as chartlet , IALA Maritime Buoyage System IALA International Association of Lighthouse Authorities Where in force, the IALA System applies to all fixed and floating marks except landfall lights, leading lights and marks, sectored lights and major floating lights.

The standard buoy shapes are:

cylindrical (can) conical spherical pillar and spar but variations may occur for example minor light floats In the illustrations below only the standard buoy shapes are used. In the case of fixed beacons (lit or unlit) only the shape of the topmark is of navigational significance.

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Lateral marks are generally for well-defined channels There are two international Buoyage Regions A and B-where Lateral marks differ , , . : , .

A preferred channel buoy may also be a pillar or a spar. All preferred channel marks have three horizontl bands of colour. Where for exceptional reasons An Authority considers that a green colour for buoys is not satisfactory, black may be used . , , . , , , , , , , ( ) PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com Cardinal marks indicating navigable water to the named side of the marks. Cardinal marks have the same meaning in Regions A and B . . .

Unlit marks Lighted marks 2 : : : 5, 10 15 : Isolated Danger Marks, stationed over dangers with navigable water around them , .

() : Safe Water Marks, such as mid-channel and landfall marks , , . ( ): Special Marks, not primarily to assist navigation but to indicate special features , , , Yellow light , ( ): PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com FOG SIGNALS IR General Fog Detector Light IP Fog Light IP - Position of fog signal. Type of . fog signal not stated .

Fog Sig Types of Fog Signals, with Abbreviations , Explos () Explosive Gun Dia Diaphone Siren Siren (, Horn Horn (nautophone, reed, tyfon) Nauto, E.F.Horn, Tyfon, Reed , ) Bell Bell [bel] , , Whis Whistle ['wisl] Gong Gong [gON] Examples of Fog Signal Descriptions Siren at a lighthouse, giving a , long blast followed by a short , one (N), repeated every 60 seconds , Wave-actuated bell buoy .

The provision of a legend indi- cating number of emissions and sometimes the period, distin- guishes automatic bell or whis- tle buoys from those actuated , by waves , Light buoy, with horn giving a 15 , single blast every 15 seconds in , conjunction with a wave actu ated whistle .

Reserve fog signals are fitted to certain buoys. Only those . , actuated by waves are charted + The Fog Signal symbol may be omitted when a description of the signal is given + , PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com RADAR, RADIO, ELECTRONIC POSITION-FIXING SYSTEMS IS , , Radar , Coast radar station providing range and bearing from station Ra on request [rikwest] Rmark, radar beacon transmit Ramark ting continuously [kqntinju- ( qsli] ) Radar transponder beacon [reidq (rRdq), transpOndq], , Racon (Z) (10 cm) with morse identification, re , sponding within the 3cm (X) 3 band Radar transponder beacon, , with morse identification, re Racon (Z) (3 & 10 cm) , sponding within the 10cm (S) 10 band Radar transponder beacon, , with morse identification, re , Racon (Z) sponding within the 3cm (X) 3 10 and the 10cm (S) band , Radar transponder beacon, re F Racon sponding on a fixed frequency , outside the marine band Radar transponder beacons with bearing line Floating marks with radar - transponder beacons ( Radar reflector [riflektq] (not usually charted on IALA System buoys) Ra. Refl.

) Radar-conspicuous [kqnspik juqs] feature Ra conspic Radio Name Non-directional marine or aeromarine radiobeacon RC Directional radiobeacon with ( bearing line ) RW Rotating pattern radiobeacon PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com ( Consol Consol beacon ) RG Radio direction-finding station [di'rekSqn faindiN] Ro. D.F R QTG () ( Coast radio station providing QTG service ) Ro.

Aero Rc Aeronautical radiobeacon Aero Ro. Bn.

Satellite Navigation Systems World Geodetic System, WGS WGS 72 WGS 84 , 1972 1984 .

or Note: A note may be shown to indicate the shifts of latitude and longitude, in hundredths or tenths of a minute, which should be made to satellite-derived positions (which are referred to WGS) to relate them to the chart.

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SERVICES IT Pilotage , Pilot boarding place, position of pilot cruising vessel Pilots , Pilot boarding place, position of pilot cruising vessel, with name , ., , (e. g. District, Port) , Pilot boarding place, position of , pilot cruising vessel, with note (., , (e. g. Tanker, Disembarkation) ) Pilots transferred by helicopter Pilot office with Pilot look-out, , Pilot look-out Pilot look-out station Pilots Pilot office Port Name Port with pilotage service (loca ( ) tion not shown) (Pilots) PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com Coastguard, Rescue , Coastguard station Coastguard station with Rescue station , Rescue station, Lifeboat sta , tion, Rocket station LB Lifeboat lying at a mooring Refuge for shipwrecked man Ref ners Stations SS Sig Sta Signal station in general Sig Stn , Signal station showing Interna SS (INT) tional Port Traffic Signals SS (Traffic) Traffic signal station SS (Port Control) Port control signal station SS (Lock) Lock signal station SS (Bridge) Bridge passage signal station , F , Bridge lights including traffic signals Traffic Sig SS Distress signal station SS Telegraph station SS (Storm) Storm Sig Storm signal station Stm. Sig. Stn.

, Weather signal station, Wind SS (Weather) signal station SS (Ice) Ice signal station SS (Time) Time signal station , Tide scale or gauge PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com Automatically recording tide Tide gauge gauge SS (Tide) Tide signal station SS (Stream) Tidal stream signal station SS (Danger) Danger signal station SS (Firing) Firing practice signal station SMALL CRAFT FACILITIES IU Small Craft Facilities Rescue, Signal Stations IT , Yacht harbour, Marina Yacht berths without facilities Visitors' berth Visitors' mooring -, Yacht club. Sailing club Public slipway Public landing: Steps: Ladder : , Public house. Inn Restaurant Water tap ( Fuel station (Petrol, Diesel) , ) Laundrem Public toilets Post box Public telephone Refuse bin Public car park Parking for boats and trailers Caravan site Camping site PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com V. PRINCIPAI FOREIGN RMS (.) Ayer River Malay y (.) Ayios. Ayia Saint Greek (.) Ad. Ada (Adasi) Island Turkish k. , (.) Akra, Akrotirion Cape, Promontory Greek (.) Anc. Ancoraggio Anchorage Italian Arrfe. (.) Arrecife Reef Spanish rro. , (.) Arroyo Stream Spanish Baal, Bahia, Baia, . , Bale, Bucht. Bugt, Bay Bukhta, Bukt . , (.).

Basse Shoal French a. na (.) Point, Cape Japanese Bc. , (.) Banc Bank French Bco. , (.) Banco Bank Spanish Bdr. (.) Bandar Seaport Malay Bg. Berg Mountain o. (.) Bogha Sanken rock Gaelic Bo. , , (.) Bajo Shoal Spanish l. (.) Bolshoi, -aya,-oe Great Russian Br. (.) Besar Great Malay . (.) Burun, Burnu Point, Cape Turkish Bt. , (.) Bukit Hill Malay Btg. (.) Batang River Malay Bu , (.) Batu Rock Malay C. Cabo, Cap, Capo Cape Co. ill , (., .) Cerro Arg., Chil.

