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.. , .. Ζ , A.V. Zhirmunsky institute of ...

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............................................ carbohydrate...................................................................................................................................................... tannins and other polyphenolic compounds......................................................................................... lipids and fatty acids....................................................................................................................................... Vitamins................................................................................................................................................................ minerals................................................................................................................................................................ substances producing taste and flavor of brown algae...................................................................... 2.1.3. green algae (chlorophyta)............................................................................................................................. nitrogenous substances................................................................................................................................. carbohydrate...................................................................................................................................................... substances containing phenolic and polyphenolic compounds.................................................... lipids...................................................................................................................................................................... Pigments............................................................................................................................................................... Vitamins................................................................................................................................................................ Contents mineral substances........................................................................................................................................... substances giving smell and taste to dishes from green algae....................................................... 2.2. seagrasses (tracheophyta).................................................................................................................................... 2.3. Blue-green algae (cyanobacteria)...................................................................................................................... CHAPTER 3. THE USE OF MARINE PLANTS................................................................................................................... 3.1. Vegetables from the sea..................................................................................................................................... 3.1.1. recipes of dishes and beverages from algae in the APr countries................................................. Caulerpa spp. (chlorophyta), or sea grape............................................................................................... Ulva spp. (chlorophyta), or sea lettuce...................................................................................................... filamentous species of Ulva spp., (aonori)............................................................................................... sargassaceae (Sargassum spp., heterokontophyta)............................................................................. the sea cabbage Saccharina japonica (heterokontophyta)........................................................... Undaria pinnatifida (heterokontophyta) or wakame........................................................................... Alaria spp. (heterokontophyta).................................................................................................................... Macrocystis spp. (heterokontophyta)......................................................................................................... Sargassum [Hizikia] fusiforme (heterokontophyta)............................................................................... Gracilaria spp. (rhodophyta)......................................................................................................................... Porphyra spp. (rhodophyta) or nori........................................................................................................... Kappaphycus spp. (rhodophyta)................................................................................................................. dulse, or the sea palm Palmaria palmata (rhodophyta).................................................................... Gelidiella acerosa (rhodophyta)................................................................................................................... 3.2. food additives from marine plants.................................................................................................................... 3.3. Polysaccharides from marine plants, their getting and uses.................................................................... 3.3.1. Agar........................................................................................................................................................................ methods of agar obtaining............................................................................................................................ the production of agar in the World.......................................................................................................... the use of agar................................................................................................................................................... 3.3.2. carrageenan........................................................................................................................................................ methods of carrageenan obtaining............................................................................................................ the production of carrageenan in the World.......................................................................................... the use of carrageenan................................................................................................................................... 3.3.3. Alginates............................................................................................................................................................... methods of the production of alginates and alginic acid.................................................................. countries producing alginates..................................................................................................................... useful properties of alginates and their use........................................................................................... 3.3.4. fucoidans............................................................................................................................................................. methods of extraction and purification.................................................................................................... the use of fucoidans........................................................................................................................................ 3.3.5. Another products from marine algae........................................................................................................ furcellaran........................................................................................................................................................... hypnean............................................................................................................................................................... funorin.................................................................................................................................................................. iridophycan......................................................................................................................................................... laminaran............................................................................................................................................................ mannit (mannitol)............................................................................................................................................. Phycoerythrin..................................................................................................................................................... 3.4. medical properties of marine plants.................................................................................................................. 3.4.1. marine plants in folk medicine..................................................................................................................... Parasitic and infectious diseases.................................................................................................................. Contents the algal application under the treatment of malignant tumors.................................................... internal diseases................................................................................................................................................ Another diseases............................................................................................................................................... 3.4.2. medical properties of drugs from marine plant..................................................................................... Antiviral activity................................................................................................................................................. Antibacterial and antifungal activities...................................................................................................... Antioxidant properties.................................................................................................................................... Antitumor activity............................................................................................................................................. Antidiabetic properties................................................................................................................................... neurotrophic effect.......................................................................................................................................... Agglutinin activity............................................................................................................................................ Anticoagulant activity..................................................................................................................................... Antiallergic action............................................................................................................................................. 3.5. marine plants in agriculture.................................................................................................................................. 3.5.1. the production of fertilizer and liquid top-dressing fertilizers......................................................... 3.5.2. Additives to forage for cattle......................................................................................................................... 3.6. Algae in feeding of cultivated abalone............................................................................................................. 3.6.1. feeding of young abalone............................................................................................................................. 3.6.2. feeding of adult abalone................................................................................................................................ 3.7. seaweeds in forage of cultivated fish and crustaceous.............................................................................. 3.8. the use in another areas........................................................................................................................................ 3.8.1. seaweeds in the production of cosmetic means................................................................................... 3.8.2. seaweeds in the manufacture of paper.................................................................................................... 3.8.3. fabrics from seaweeds.................................................................................................................................... 3.8.4. marine algae in art............................................................................................................................................ 3.8.5. is it possible to get energy carriers from marine algae?...................................................................... CHAPTER 4. SEAWEED CULTIVATION: METHODS AND PROBLEMS.................................................................. 4.1. methods of cultivation............................................................................................................................................ 4.1.1. extensive mariculture...................................................................................................................................... the use of natural algal fields in extensive mariculture...................................................................... mass industrial mariculture........................................................................................................................... 4.1.2. intensive mariculture....................................................................................................................................... seaweeds cultivation in ponds.................................................................................................................... seaweeds cultivation in pools, tanks......................................................................................................... integrated mariculture of marine organisms.......................................................................................... 4.2. Problems and prospects of marine plants cultivation................................................................................. 4.2.1. main problems of industrial cultivation of macroalgae...................................................................... epiphytism and the straggle with weeds................................................................................................. herbivorous animals and algal diseases................................................................................................... getting of planting material.......................................................................................................................... negative influence of mariculture on the bottom ecosystems........................................................ 4.2.2. Questions and problems in integrated mariculture of macroalgae................................................ 5. MASS USEFUL MARINE MACROPHYTES FOR HUMAN IN T HE APR COUNTRIES (GUIDE)........................................................................................................................................................................ 5.1. rhodophyta................................................................................................................................................................ 5.2. heterokontophyta.................................................................................................................................................... 5.3. chlorophyta................................................................................................................................................................ references...................................................................................................................................................................................... Alphabetic index of marine plants in latin........................................................................................................................ , , .. .. .. .. 31.07.2012 .

. 6084/8. .

. . . 47,25. .-.. 46,3.

250 . 81.

690041, . , . , 690041, . , . , ISBN: 978-5-8044-1305- 9 785804

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