(.) Ca. Cay (Cayl) River Turkish (., .) Cal. Caleta Cove Greek, Spanish (.) Da. Dag (Dagi) Mountain Turkish De. (.) Dake Mountain Japanese , , (.) De. Dere (Deresi) Valley or Stream Turkish ., n. (.) Eilean Island Gaelic n (.) Eil., Eil. Eiland. Ellanden Island(s) Netherlands a , (.) Ens. Ensenada Bay, Creek Spanish Esto. (.) Estero, Estuarlo Estuary Spanish (.) Estr. Estrecho Strait Spanish (.) F Flume River Italian d (op.) F. Fjord, Fjorden Fiord Norwegian dr (.) F. Fjordhur Fiord Danish , , Fj Fjell. Fjeld, Fjelbunn Mountain Norwegian (.) (.) Fl. Flu Sunken Rock Norwegian ne (.) Fl. Fluene Sunken Rocks Norwegian Fondo , (.) For eadero Anchorage Spanish Fte. , (.) Fuerte Fort Portuguese (.) G., Geb. Gebel Mountain Arabic (.) G. Gebergte Mountain Netherlands G. Golf, Golfe, Gollo Gulf Ga. (.) Gawa River Japanese Gd., Gde. Grand. Grande Great t t G., Gr. Groot Great PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com Gg (.) Gunong Mountain Malay Danish, , , (., .) Gr. Grunn, Grunnen Shoal Norwegian d (., .) Gr. Grund Shoal German, Swedish , (.) H. Hoek Cape Netherlands Ha. n (.) Point Japanese Norwegian, Hm. (., .) Holm, Holmen Island Danish Norwegian, Hne. (., .) Holmene Islands Danish Hn. Hafen, Hamn. Havn Haven Hr. (.) Hrid. Hridi Rock Yugoslav (.) I. Indre Inner Norwegian Portuguese, Span Ia. (., .) liha. Isla. Isota Island ish Ite. (.) lsolote Islet Spanish Ito. (.) Isolotto Islet Italian J., Jeb., (.) Jabai, Jebei Mountain Arabic Jab.

Ja. (.) Jima Island Japanese (.) Jez. Jezioro Lake Polish Jezt. (.) Jezirat Island Arabic , . Kapp K. Cape (.) Kan Kanal Canal Polish Ka. (.) Kawa River Japanese Kg. (.) Kampong Village Malay Kg. (.) Karang Coral reef Malay Ki. (.).

Kali River Malay Kl. (.) Kechil Small Malay Kla. (.) Kuala Estuary Malay (.) Kr. Krueng River Malay Swedish, Norwe (., .) L. Litla, Litle Little gian (.) L. Luka Port Yugoslav , (., n Lab Labuan Anchorage Malay, Danish .) a L. Laguna Lagoon e , (.) L. Laje Rock Portuguese , , , (.) Li. Liman (Limani) Bay, Harbour Turkish a. (.) Muara Estuary Malay a . (.) Mura Vitiate Japanese (.) Mal. Mali. -a, - Little Russian Spanish, e. (., .) Muelle. Mothe Mole Portuguese i . (.) Machi Town Japanese , (.) Miel. Mielizna Shoal Polish in. (.) Moulin Mill French ki. (.) Misaki Cape Japanese Portuguese, Span o. . (., .) Morro Hill, Headland ish te . Monte Mountain , (.) N. Nisos. Nisoi Island,(s) Greek . (.) Otok Island Yugoslav. rmos , (.) Bay Greek PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com st. stre , (.) East, Eastern Norwegian Pa. , , Playa. Praia Beach Pco. Pico, Picco Peak Spanish. Portu Pda. (c., .) Pedra. Piedra Rock guese Pel. (.) Parcel Shoal Brazilian Peq. Pequeno Small , , (.) PI. Plicak Plicina Shoal Yugoslav (.) Pr. Prolaz Passage Yugoslav Po. (.) Pulo Island Malay Pu. (.) Pulau Island Malay Prt. , (.) Parit Small stream Malay Pt. Punt, Pynt Point Pta. Ponta, Punta Point Pte. , (.) Pointe Point French Pto. , Porto. Puerto Port , Queb. Quebrada Cut Spanish (.) R. River, Riviere River (.).

R. Rzeka River Polish Ra. (.) Roca Rock Spanish Re. (.) Roche Rock French Rer. (.) Rocher Rock French , , (.) Ru. Rudha Point Gaelic Sa. , (.) Serra. Sierra Mauntains Spanish Sa. (.) Shima. Sima Island Japanese , (.) Sc. Scoglio Scogliera Reef Italian Sd. (.) Sund, Sundet Sound Danish , (.) Se. Secca, Secche Shoal Italian Sg., Sgr. , (.) Sgeir Rock Gaelic Si. (.) Saki Cape, Point Japanese Si. , (.) Sidi Saint, Tomb Arabic Si. (.) Sungei River Malay Norwegian, Dan Skne. (., .) Skierene. Skjaerene Rocks ish , (.) Sk. Skolj Island. Reef Yugoslav Skar, Skier, Skjaer, r , , (., .) Sk. Hock Danish,Norwegian Skjer, Skjeret lt (.) S. Selat Strait Malay Sn. (.) San Mountain Japanese S., Sa., St., S., Saint Sta., Sto., Sn.

(.) St. Stor Great Norwegian Str. Straat Strait . , (.) Take Mountain Japanese , , (.) Tepe (Tepesi) Hill Turkish g. (.) Tanjong Point Malay k. , (.) Telok Bay, Cove Malay n . (.) Taren Submerged rock Norwegian re . Torre Tower , (.) U. Uvala, Uvalica Bay Yugoslav Ujg. (.) Ujong Cape, Point Malay PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com , (.) V. Vest, Vestr West, Western Norwegian Va. , Villa House or Town Vg. , , (.) Vag. Vagen Bay. Cove, Creek Norwegian Vrakhonisis.

is es (.) V,V. Rocky islet(s) Greek Vrakhonisidhes Vos., Voi. (.) Vrakhos, Vrakhoi Rock(s) Greek , (., .) W. Wadi, Wai River Arabic, Malay a (.) W. Wyspa Island Polish (.) Y. Yttre, Ytre Outer Norwegian Ya. (.) Yama Mountain Japanese , (.) Z. Zaliv Gulf Yugoslav , (.) Zat. Zatoka Bay Polish Zi. (.) Zaki Cape, Point Japanese n (.) Z. Zan Mountain Japanese : Note: Abbreviations of certain other Foreign terms ;

listed in the glossaries contained in the Admiralty Sail , ing Directions are sometimes used.

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PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com 2.

CARDINAL POINTS N. north [nLT] S. south [sauT] E. east [I:st] W. west [west] CONTINENTS Eurasia [juqreizq] : (Europe [juqrqp]) (Asia [eiSq]).

Africa [xfrikq] North America [nLT qmerikq] South America [sauT qmerikq] Australia [Lstreiljq] Antarctica [xntRktikq] OCEANS Arctic Ocean [Rktik ouSqn] Atlantic Ocean [qtlxntik] Indian Ocean [indjqn] Pacific Ocean [pqsifik] SEAS Adriatic Sea [eidrixtik si:] Aegean Sea [I: Gi:qn] Arabian Sea [qreibjqn] Baffin Bay [bxfin bei] Baltic Sea [bLltik] Barents Sea [bxrqnts] Beaufort Sea [boufOt] Bering Sea [beriN] Black Sea [blxk] Caribbean Sea [kxribi:qn] Chuckchee Sea [CukCi] Coral Sea [kOrql] - East China Sea [I:st Cainq] - East Siberian Sea [I:st saibiqriqn] Greenland Sea [gri:nlqnd] Ionian Sea [aiounjqn] Irish Sea [aiqriS] Kara Sea [kRrq] Laptev Sea [lRptjqf] Mediterranean Sea [meditqreinjqn] North Sea [nLT] Norwegian Sea [nLwi:Gqn] Red Sea [red] Ross Sea [rOs] Sea of Azov [AzLf] Sea of Japan [Gqpxn] Sea of Marmara [mRmqrq] Sea of Okhotsk [AhLtsk] - South China Sea [sauT Cainq] Tyrrhenian Sea [tiri:niqn] Weddell Sea [wedl] White Sea [wait] Yellow Sea [jelou] PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

pdffactory.com GULFS AND BAYS () Abukir, Bay 3120' N 3010 E [xbukiq bei] Aden, Gulf of 1200' N 4500' E [Rdn, gAlf] - () Advent, Bay 7816 N 1536 E [xdvent] () Ajax, Bay 5134 S 5904' W [eiGxks] () Anderson, Bay 5341 N 16651 W [xndqsn] () Annotto, Bay 1816 N 7647' W [qnOtou] () Aola, Bay 931 S 16030' E [RoulR] Bengal, Bay of 1730 N 8700 E [beN gLl] Biscay, Bay of 4519 N 351 W [biskei] Bothnia, Gulf of 6145' N 1945 E [bOTniq] Bristol Bay 5830' N 15800' W [bristl] California, Gulf of 2700' N 11100 W [kxlifLnjq] Carpentaria, Gulf of 3423 N 11930 W [kRpqntFqriq] Chesapeake Bay 3820 N 7615' W [Cesqpi:k] - () Clallam, Bay 4816 N 12416 W [klxlqm] (-) () Cold, Bay 5513 N 16242 W [kould] () Empress Augusta Bay 630' N 15505' E [empresLgAstq] Finland, Gulf of 5935' N 2335 E [finlqnd] -- Firth of Forth 5604 N 303' W [fWTqvfLT] Guinea, Gulf of 200' N 100' E [gini] () Hare, Bay 4742' N 5634 W [hFq] () Hiroshima, Gulf of 3421 N 13225 E [hirLSimR] () Hope, Bay 1812 N 7634' W [houp] Hudson Bay 6000 N 8700' W [hAdsn] - () Indian, Bay 4902 N 5336 W [indjqn] - () 330 N Jade, Bay 815 E [jRdq] - () Kongs Fiord 7900 N 1200 E [kONz] () Luganville, Bay 1531 S 16709 E [lu:gqnvil] () Mahone, Bay 4427' N 6422 W [mqhoun] - () Massacre, Bay 5250' N 17312 E [mxsqkq] Mexico, Gulf of 2515' N 9345 W [meksikou] () Montego, Bay 1828' N 7756' W [mOnti:gou] () Morant, Bay 1752' N 7625 W [mqrxnt] () Morphou, Bay 3508' N 3250' E [mLfu:] Morro, Bay Moppo () 3522 N 12051 W [mOrou] () 17848 Nandi, Bay 1658' S [nRndi] () 17411 Nazan, Bay 5212 N [nqzxn] - () Neah, Bay 4822 N 12437 W [ni:q] - () Ocho Rios, Bay 1826' N 7708 W [outSqri:ous] - () 1045' Oslofjord 5955 N [OzloufjLd] 5000 Persian Gulf 2700' N [pWSqn] - () 2505 Porsangerfjord 7007 N [pLsRngqfjLd] -- Port au Port Bay 4833' N 5843 W [pLt oupLr] - () 14440 Port Phillip, Bay 3816' S [pLt fillip] - () 13812 Rapid, Bay 3532 S [rxpid] [ri:ouDeilR --- () Rio de la Plata, Gulf of 3530 S 5800 W plRtR] -- () St. Ann S Bay 1827' N 7712 W [sntxnz] - () 4340' St. Augustine Bay 2328 S [snt Lgqsti:n] - () St. Joseph, Bay 2949 N 8519 W [Gouzif] - () 13752 St. Vincent, Gulf of 3445' S [snt vinsnt] () Saldanha, Bay 3304' S 1757 E [sxldxnjq] 2300 Salonika, Gulf of 4040' N [sxlouni:kq] - () San Blas, Gulf of 930 N 7901 W [sxn blxs] - () Sand Bay 5159 N 17607 W [sxnd] - () San Francisco, Bay 3745' N 12226 W [sxnfrqnsiskou] - () Southampton Water 5054' N 124 W [sxuTxmptqn] () 13802' Spencer Gulf 3310 S [spensq] () Suisun, Bay 3802' N 12205' W [sqsu:n] - () Temple, Bay 7823' N 1652 E [templ] - () Thunder Bay 4504' N 8326 W [Tandq] - () Union Bay 4935' N 12453 W [ju:njqn] - () 2945 Varangerfjord 7004' N [vRrQNqfjLd] PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com () 2256' Volos 3921 N [voulOs] () Wafer, Bay 532' N 8704' W [wLfq] - () West Bay 4545' N 6100 W [west] - () White, Bay 4933' N 5652 W [wait] Women Bay 5743' N 15231' W [wi:min] 13945/W () Yakutat, Bay 5933 N [jxkqtat] () Yaguina, Bay 4438 N 12403 W Zaliv Alasheyeva 6740' S 4551' E Zaliv Leningradskiy 6958' S 1255 E STRAITS AND CHANNELS (CANALS) - Arthur Kill 4034 N 7414 W [Rtqkil] -- 4320 Bab el Mandeb 1235 N [bxbelmxndeb] 14600 Bass Strait 4000' S [bxsstreit] Bering Strait 6540 N 16900' W [beriN] 2905 Bosporus 4107 N [bOspourqs] [kxlidounjqn Caledonian Canal 5658' N 405' W kqnxl] Chesapeake and Delaware [Cesqpi:k qnd - 3932 N 7546' W Canal delqwFq] 2630 Dardanelles 4013' N [dRdqnelz] Davis Strait 6500' N 5800' W [deivis] Denmark Strait 6600' N 3000' W [denmRk] -- 125' Dover, Strait of 5100' N [douvq] Drake Passage 5900' S 6500 W [dreik pxsiG] - English Channel 5000' N 300' W [iNghS Cxnl] Florida, Straits of 2500' N 8000' W [flOridq] Formosa Strait 2500 N 12000 E [fLmousq] 535' Gibraltar, Strait of 3555 N [GibrLltq] 1100' Great Belt 5525' N [greitbelt] Hudson Strait 6200' N 7000 W [hAdsn streit] 1130 Kattegat 5700' N [kxtqgxt] 1010' Kiel Canal 5420 N [ki:l] 12900 Korea Strait 3400' N [ko(u) ri:q] - 900 Limfjord 5655' N [li:mfjLd] 945 Little Belt 5520 N [litlbelt] 6833' Magellan, Strait of 5230 S [mqgqlqn] 11800 Makassar, Strait of 200' S [mqkxsq] Malacca, Strait of 300' N 10100' E [mqlxkq] - Mare Island Strait 3806' N 12216' W [mFqailqnd] 1535' Messina, Strait of 3810 N [mqsi:nq] 4200 Mozambique Channel 1700 S [mouzqmbi:k] () 1245 Oresund 5550' N [WrqsAn] Panama Canal 907' S 7945 W [pxnqmR] 900 Skagerrak 5800 N [skxgqrxk] 10545' Soenda Strait 600 S [su:ndq] 3220' Suez Canal 3040 S [su:iz] 14300 Torres Strait 1000' S [tLrqs] ISLANDS (ISLES) [qlju:S - 17312 Aleutian Is. 5250 N qnailqndz] - 9247 Andaman Is. 1201 N [xndqmqn] - Antilles 1820' N 6456' W [xntili:z] - Ascension 755' S 1420 W [qsenSqn] - Azores 3830' N 2800 W [qzLz] - Bahama Is., Bahamas 2130 N 7108 W [bqhRmq(z)] - Bahrain Is. 2600 N 5030' W [bqrein] - Balearic Is. 3934' N 238' W [bxlixrik] Barbados 1305 N 5936' W [bRbeidouz] - Bermuda Is., Bermudas 3223 N 6440' W [bWmju:dq(z)] 11400 Borneo 100 N [bLniou] PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com 1442 Bornholm 5506 N [bLnhLlm] - British Is. 5500' N 500' W [britiSailz] - Canary Is. 2808 N 1525 W [kqnFqri] - Cape Verde Is. 1636 N 2255 W [keipvWd] - 13430' Caroline Is. 720' N [kxrqlain] 7951 Ceylon 657' N [silOn] 927' Corsica 4241 N [kLsikq] 2409 Crete 3529 N [kri:t] Cuba 2000 N 7550 W [kju:bq] 3357' Cyprus 3507' N [saiprqs] - Faeroe Is., Faeroes 6209 N 710' W [fFqrou(z)] - Falkland Is. 5134 S 5904 W [fLklqnd] - 17726' Fiji Is. 1736 S [fi:Gi] - Galapagos Is. 030' S 9030 W [gqlRpqgqs] Greenland 7500 N 4000' W [gri:nlqnd] 11017 Hainan 2002' N [hainRn] Haiti 1833' N 7221' W [heiti] [hqwaiiqn, - Hawaiian Is., Hawaii 2300 N 16200' W hqwaii] - Hebrides 5730 N 700 W [hebridi:z] 754' Heligoland 5411 N [heligoulxnd] 14245' Hokkaido 4330 N [hOkaidou] 13520' Honshu 3650 N [hOnSu:] Iceland 6500 N 1800' W [aislqnd] Jamaica 1758' N 7648' W [Gqmeikq] 10650' Java 608' S [GRvq] 13103' Kyushu 3227 N [kju:Su:] c - 1432 Lofoten Is. 6814 N [loufoutqn] Madagascar 1217 S 4917 E [mxdqgxskq] Madeira 3238 N 1655 W [mqdiqrq] 1431 Malta 3554' N [mLltq] Man 5409' N 428' W [mxn] - 14509 Mariana Is., Marianas 1408' S [mFqrixnq(z)] - 16744' Marshal Is. 843' N [mRSql] Midway 2813 N 17722 W [midwei] [nju:kxlidounj 16415 New Caledonia 2128 S q] Newfoundland 4928 N 5746 W [nju:fqndlxnd] 13115 New Guinea 050' S [nju: gini] heb [nju:

16818 New Hebrides 1744 S ridi:z] 17446 New Zealand 4115 S [nju: zi:lqnd] 12740 Okinawa 2613 N [oukinRwq] - Orkney Is., Orkneys 5857' N 258 W [Lkni(z)] - 11930 Pescadores 2330 N [peskqdLriz] - 12100 Philippine Is., Philippines 1435 N [filipi:n(z)] - Puerto Rico 1815 N 6630 W [pwWtqri:kou] - . Saint Helena 1556 S 540' W [seinthqli:nq] - Samoa Is. 1349 S 17144' W [sqmouq] 907' Sardinia 3913 N [sRdiniq] - Shetland Is. 6009' N 108 W [Setlqnd] 13333' Shikoku 3343 N [Sikouku:] 1534 Sicily 3811 N [sisili] - 15700' Solomon Is. 700 S [sOloumqn] 1156 Spitsbergen 7856 N [spitsbWgqn] 12450 Sulawesi 130' N [su:lRweisi] 9813 Sumatra 407' N [sumRtrq] Tahiti 1733 S 14934 W [tqhi:ti] 12145' Taiwan 2509 N [taiwRn] 14720 Tasmania 4250 S [txzmeiniq] Wight 5042 N 117 W [wait] 3911 Zanzibar 609' S [zxnzibR] Zealand 5543 N 1236' E [zi:lqnd] PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com THE NAMES OF SOME COUNTRIES AND THEIR MAIN PORTS EUROPE ['juqrqp] Albania [xl beinjq] Durres 4119 N 1928 E [duqrqs] Belgium [belGqm] Antwerp 6115 N 424' E [xntwWp] Brussels 5051 N 422' E [brAslz] Brugge, Bruges 5114 N 313 E [brju:gq, bru:Z] Ghent 5105 N 345' E [gent] Ostende 5114 N 255' E [oustendq] Zeebrugge 5120 N 312 E [zeibrju:gq] Bulgaria [bAlgFqriq] 2729 Burgas 4230' N [buqgRs] 2757' Varna 4312 N [vRnR] Denmark [denmRk] 1014 Aarhus 66 10' N [Lhu:s] Copenhagen 5543' N 1236' E [koupqnheigqn] 826' Esbjerg 5528' N [esbjerg] 1022 Odense 5525 N [ouDqnsq] Finland [finlqnd] 2258' Hanko 5949' N [hRNkL] 2457' Helsinki 6009 N [helsiNki] 2656' Kotka 6028 N [kOtkq] 2528 Oulu 6500' N [oulu] () 2214 Turku (Abo) 6026 N [tuqku] France [frRns] Bordeaux 4450 N 034 W [bLdou] Brest 4822 N 430' W [brest] 491 N Caen 020' W [kRn] Cherbourg 4939 N 138 W [Sfqbuqg] 222' Dunkerque 5103 N [dWNkerk] 007' Le Havre 4930' N [lqRvr] 522' Marseilles 4318 N [mRseilz] Nice 4342 N 717' E [ni:s] Rouen 4927 N 104 E [ru:Rn] Toulon 4307 N 555' E [tu:lOn] German [Gemqn] 848' Bremen 5305 N [breimqn] 834 Bremerhaven 5334 N [bremqrhRfqn] 645' Duisburg 5125' N [du:isburg] 959' Hamburg 5333' N [hxmbWg] 1008 Kiel 5419 N [ki:l] 1041 Lbeck 5352' N [lu:bqk] Rostock 5406 N 1208 E [rOstOk] Stralsund 5419 N 1306' E [StrRlsunt] Wismar 5354 N 1128' E [vismRr] ( ) Gibraltar [GibrLltq] Gibraltar 3608' N 521 W [GibrLltq] Great Britain [greitbritn] Aberdeen 5709 N 203' W [xbqdi:n] Belfast 5436 N 556' W [belfRst] Bristol 5127 N 235' W [bristl] 118 Dover 5107 N [douvq] Glasgow 5551 N 416 W [glRsgou] Leith 5559 N 310 W [li:T] 5324 N 300' W [livqpu:l, Liverpool and Birkenhead 5324 N 301 W bWkqnhed] London 5130 N 005' W [lAndqn] PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com Londonderry 5500N 720' W [lAndqnderi] Plymouth 5022' N 409' W [plimqT] Portsmouth 5048 N 106 W [pLtsmqT] Southampton 5054' N 124 W [sauTxmptqn] 455 N Sunderland 121 W [sAndqlqnd] Greece [gri:s] , Corfu, Kerkyra 3936 N 1955 E [kLfu:, kjFrkje:rR] Patras 3814 N 2145 E [pqtrxs] Piraeus 3756 N 2340' E [pairi:qs] Salonika 4040 N 2300' E [sxlouni:kq] Iceland [aislqnd] Reykjavik 6409' N 2156 W [reikjRvi:k] Ireland ['aiqlqnd] Cork 5154 N 828' W [kLk] Dublin 5321 N 615 W [dAblin] Italy [itqli] 4108/ N 1652/ Bari [bRri] 907' Cagliari 3913 N [kRljRri:] 1506 Catania 3729 N [kRtjRnjR] 857' Genoa 4424 N [Genouq] 1020 Livorno 4333' N [livLno(u)] 1534 Messina 3811 N [mqsi:nq] 1417 Naples 4050 N [neiplz] 1320 Palermo 3807 N [pqlWmou] Ravenna 4425' N 1212' E [rqvenq] 1445 Salerno 4040' N [sRlerno(u)] 1715' Taranto 4029 N [txrqntou] 1220 Venice 4526' N [venis] Malta [mLltq] - 1431' Valletta 3554' N [vqletq] Netherland [neDqlqndz] 455' Amsterdam 5223' N [xmstqdxm] 635' Groningen 5312 N [grouningqn] 430' Rotterdam 5155 N [rOtqdxm] Norway [nLwei] 519' Bergen 6024 N [bWgqn] 1045 Oslo 5955 N [Oslou] 544' Stavanger 5858 N [stRvRNq] 1024 Trondheim 632 N [trLnheim] Poland [poulqnd] Gdansk 5421 N 1840 E [gdRnjsk] Gdynia 5431 N 1834 E [gqdinjq] Szczecin 5326 N 1434 E [SCetsi:n] Portugal [pLCugql] Leixoes 4111 N 843 W [leiiSouniS] Lisbon 3844 N 907' W [lizbqn] Setubal 3831 N 853' W [sqtu:bl] Rumania [ru: meinjq] 2840 Constantsa 4410' N [kLnstRntsR] 2805 Galatz 4520' N [gRlRts] Spain [spein] Alicante 3823' N 028' W [RlikRnti] 210 Barcelona 4122 N [bRsilounq] Bilbao 4317 N 255 W [bilbRou] Cadiz 3632 N 617 W [kqdiz] Cartagena 3735 N 059 W [kRtqGi:nq] Gijon 4334 N 542' W [hihLn] - La Coruna 4322 N 824 W [lRkqru:njR] Malaga 3643 N 423' W [mxlqgq] PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com 238' Palma 3934 N [pRlmR] Santander 4328' N 347' W [sRntRndq] Seville 3725 N 600' W [sqvil] Valencia 3927' N 019' W [vqlenSiq] Vigo 4214 N 844' W [vi:gou] Sweden [swi:dn] ø 1157 Gteborg 5742 N [jWtibLrj] 1242 Helsingborg 5603 N [helsiNbLrj] 1300 Malm 5537 N [mRlmW] 1805 Stockholm 5920 N [stOkholm] Sundsvall 6224 N 1719' E [sAntsvRl] 1633 Vsteras 5936 N [vestqrous] Yugoslavia [ju:gouslRvjq] Rijeka 4520 N 1426 E [rijekR] Sibenik 4343 N 1552 E [Sibenik] 1626' Split 4331 N [split] ASIA [eiSq] Bangladesh [bxNglqdeS] 9150 Chittagong 2221' N [CitqgOS] Burma [bWmq] 9444 Bassein 1645 N [bqsein] 9737' Moulmain 1630 N [mu:lmein] 9612 Rangoon 1646 N [rxNgu:n] Cambodia [kxmboudiq] 10330 Kompong Som 1038' N [kOmpONgsOm] China [Cainq] , 11804 Amoy, Hsiamen 2427 N [RmOi] 11417 Hankow 3035' N [hRNkou] 12133 Ningpo 2952 N [niNpou] 12129 Shanghai 3115 N [SxNhai] 12137 Talien 3855 N [dRliRn] 11713/ E Tientsin 3909' N [tintsin] 12020 Tsingtao 3605' N [CiNdou] , 12123 Yentai, Chefoo 3733 N [jentai] Cyprus [saiprqs] 3357' Famagusta 3507' N [fRmqgu:stq] India [indjq] 7209 Bhavnagar 2147' N [bounAgqr] 7250 Bombay 1856 N [bOmbei] 8820' Culcutta 2233 N [kxlkAtq] 8019 Madras 1306 N [mqdrxs] 7450 Mangalore 1252 N [mxNgqlour] 7635' Quilon 852' N [kiloun] 8318 Visakhapatnam 1741 N [visRkqpAtnqm] Indonesia [indouni:Zjq] 11924 Makassar 508' S [mqkxsq] 10445 Palembang 259' S [pRlqmbRN] 11244 Surabaja 712' S [suqrqbRjq] Iran [IrRn] 4820 Abadan 3020 N [xbqdxn] - 5617' Bandar Abbas 2711 N [bRndRrRbbRs] 5050 Bushire 2859 N [bu: Si:r] 4810 Khorramshahr 3026 N [kurrRmSRr] Iraq [IrRk] 4750 Basra 3031 N [bRsrq] 4829 Fao 2958' N [fRq] Israel [izreiql] 3500' Haifa 3249 N [haifq] PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com - 3446 Tel Aviv 3204 N [telqvi:v] Japan [Gqpxn] 14044 Hakodate 4147 N [hRkoudRtq] 13225 Hiroshima 3421 N [hirOSi:mq] 13510 Kobe 3430' N [koubi] 13615 Maizuru 3526 N [mRizu:ru:] 12952 Nagasaki 3245 N [nRgqsRki] 13653 Nagoya 3504' N [nRgo(u)jR] 13904 Niigata 3757 N [ni:igRtR] 13528' Osaka 3439 N [ousRkR] 14102 Otaru 4312 N [OtRru] 12943 Sasebo 3310 N [sRsebq] 13945' Tokyo 3543 N [toukiou] 13940 Yokohama 3527 N [jouko(u) hRmq] 13940' Yokosuka 3517' N [jouko(u) su:kq] Korea [kouri:q] - Korean People S Democratic Republic [kouri:qn] 12947 Chongjin 4146 N [CWNGin] 13018 Najin 4214 N [nRGin] 12726 Wonsan 3910 N [wWnsRn] South Korea [sauT kouri:q] 12638 Inchon 3728 N [inCOn] 12922 Pohang 3602' N [pOhRng] 12902 Pusan 3507 N [pusRn] Lebanon [lebqnqn] 3530 Beirut 3354 N [beiru:t] 3549' Tripoli 3427' N [tripqli] Malaysia [mqleiZq] Malacca 212 N 10215 E [mqlxkq] 10021 Penang 525 N [pinxN] Pakistan [pRkistRn] Karachi 2450' N 6658 E [kqrRCi] Philippines [filipi:nz] Bacolod 1040 N 12256' E [bRkoulLd] Davao 705' N 12537 E [dRvou] Iloilo 1042' N 12235 E [I:lqi:lq] Manila 1435 N 12100 E [mqnilq] Zamboanga 654' N 12204' E [sRmbqRngR] Saudi Arabia [sRu:diqreibiq] Jidda 2128 N 3911 E [Gidq] Singapore [siNgqpL] Singapore 116 N 10350 E [siNgqpL] Sri Lanka [sri:lRnkR] Colombo 657' N 7951 E [kqlAmbou] Syria [siriq] Latakia 3531 N 3546 E [lxtqki:q] Thailand [tailxnd] Bangkok 1342 N 10034 E [bxNkOk] Turkey [tWki] Istanbul 4101 N 2858 E [istxmbu:l] Izmir 3825 N 2709' E [izmir] Trabzon 4100 N 3944 E [trRbzLn] Vietnam [vjetnRm] Haiphong 2052' N 10640 E [haifLN] Saigon 1046' N 10642 E [saigOn] Yemen [jemqn] Aden 1247' N 4459' E [Rdn] Hodeidah 1447 N 4257 E [hqdeidq] PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com AFRIA [xfrikq] Algeria [xlGiqriq] Algiers 3646 N 303 E [xlGiqz] Annaba 3656' N 747' E [qnRbq] Oran 3543 N 039 W [o(u) rxn] Angola [xNgoulq] 1334 Lobito 1220 S [lu: vi:tu:] 1313 Luanda 848 S [lu: xndq] Cameroun Ka [kxmqru:n] 942 Douala 403' N [du: Rlq] 912 Victoria 400' N [viktLriq] - ( ) Canary Islands [kqnFqri] - Las Palmas 2808' N 1525 W [lRspRlmRs] [sxntqkru:z dq --- Santa Cruz de Tenerife 2828' N 1615 W teinqri:fq] Congo [kONgou] - 1149 Pointe Noire 447' S [pwxNtnwRr] Dahomey [dqhoumi] Cotonou 621 N 226 W [kqtqnu:] Egypt [i:Gipt] 2953 Alexandria 3110 N [xligzRndriq] - 3219 Port Said 3115 N [pLtsaid] Gabon [gRbLN] 926 Libreville 023 N [li:brqvi:l] - 848' Port Gentil 043 S [ZRNti:] Gambia [gxmbiq] Bathurst 1327' N 1634 W [bxTWst] Ghana [gRnq] Accra 532 N 013 W [qkrR] Takoradi 453 N 145 W [tRkqrRdi] Guinea [gini] Conakry 930 N 1344 W [kOnqkri] Ivory Coast [aivourikoust] Abidjan 520' N 400 W [xbiGRn] Kenya [ki:njq] 3940' Mombasa 404' S [mOmbRsq] Liberia [laibiqriq] Monrovia 620 N 1050 W [mqnrouviq] Libya [libiq] 2003' Benghazi 3207 N [bqngRzi] 1312 Tripoli 3254' N [tripqli] Malagasy Republic [mxlqgxsi] 4620 Majunga 1544 S [mqGANgq] 4926- Tamatave 1810 S [tRmRtRv] Morocco [mqrOkou] Casablanca 3336' N 737' W [kxsqblxNkq] Tangier 3547' N 548' W [txnGiq] Mozambique [mouzqmbi:k] - 3236 Lourenco Marques 2559' S [loureiNsu: mWkeiS] 3653' Quelimane 1752 S [kelimRnq] Nigeria [naiGiqriq] 325' Lagos 627' N [lRgqs] Senegal [senigLl] Dakar 1440 N 1726' W [dRkR] PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com Somalia [so(u) mRliq] Mogadiscio 202 N 4521 E [mOgqdiSiou] - South African Republic [sauTxfrikqn] Cape Town 3356 S 1826 E [keiptaun] Durban 2953 S 3102 E [dWbxn] - Port Elizabeth 3358 S 2537 E [ilizqbqT] Sudan [su: dxn] - Port Sudan 1937' N 3714 E [su: dxn] Tanzania [txnzRnjq] -- 39 18' Dar es Salaam 649 S [dRressqlRm] Zanzibar 609' S 3911 E [zxnzibR] Togo [tougou] Lome 607 N 114 E [lLmei] Tunisia [tju: niZiq] Bizerta 3716' N 953' E [bizWtq] Sfax 3444 N 1046 E [sfRks] Tunis 3648' N 1012 E [tju:nis] Zaire [zqi:rq] Boma 551 S 1303 E [boumR] Madati 549 S 1327' E [mRdRti] NORTH AND CENTRAL AMERICA Canada [kxnqdq] Halifax 4439 N 6334 W [hxlifxks] Montreal 4530 N 7333 W [mOntriLl] Quebec 4649 N 7113 W [kwibek] - Saint John 4515 N 6605' W [seintGOn] Toronto 4338 N 7923' W [tqrOntou] Vancouver 4917 N 12307' W [vxnku:vq] Victoria 4825 N 12323 W [viktLriq] - Costa Rica [kOstqriLkq] Limon 1000' N 8302 W [limLn] ( ) Cuba (Republic of Cuba) [kju:bq] Havana 2308 N 8221 W [hqvxne] Matanzas 2303 N 8134 W [mqtxnzqs] [sxntiRgou dq Santiago de Cuba 2000 N 7550 W kju:bq] Dominican Republic [dqminikqn] miN [sxnto(u)do(u) - Santo Domingo 1828' N 6953' W gou] Mexico [meksikou] Mazatlan 2315 N 10626 W [mRsRtlRn] Tampico 2215 N 9748' W [txmpi:kou] Veracruz 1912 N 9608 W [verqkru:z] naitid steitqv [ju:


United States of America qmerikq] Baltimore 3917 N 7635 W [bLltimL] Boston 4222 N 7100 W [bOstqn] Buffalo 4253' N 7852 W [bAfqlou] Charleston 3247 N 7956' W [CRlztqn] Detroit 4220 N 8302 W [ditrOit] Houston 2945 N 9521 W [hju:stqn] - Los Angeles 3343 N 11817 W [lOsxnGqlqs] Milwaukee 4303' N 8752 W [milwLki] Mobile 3040 N 8802 W [moubi:l] New Orleans 2956 N 9004 W [nju: Lliqnz] - New York 4043 N 7400' W [nju: jLk] Norfolk 3651 N 7619 W [nLfqk] Oakland 3748 N 12218 W [ouklqnd] PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com Philadelphia 3957 N 709 W [filqdelfiq] Portland 4533' N 12243 W [pLtlqnd] Portsmouth 3650' N 7618 W [pLtsmqT] c Providence 4148 N 7124 W [prOvidqns] - San Diego 3241 N 11710 W [sxndieigou] - San Francisco 3748' N 12225 W [sxnfrqnsiskou] Seattle 4736 N 12220 W [sixtl] Tampa 2757 N 8227 W [txmpq] SOUTH AMERICA Argentina [Rgqnti:nq] - Bahia Blanca 3844 S 6216 W [bRi:RblRNkR] - Buenos Aires 3435 S 5822 W [bweinqsFqriz] - La Plata 3451 S 5753' W [lqplRtq] Rosario 3257' S 6038' W [rLsRrjou] Brazil [brqzil] Belem 127 S 4830 W [bqlem] Maceio 942 S 3541 W [mRseiL] Manaus 308' S 6000' W [mqnous] - Porto Alegre 3002' S 5115 W [pLtu:qlFgrq] Recife 803' S 3452' W [rqsi:fq] -- Rio de Janeiro 2354' S 4310 W [ri:oudqGqneirou] Salvador 1258' S 3831 W [sxlvqdL] Santos 2356' S 4619' W [sxntqs] Vitoria 2019 S 4020' W [vitouriq] Chile [Cili] Antofagasta 2339' S 7025' W [RntqfRgRstR] Talcahuano 3642 S 7305' W [tRlkRwRnq] Valparaiso 3302 S 7138 W [vxlpqreizou] Colombia [kqlAmbiq] Barranquilla 1100 N 7446 W [bRrrRNki:jR] Cartagena 1026 N 7531 W [kRtqGi:nq] - Santa Marta 1115 N 7413 W [sxntqmRrtq] Ecuador [ekwqdO:] Guayaquil 212 S 7952 W [gwRjRki:l] Manta 056' S 8044 W [mRntR] Peru [pqru:] Calloa 1202 S 7710 W [kRjRq] Uruguay [ju:qrqgwai] Montevideo 3454 S 56 13 W [mOntivideiou] Venezuela [venqzwi:lq] - La Guaira 1036 N 6655 W [lRgwairR] Maracaibo 1039 N 71 37 W [mxrqkaibou] AUSTRALIA AND OCEANIA Australia [Lstreiljq] 15302' Brisbane 2728' S [brizbqn] 14720 Hobart 4250' S [houbRt] 14458 Melbourne 3750 S [meibqn] 15147 Newcastle 3256' S [nju:kRsl] - 13830' Port Adelaide 3451 S [xdqlid] Sydney 3355 S 15112 E [sidni] New Zealand [nju: zi:lqnd] Auckland 3651 S 17449 E [Lklqnd] Lyttelton 4336' S 17242 E [litltqn] Wellington 4115 S 17446 E [weliNtqn] PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com 5.

BEAUFORT WIND SCALE (For an effective height of 10 m above sea level) ( 10 ) Mean wind speed Probable Beaufort equivalent mean wave Number height* in Descriptive Term metres Deep Sea Criterion - - Knots M/sec * / 1 2 3 4 5 6 - 0 Calm 1 0-0.2 Sea like a mirror , Ripples with the appearance of scales are formed, 1- 1 Light air 03-1.5 0.1 (0.1) but without foam crests , , Light Small wavelets, still short but more pronounced, , 2 4-6 1.6-3.3 0.2 (0.3) breeze crests have a glassy appearance and do not break , Gentle Large wavelets, crests begin to break, foam of , -, 3 7-10 3.4-5.4 0.6 (1) breeze glassy appearance, perhaps scattered white horses , Moderate Small waves, becoming longer, fairly frequent white 4 11-16 5.5-7.9 1 (1.5) , breeze horses , Moderate waves, taking a more pronounce long Fresh , 5 17-21 8.0-10.7 2 (2.5) form, many white horses are formed (chance of breeze ( ) some spray) , Strong Large waves begin to form, the white foam crests 6 22-27 10.8-13.8 3 (4) breeze are extensive everywhere (probably some spray) ( ) , Sea heaps up and white foam from breaking waves 7 Near gale 28-33 13.9-17.1 begins to be blown in streaks along the direction of 4 (5.5) the wind PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com 1 2 3 4 5 6 , Moderately high waves of greater length, edges of - 8 Gale 34-40 17.2-20.7 5.5 (7.5) crests begin to break into spindrift, foam is blown in , well-marked streaks along the direction of the wind , High waves, dense streaks of foam along the direc , Strong 9 41 47 20.8-24.4 tion of the wind, crests of waves begin to topple, 7 (10) , , gale tumble and roll over, spray may affect visibility , Very high waves with long overhanging crests, the , resulting foam, in great patches, is blown in dense white streaks along the direction of the wind, on the 10 Storm 48 55 24.5-28.4 9 (12.5) , whole, the surface of the sea takes a white appear , ance, the tumbling of the sea becomes heavy and , ;

shock-like, visibility affected , ( Exceptionally high waves (small and medium sized ships might be for a time lost to view behind the ), Violent waves), the sea is completely covered with long 11 56-63 28.5-32.6 11.5 (16) storm white patches of foam lying along the direction of the , wind, everywhere the edges of the wave crests are , blown into froth, visibility affected ;

, The air is filled with foam and spray, sea com 64 and 32.7 and 12 Hurricane pletely white with driving spray, visibility seriously af- 14 () over over , fected * This table is only intended as a guide to show roughly what may be expected in the open sea, remote from land. It should never be used in the reverse way, ie, for logging or reporting the state of the sea. In enclosed waters, or when near land, with an off-shore wind, wave heights will be smaller and the waves steeper. Figures in brackets indicate the probable maximum height of waves.

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PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com SCALE OF VISIBILITY , 00,25 0 Dense fog, very poor visibility 0,25 1 , 1 Thick fog, very poor visibility , 1 3 2 Moderate fog, very poor visibility , , 3 5 3 Thin fog, mist or haze, poor visibility , , Moderate snow or heavy rain, or 5 1 , moderate haze, poor visibility , , Slight snow or heavy rain or moder 1 2 , ate haze, moderate visibility , Moderate rain or very slight snow or 2 5 , , slight haze, moderate visibility 5 11 , 7 Slight rain, good visibility 11 27 , 8 No fall, very good visibility 27 , 9 Fresh air, exceptional visibility PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com TABLE FOR CONVERTING FEET AND FATHOMS TO METRES Feet Fms. Metres Feet Fms. Metres Feet Fms. Metres Feet Fms. Metres 1 0.305 51 8 15.545 102 17 31.090 426 71 129. 1,5 0.457 52 15.850 108 18 32.918 432 72 131. 2 0.610 53 16.154 114 19 34.747 438 73 133. 3 0.914 54 9 16.459 120 20 36.576 444 74 135. 4 1.219 55 16.764 126 21 38.405 450 75 137. 4,5 1.372 56 17.069 132 22 40.234 456 76 138. 5 1.524 57 9 17.374 138 23 42.062 462 77 140. 6 1 1.829 58 17.678 144 24 43.891 468 78 142. 7 2.134 59 17.983 150 25 45.720 474 79 144. 8 2.438 60 10 18.288 156 26 47.549 480 80 146. 9 1 2.743 61 18.593 162 27 49.378 486 81 148. 10 3.048 62 18.898 168 28 51.206 492 82 149. 11 3.353 63 10 19.202 174 29 53.035 498 83 151. 12 2 3.658 64 19.507 180 30 54.864 504 84 153. 13 3.962 65 19.812 186 31 56.693 510 85 155. 14 4.267 66 11 20.117 192 32 58.522 516 86 157. 15 2 4.572 67 20.422 198 33 60.350 522 87 159. 16 4.877 68 20.726 204 34 62.179 528 88 160. 17 5.182 69 11 21.031 210 35 64.008 534 89 162. 18 3 5.486 70 21.336 216 36 65.837 540 90 164. 19 5.791 71 21.641 222 37 67.666 546 91 166. 20 6.096 72 12 21.946 228 38 69.494 552 92 168. 21 3 6.401 73 22.250 234 39 71.323 558 93 170. 22 6.706 74 22.555 240 40 73.152 564 94 171. 23 7.010 75 12 22.860 246 41 74.981 570 95 173. 24 4 7.315 76 23.165 252 42 76.810 576 96 175. 25 7.620 77 23.470 258 43 78.638 582 97 177. 26 7.925 78 13 23.774 264 44 80.467 588 98 179. 27 4 8.230 79 24.079 270 45 82.296 594 99 181. 28 8.534 80 24.384 276 46 84.125 600 100 182. 29 8.839 81 13 24.689 282 47 85. Feet Metres 30 5 9.144 82 24.994 288 48 87. 31 9.449 83 25.298 294 49 89. 32 9.754 84 14 25.603 300 50 91. 33 5 10.058 85 25.908 306 51 93.269 700 213. 34 10.363 86 26.213 312 52 95.098 800 243. 35 10.668 87 14 26.518 318 53 96.926 900 274. 36 6 10.973 88 26.822 324 54 98.755 1000 304. 37 11.278 89 27.127 330 55 100. 38 11.582 90 15 27.432 336 56 102. 39 6 11.887 91 27.737 342 57 104. Fms. Metres 40 12.192 92 28.042 348 58 106. 41 12.497 93 15 28.346 354 59 107. 42 7 12.802 94 28.651 360 60 109. 43 13.106 95 28.956 366 61 111.557 200 365. 44 13.411 96 16 29.261 372 62 113.386 300 548. 45 7 13.716 97 29.566 378 63 115.214 400 731. 46 14.021 98 29.870 384 64 117.043 500 914. 47 14.326 99 16 30.175 390 65 118.872 600 1097. 48 8 14.630 100 30.480 396 66 120.701 700 1280. 49 14.935 402 67 122.530 800 1463. 50 15.240 408 68 124.358 900 1645. 414 69 126.187 1000 1828. 420 70 128. Inches Ft. Metres Inches Ft. Metres Factors 1 0.083 0.025 7 0.583 0.178 1 Inch = 0.0254 metres 2 0.167 0.051 8 0.667 0.203 1 Foot = 0.3048 metres 3 0.250 0.076 9 0.750 0.229 = 1.8288 metres 1 Fathom 4 0.333 0.102 10 0.833 0.254 or 6 feet 5 0.417 0.127 11 0.917 0. 6 0.500 0.152 12 1.000 0. International Nautical Mile = 1852 metres PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com TABLE FOR CONVERTING METRES TO FEET AND FATHOMS Metres Feet Fms. Metres Feet Fms. Metres Feet Fms.

1 3.281 0.547 51 167.323 27.887 200 656.17 109. 2 6.562 1.094 52 170.604 28.434 300 984.25 164. 3 9.843 1.640 53 173.885 28.981 400 1312.34 218. 4 13.123 2.187 54 177.165 29.528 500 1640.42 273. 5 16.404 2.734 55 180.446 30. 600 1968.50 328. 6 19.685 3.281 56 183.727 30.621 700 2296.59 382. 7 22.966 3.828 57 186.008 31.168 800 2624.67 437. 8 26.247 4.374 58 190.289 31.715 900 2952.76 492. 9 29.528 4.921 59 193.570 32. 10 32.808 5.468 60 196.850 32.808 1000 3280.84 546. 2000 6561.68 1093. 11 36.089 6.015 61 200.131 33.355 3000 9842.52 1640. 12 39.370 6.562 62 203.412 33.902 4000 13123.36 2187. 13 42.651 7.108 63 206.693 34.449 5000 16404.20 2734. 14 45.932 7.655 64 209.974 34. 15 49.213 8.202 65 213.255 35.542 6000 19685.04 3280. 7000 22965.88 3827. 16 52.493 8.749 66 216.535 36.089 8000 26246.72 4374. 17 55.774 9.296 67 219.816 36.636 9000 29527.56 4921. 18 59.055 9.843 68 223.097 37. 19 62.336 10.389 69 226.378 37.730 10000 32808.40 5468. 20 65.617 10.936 70 229.659 38. 21 68.898 11.483 71 232.940 38. Metres Inches 22 72.178 12.030 72 236.220 39. 23 75.459 12.577 73 239.501 39. 24 78.740 13.123 74 242.782 40.464 0.10 3. 25 82.021 13.670 75 246.063 41.010 0.20 7. 0.30 11. 26 85.302 14.217 76 249.344 41.557 0.40 15. 27 88.583 14.764 77 252.625 42.104 0.50 19. 28 91.864 15.311 78 255.906 42.651 0.60 23. 29 95.144 15.857 79 259.186 43.198 0.70 27. 30 98.425 16.404 80 262.467 43.745 0.80 31. 0.90 35. 31 101.706 16.951 81 265.748 44.291 1.00 39. 32 104.987 17.498 82 269.029 44. 33 108.268 18.045 83 272.310 45. 34 111.549 18.591 84 275.591 45. 35 114.829 19.138 85 278.871 46. 36 118.110 19.685 86 282.152 47. 37 121.391 20.232 87 285.433 47. 38 124.672 20.779 88 288.714 48. 39 127.953 21.325 89 291.995 48. 40 131.234 21.872 90 295.276 49. 41 134.514 22.419 91 298.556 49. 42 137.795 22.966 92 301.837 50. 43 141.076 23.513 93 305.118 50. 44 144.357 24.059 94 308.399 51. 45 146.638 24.606 95 311.680 51. 46 150.919 25.153 96 314.961 52. 47 154.199 25.700 97 318.241 53. 48 157.480 26.247 98 321.522 53. 49 160.761 26. 794 99 324.803 54. 50 164.042 27.340 100 328.084 54. Factors: I metre = 3.280839895 feet or 39.370078740 inches = 0.546806649 fathoms 1000 metres = 0.5399568 International Nautical Miles PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com 1. Business Correspondence in Merchant Marine. .

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7. Admiralty List of Radio Signals. London: Hydrographer of the Navy, 1995/96.

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